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Full text of "Popular music of the olden time. A collection of ancient songs, ballads, and dance tunes ... with short introductions to the different reigns, and notices of the airs from writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Also a short account of the minstrels ..."

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THE GLEN COLLECTION 
OF SCOTTISH MUSIC 
Presented by Lady Dorothea Ruggles- 
Brise to the National Library ot Scotland, 
in memory of her brother, Major Lord 
George Stewart Murray, Black Watch, 
killed in action in France in 1914. 
28(/< Jcmiani 1927. 



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POPULAR MUSIC 

OP THE 

OLDEN TIME; 

A COLLKCTION OF 

ANCIENT SONGS, BALLADS, 

AND 

DANCE TUNES, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

NATIONAL MUSIC OF ENGLAND. 

WITH SHORT INTRODUCTIONS TO THE DIFFERENT REIGNS, 

AND NOTICES OF THE AIRS FROM WRITERS OF THE 

SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. 

ALSO 

A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE MINSTRELS. 

■ BY 

W. CHAPPELL, F.S.A. 

THE WHOLE OF TEE AIRS HARMONIZED BY G. A. MACFARREN. 

VOL. I. 



"Front sunt illi Anglicani concentus suavissimi quidera, ac eleganteB." 

Thesaurus Harmniiicus Laurencini, Jiomani, 1003. 



LONDON: 
CRAMER, BEALE, 5: CHAPPELL, 201. RECENT STREET. 

OF SCOTLAND 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

National Library of Scotland 



http://www.archive.org/details/popularmusicofolOOchap 



EXPLANATION OF THE FACSIMILES. XV. 

" sonnet concerning this work," signed " Fr. Tregian," shewing the connection of 
the family with Holland, and in the virginal book one piece (No. 105, p. 196) has 
only three letters of the author's name, " Fre." No. 60, p. Ill, is "Treg. Ground;" 
No. 80, p. 152, is " Favana dolorosa, Treg.;" but No. 213, p. 315, is " Pavana 
Chromatica, Mrs. Katherin Tregian'a Paven, by William Tisdall." In the margin of 
p. 312, is written, in a later hand, " R. Rj'sd silas." 

English music was so much in request in Holland in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, that this collection of two hundred and ninety-six pieces of virginal 
music may, not improbably, have been made for, or by, an English resident there, 
and possibly designed as a present. 

Plate 5.— "The Hunt's up," horxx 3Iusick's Delight on the Cithreii, 1666, and 
" Parthenia," from a flageolet book, printed in 16S2. 

These are only given as specimens of musical notation. The curious will find exact 
translations in National English Airs, i. 118. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



General Introduction. 

PAGE 

Minstrelsy from the Saxon period to the reign of Edward I. . . .1 

Music of the middle ages, and Music in England to the end of the thirteenth century 11 
English Minstrelsy from 1270 to 1480, and the gradual extinction of the old MinstreU 28 
Introduction to the reigns of Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Queen Mary 48 
Songs and ballads of ditto . . . , . 56 to 97 

Introduction to the reign of Queen Elizabeth .... 98 

Songs and ballads of ditto ..... 110 to 243 

Introduction to the reign of James I. . . . . , 244 

Songs and ballads of the reigns of James I. and Charles I. . . 254 to 384 



INTRODUCTION. 



It ia now nearly twenty years since the publication of my collection of 
National English Airs (the first of the kind), and about fourteen since the edition 
was exhausted. In the interval, I found such numerous notices of music and 
ballads in old English books, that nearly every volume supplied some fresh 
illustration of my subject. If " Sternhold and Hopkins" was at hand — 
the title-page told that the psalms were penned for the " laying apart of all 
ungodly songs and ballads," and the translation furnished a list of musical 
instruments in use at the time it was made : if Myles Coverdale's Ghostly 
Psalms — in the preface he alludes to the ballads of our courtiers, to the 
whistling of our carters and ploughmen, and recommends young women at the 
distaff and spinning-wheel to forsake their " hey, nonny, nonny — hey, trolly, lolly, 
and such like fantasies;" thus shewing what were the usual burdens of their 
songs. Even in the twelfth century. Abbot Ailred's, or Ethelred's, reprehension 
of the singers gives so lively a picture of their airs and graces, as to resemble an 
exaggerated description of opera-singing at the present day ; and, if still receding 
in point of date, in the life of St. Aldhelm, or Oldham, we find that, in order to 
ingratiate himself with the lower orders, and induce them to listen to serious 
subjects, he adopted the expedient of dressing himself like a minstrel, and first 
sang to them their popular songs. 

If something was to be gleaned from works of this order, how much more from 
the comedies and other pictures of English life in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ! I resolved, therefore, to defer the re-publication for a few years, and 
then found the increase of materials so great, that it became easier to re-write than 
to make additions. Hence the change of title to the woi'k. 

Since my former publication, also, I have been favoured with access to the 
ballads collected by Pepys, the well-known diarist ; and the nearly equally cele- 
brated " Roxhurghe Collection" (formed by Robert, Earl of Oxford, and increased 
by subsequent possessors) has been added to the library of the British Museum. 
These and other advantages, such as the permission to examine and make extracts 
from the registers of the Stationers' Company (through the liberality of the 
governing body) , have induced me to attempt a chronological arrangement of the 
airs. Such an arrangement is necessarily imperfect, on account of the impossi'^ 
bility of tracing the exact dates of tunes by unknown authors ; but in every case 
the reader has before him the evidence upon which the classification has been 
founded. 



Vi. INTRODUCTION. 

It might be supposed that the registers of the Company of Stationers would 
furnish a complete list of ballads and ballad-printers, but, h aving seen all the 
entries from 1577 to 1799, I should say that not more than one out of every 
hundi-ed ballads was registered. The names of some of the printers are not to 
be found in the registers. 

It appears from an entry referring to the "white book" of the Company 
(which is not now existing), that seven hundred and ninety-six ballads were left 
in the council-chamber of the Company at the end of the year 1660, to be handed 
over to the new Wardens, and at the same time but forty-four books. 

Webbe, in a Discourse of English Foetrie, printed in 1586, speaks of " the 
un-coimtaUe rabble of ryming ballet-makers and compylers of senseless sonnets," 
and adds, " there is not anie tune or stroke which may be sung or plaide on 
Instruments, which hath not some poetical ditties framed according to the numbers 
thereof : some to Rogero, some to Trenchmore, to Downright Squire, to galliardes, 
to pavines, to jygges, to brawles, to all manner of tunes ; which every fidler knows 
better than myself, and therefore I will let them passe." Here the class of music 
is named with which old English ditties were usually coupled — dance and ballad 
tunes. The great musicians of Elizabeth's reign did not often compose airs of 
the short and rhythmical character required for ballads. These were chiefly the 
productions of older musicians, or of those of lower grade, and some of ordinary 
fiddlers and pipers. The Frog Galliard is the only instance I know of a popular 
ballad-tune to be traced to a celebrated composer of the latter half of the sixteenth 
century. The scholastic music then in vogue was of a wholly different character. 
iPoint and counterpoint, fugue and the ingenious working of parts, were the great 
objects of study, and rhythmical melody was but lightly esteemed. 

In the reigns of .James I. and Charles I., we find a few " new court tunes" 
employed for ballads, but it was not until Charles 11. ascended the throne that 
composers of high repute commenced, or re-commenced, the writing of simple 
airs, and then but sparingly. Matthew Locke's " Tlie delights of the bottle" is 
perhaps the first song composed for the stage, that supplied a tune to ballads. 

My former publication contained two hundred and forty-five airs ; the present 
number exceeds four hundred. Of these, two hundred are contained in the first 
volume, which extends no further than the reign of Charles I. This portion of 
the work may be considered as a collection ; but the number of airs extant of later 
date is so much larger than of the earlier period, that the second volume can be 
viewed only in the light of a selection. To have made it upon the same scale as the 
first would have occupied at least three volumes instead of one. My endeavour 
has therefore been, to give as much variety of character as possible, but especially 
to include those airs which were popular as ballad-tunes. Some of those contained 
in the old collection have now given place to others of more general interest, but 
more than two hundred arej.-etained. Every air has been re-harmonized, upon a 
simple and consistent plan, — the introductions to the various reigns have been 
added, — and nearly every line in the book has been re-written. 

I have been at some ti-ouble to trace to its origin the assertion that the English 



INTRODUCTION. vii. 

have no national music. It is extraordinary that such a report should have 
obtained credence, for England may safely challenge any nation not only to pro- 
duce as much, but also to give the same satisfactory proofs of antiquity. The 
report seems to have gained ground from the unsatisfactory selection of English 
airs in Dr. Crotch's Specimens of various Styles of Music ; but the national music 
in that work was supplied by Malchair, a Spanish violin-player at Oxford, whose 
authority Crotch therein quotes. It is perhaps not generally known that at the 
time of the publication Dr. Crotch was but nineteen years of age. No collection 
of English airs had at that time been made to guide Malchair, and he followed 
the dictum of Dr. Burney in such passages as the following : — 

"It is related by Giovanni Battista Donado that the Turks have a limited 
number of tunes, to which the poets of their country have continued to write for 
ages ; and the vocal music of our own country seems long to have been equally 
circumscribed : for, till the last century, it seems as if the number of our secular 
and popular melodies did not greatly exceed that of the Turks." In a note, he 
adds, that the tunes of the Turks were in all twenty- four, which were to depict 
melancholy, joy, or fury, — to be mellifluous or amorous. {History, ii. 653.) 

Again, in Shakespeare's Midsummer NighCs Bream, when Bottom has been 
turned into an ass, and says " I have a reasonable good ear in music ; let me have 
tongs and bones," the stage direction is " Musick tongs, Kural Music." Burney 
inverts the stage direction, and adds " Poker and tongs, marrowbones and cleavers, 
salt-box, hurdy-gurdy, &c., are the old national instruments of our island." 
(iii. 335.) 

Jean Jacques Kousseau published a letter on French music, which he summed 
up by telling his countrymen that " their harmony was abominable ; their airs 
were not airs ; their recitative was not recitative ; that they had no music, and 
could not have any." (Rousseau, Ecrits sur la Musique, Paris, edit. 1823, 
p. 312.) Dr. Burney seems to have improved upon this model, for Rousseau did 
not resort to misquotation to prove his case, but Dr. Burney's History is one 
continuous misrepresentation of English music and musicians, only rendered 
plausible by misquotation of every kind. 

The effect of the misquotation is that he has been believed ; and passages as 
absurd as the following have been copied by writers who have relied upon his 
authority : — 

" The low state of our regal music in the time of Henry VIII., 1530, may be 
gathered from the accounts given in Hall's and Hollinshed's Chronicles, of a masque 
at Cardinal Wolsey's palace, Whitehall, where the King was entertained with 
' a concert of drums and fifes.' But this was soft music compared with that of 
his heroic daughter Elizabeth, who, according to Hentzner, used to be regaled 
during dinner ' Avith twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums; which, together with 
fifes, cornets, and side-drums, made the hall ring for half an hour together.' " 
{History, iii. 143.) 

There is nothing of the kind in the books Dr. Burney pretends to quote. The 
account of the chroniclers is of Henry the Eighth's landing at Wolsey's palace. 



vm. INTRODUCTION. 

where, by a preconcerted arrangement, " divers chambers" (short cannon that 
made a loud report) were let off, and he was conducted into the hall with " such 
a noise of drums and flutes as seldom had been heard the like," for the purpose 
oi surprising the Cardinal and the masquers. Not a word of the music of the 
masque. 

As to Queen Elizabeth, Hentzner describes only the military music to give notice 
in the palace that dinner was being carried in. Music then answered the purpose 
of the dinner-bell. He says " the queen dines and sups alone." 

Bui-ney carries his depreciation of English authors systematically throughout 
his work. It might be supposed that he would have allowed an author of so early 
a date as John Cotton, who flourished soon after Guido, to pass unchallenged, but 
he first misrepresents, and then contradicts him. Burney tells us that Cotton 
ascribes the invention of neumse erroneously to Guido (ii. 144). Now Cotton 
speaks of various modes of writing music by the musical signs called neumse, and 
attributes the last only to Guido. It is certain that Burney read no more of the 
treatise than the heading of a chapter (Quid utilitatis afferant netmim a Guidone 
inventm), for he proves by a note upon neumas, that he only half understood what 
they were. To any reader of Cotton's treatise, such misapprehension would have 
been impossible. (See Gerbert's Scriptores Ucclesiastici de Mnsicd, ii. 257.) 

It is not always easy to prove that a writer reviewed works without reading 
them, but I doubt if any musician can now be found who believes that Burney 
had examined " all the works he could find " of Henry Lawes, with the " care 
and candour" that he professes ; while in the case of Morley's Concert-Lessons, 
it is certain that he passed his facetious judgment upon them after scoring only 
a portion of two parts, the work being in six. This is proved by his own manu- 
script (Addit. MSS. 11,687, Brit. Mus.), and there was no perfect copy of the 
work extant at the time. 

When Burney tells us that the Catch Club sang old compositions " better than 
the authors intended" (iii. 123), — that " our secular vocal music, dm-ing the first 
years of Elizabeth's reign, seems to have been much inferior to that of the Church," 
and has no better proof of it than a book of songs composed by an amateur mu- 
sician, " Thomas Wythorne, Gent.," in 1571 (iii. 119), — when he says that, in 
the same reign, " the violin was hardly known to the English in shape or in 
name !" (iii. 143), — and that Playford was the Jirst who published music in the 
seventeenth centm-y, yet commenced in 1653 ! (iii. 417 and 418), — he shews not 
only a desire to underrate, but also a deficiency of knowledge, that must weaken 
all confidence in him as an historian. 

In his review of the music in Elizabeth's reign, he tells us that " the art of 
singing, further than was necessary to keep a performer in tune and time, must 
have been unknown . . . solo songs, anthems, and cantatas, being productions of 
later times" (iii. 114). A more strange misconception could scarcely have been 
penned. No songs to the lute ? No ballads ? If so. Miles Coverdale might have 
spared himself the trouble of telling the courtier " not to rejoice in his ballads," 
and Chaucer should have represented at least three persons as serenading the 



INTRODUCTION. IX. 

carpenter's wife, and not one. As to the art of singing, Dr. Burney has himself 
quoted the description of John of Salisbury, written four hundred years before 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and that is quite enough to refute the opinion above 
expressed ; but, if more be requked, the reader ■will find it here in the long note 
at p. 404. 

There was a proverb, of French origin, current both in Latin and English in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, respecting the manner of singing by dif- 
ferent nations. The Latin version was " Galli cantant, Angli jubilant, Hispani 
plangunt, Germani ulutant, Itali caprizant : " the English was " The French 
sing," or "The French pipe, the English carol [rejoice, or sing merrily], the 
Spaniards wail, the Germans howl, the Italians caper." (The allusion to the 
Italians is rather as to their unsteady holding of notes than to their facility in 
florid singing; caper signifying "a goat.") Burney, without any authority, 
renders it "the English shout" (iii. 182). Now, although we have no modern 
English verb that is an exact translation of " jubilare," the Italian " giubilare" 
has precisely the same signification ; and Pasqualigo, the Venetian ambassador 
to Henry VIII., describing the singing of the English choristers in the King's 
chapel, says " their voices are really rather divine than human — non cantavano 
ma jubilavano," which can be understood only in a highly complimentary sense. 

It is sufficient for my present purpose to say that Dr. Burney's History is 
written throughout in this strain. What with mistake, and what with misrepre- 
sentation, it can but mislead the reader as to English music or musicians ; and 
from the slight search I have made into his early Italian authorities, I doubt 
whether even that portion is very reliable. The public has now forgotten 
the contention between the rival histories of music of Hawkins and Burney, and 
a few words should be placed upon record. Hawkins's entire work was published 
in 1776, and Burney's first volume in the same year, his second in 1782, and his 
third and fourth in 1789. Bui-ney obtained a great reputation by his first volume, 
which is upon the music of the ancients. In that he was assisted by the researches 
of the Rev. Thomas Twining, the translator of Aristotle's Poetics, who relin- 
quished his own projected, and partly-written history, in Burney's favour. 
Hawkins's work is of great original research, and he is a far more reliable 
authority for fact than Burney : still the history is by no means so well digested. 
It is an analysis of book after book and life after life, fitted rather for supplying 
materials to those who will dig them out, than to be read as a whole. Burney's 
is a very agreeably written book, but he made history pleasant by such lively 
sallies as those I have quoted : he took his authorities at second hand, when the 
originals were accessible ; and copied especially from Hawkins, without acknowledg- 
ment, and disguised the plagiarism by altering the language. Many of his appro- 
priations are to be traced by errors which it is impossible that two men reading 
independently could commit. Burney had but one love, — the Italian school, — and 
he thought the most minute particulars of the Italian opera of his day worthy 
of being chronicled. The madrigal with him was a " many-headed monster" 
(iii. 385) : French music was " displeasing to all ears but those of France," and 



X. INTKODUCTIOH. 

Rousseau's letter upon it " an excellent piece of musical criticism," combining 
" good sense, taste, and reason" (iv. 615) : he dismisses Sebastian Bach in half 
a dozen lines ; and, although he devotes much space to Handel's operas, his 
oratorios are often dismissed with the barest record of their existence by a line in 
a note. Israel in Egypt, Ads and Gralaiea, &c., are unnoticed. 

The present collection will sufficiently prove that " the number of our secular 
and popular melodies" was not quite as " cii'cumscribed " as Dr. Burn ey has 
represented ; but, indeed, he had a book in his library which alone gave a com- 
plete refutation to his limited estimate. I have now before me one of the editions 
of The Dancing Master, a collection of Country Dances, published by Playford, 
which was formerly in Burney's possession. It contains more than two hundred 
tunes, the names of which must convince an ordinary reader that at least a con- 
siderable number among them are song and ballad tunes, while a musician will as 
readily perceive many others to be of the same class, from the construction of 
the melody. If a doubt should remain as to the character of the airs in collections 
of this kind, further evidence is by no means wanting. Sir Thomas Elyot, writing 
in 1531, and describing many ancient modes of dancing, says (in The Qovernour) , 
" As for the special names [of the dances], they were taken as they he now, either 
of the names of the first inventour, or of the measure and number they do con- 
teine, or of i}iQ first tvords of the ditties which the song comprehendeth, whereoff 
the daunce was made ;" and, to approach nearer to the time of the publication in 
question, Charles Butler, in 1636, speaks of " the infinite multitude of ballads 
set to sundi'y pleasant and delightful tunes by cunning and witty composers, with 
country dances j^^ie^ unto them.'''' See his Principles of Musick. 

The eighteen editions of Hie Dancing Master are of great assistance in the 
chronological arrangement of our popular tunes from 1650 to 1728 ;^ for, although 
some airs run through every edition, we may tell by the omission of others, when 
they fell into desuetude, as well as the airs by which their places were supplied. 

"» The first edition of this collection is entitled "The Dancing Master.) The date of the fourth edition is 
English Dancing Master: or Plaine and easie rules for 1670 (155 pages of music). Fifth edition, 1675, and 160 
the da,ncing of Country Dances, with the tune to each pages of music. (The contents of the sixth edition are 
dance (104 pages of music). Printed by Thomas Harper, ascertained to be almost identical -with the fifth, by the 
and are to be sold by John Playford, at his shop in the newtunes added to the seventh being marked with *, but 
Inner Temple, neere the Church doore." The date is 1651, I have not seen a copy. From advertisements in Play- 
but it was entered at Stationers* Hall on 7lh Nov., 1650. ford's other publications, it appears to have been printed 
This edition is onlarger paper than any of the subsequent. in 1680.) The seventh edition bears date 1686 (208 pages), 

The next is "The Dancing Master with the tune to but to this " an additional sheet," containing 32 tunes, 

each dance, to be play'd on the treble Viulin : the second was first added, then *' a new additional sheet" of 12 

edilion, enlarged and corrected from many giosse errors pages," and lastly "a new addition" of 6 more. The 

which were in the former edition." This was "Printed eighth edition was "Printed by E. Jones for H. Playford," 

for John Playford," in 1652 (112 pages of music). The and great changes made in the airs. It has 220 pages, — 

two next editions, those of 1657 and 1665, each contain date, 1690. The nintli edition, 196 pages,— date, 1695. 

132 country dances, and are counted by Playford as one *' The second part of the Dancing Master," 24 p.iges, — 

edition. To both were added "the tunes of the most date, 1696. The tenth edition, 215 pages, — date, 1698 ; 

usual French dances, and also other new and pleasant also the second edition of the second part, ending on p. 48 

English tunes for the treble Violin." That of 1665 was (irregularlypaged), 1698. The eleventh is the first edition 

" Printed by W. G., and sold by J. Playford and Z. Wat- in tlfe new tied note, 312 pages,— date, 1701. The twelfth 

kins, at their shop in the Temple." It has 88 tunes for edition goes back to the old note, 354 pages, — date, 1703. 

the violin at the end. (The tunes for the violin The later editions are well known, but the above are 

■were afterwards printed separately as Apollo's Banquet, scarce. 
and are not included in any other edilion of The 



INTRODUCTION. xi. 

Many of our ballad- tunes were not fitted for dancing, and therefore were not 
included in The Dancing Master ; but a considerable number of these is supplied 
by the ballad-operas which were printed after the extraordinary success of The 
Beggars' Opera in 1728. 

I might name many other books which have contributed their quota, especially 
Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, with its numerous editions from 1699 
to 1720, — but all are indicated in the work. I cannot, however, refrain from 
some notice of the numerous foreign publications in which our national airs are 
included. Sometimes they are in the form of country dances, — at others, as 
songs, or as tunes for the lute. I have before me three sets of country dances 
printed in Paris during the last century, and as one of these is the " 5^™^Recueil 
d'Anglaises telle qu'elles se dansent che la Reine," there must have been at least 
four more of that series. Many of my readers may not know that the " Quad- 
rille de Contredanses " in which they join under the name of " a set of Quad- 
rilles," is but our old " Square Country Dance" come back to us again. The 
new designation commenced no longer ago than 1815, — just after the war. 

Horace Walpole tells us in his letters, that our country dances were all the rage 
in Italy at the time he wrote, and, as collections were printed at Manheim, Munich, 
in various towns of the Netherlands, and even as far North as Denmark, it is 
clear that they travelled over the greater part of Europe. The Danish collection 
now before me consists of 296 pages, with a volume of nearly equal thickness to 
describe the figures. 

Some of the works printed in Holland during the seventeenth century, which 
contain English airs, have materially assisted in the chronological arrangement. 
Of these, Vallet's Tahlature de Luth, entituU Le Secret des Muses, was published 
at Amsterdam in 1615. Bellerophon, of Lust tot Wysheit, in 1620, and other 
editions at later dates. Valerius's Nederlandtsche Gedenck-Olanck, at Haerlem, 
in 1626. Starter's Friesche Licst-JSbf, and his Boertigheden, in 1634, and other 
editions without dates. Camphuysen's Stichtelyche Rymen, 1647, 1652, and 
without date. Pers's Gresangh der Zeeden, 1662, and without date. Urania, 
1648, and without date. 

It is only necessary to remark upon the chronological arrangement, that, in 
order to ascertain what airs or ballads were popular in any particular reign, the 
reader will have occasion to refer also to those which precede it. Without endless 
repetition, it could not have been otherwise. 

Facsimiles of a few of the manuscripts will be found in the following pages. 

I have now the pleasing duty of returning thanks to those who have assisted 
me in this collection ; and first to Edward F. Rimbault, LL.D., and Mr. G. A. 
Macfarren. Dr. Rimbault has been the largest contributor to my work, and a 
contributor in every form. To him I am indebted for pointing out many airs 
which would have escaped me, and for adding largely to my collection of notices 
of others ; for the loan of rare books ; and for assisting throughout with his ex- 
tensive musical and bibliographical knowledge. To Mr. G. A. Macfarren for 
having volunteered to re-arrange the airs which were to be taken from my former 



Xll. INTRODUCTION. 

collection, as well as to harmonize the new upon a simple and consistent plan 
throughout. In my former work, some had too much harmony, and others even 
too little, or such as was not in accordance with the spirit of the words. The 
musician will best understand the amount of thought required to find character- 
istic harmonies to melodies of irregular construction, and how much a simple air 
will sometimes gain by being well fitted. 

To the Right Hon. the Earl of Abergavenny I am indebted for the loan of 
" Lady Nevell's Virginal Book," a manuscript collection of music for the vir- 
ginals, transcribed in 1591. To the late Lord Braybrooke I owe the means of 
access to Pepys's collection of ballads, which was indispensable for the due 
prosecution of the work. 

To Mr. J. Payne Collier, F.S.A., I am indebted for the loan of a valuable 
manuscript of poetry, transcribed in the reign of James I., containing much of 
still earlier date ; and for free access to his collection of ballads and of rare books : 
to Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury, for copies of several Elizabethan ballads, 
which are to be found only in his unique collection ; and to Mr. David Laing, 
F.S.A. Scot., for the loan of several rare books. 

To Sir Frederick Madden, K.H., Keeper of the Manuscripts in the British 
Museum, I am indebted for much information about manuscripts, readily given, 
and with such uniform courtesy, that it becomes an especial pleasure to 
acknowledge it. 

W. C. 

3, Harley Place {N. W.), 

or 201, Regent Street. ( W.) 



EXPLANATION OF THE FACSIMILES. 



Plate 1 (facing the title-page). — " Sumer is icumen in," from one of the Harleian 
Manuscripts in the British Museum, No. 978. It is literally a " six men's song," 
such as is alluded to in the burlesque romance of The Turnament of Tottenham, 
and, being of the middle of the thirteenth century, is perhaps the greatest musical 
curiosity extant. The directions for singing it are in Latin : " Hanc rotam cantare 
possunt quatuor socii. A paucioribus autem quam a tribus aut saltern duobus non 
debet dici, preter eos qui dicunt pedem. Canitur autem sic. Taeentibus ceteris, unus 
inchoat cum hiis qui tenent pedem. Et cum venerit ad primam notam post crucem, 
inchoat alius, et sic de ceteris. Singuli vero repausent ad pausaciones scriptas, et non 
alibi, spacio unius longsB notse." [Four companions can sing this Round. It should 
not, however, be sung by less than three, or at least two, besides those who sing the 
burden. It is to be sung thus : — One begins with those who sing the burden, the 
others remaining silent ; but when he arrives at the first note after the cross, another 
begins. The rest follow in the same order. Each singer must j)au3e at the written 
pauses for the time of one long note, but not elsewhere.] The directions for singing 
the " Pes," or Burden, are, to the first voice, " Hoc repetit unus quociens opus est, 
faciens pausacionem in fine" [One voice repeats this as often as necessary, pausing at 
the end] ; and, to the second, " Hoc dicit alius, pausans in medio, et non in fine, sed 
immediate repetens principium." [Another sings this, pausing in the middle, and 
not at the end, but immediately re-commencing.] 

The melody of this Round is printed in modern notation at p. 24, and in the pages 
which precede it (21 to 24) the reader will find some account of the manuscript from 
which it is taken. It only remains to add that the composition is in what was called 
" perfect time," and therefore every long note must be treated as dotted, unless it is 
immediately followed by a short note (here of diamond shape) to fill the time of the 
dot. The music is on six lines, and if the lowest line were taken away, the remaining 
would be the five now employed in part-music where the clef is used on the third 
line for a counter-tenor voice. 

The composition will be seen in score in Hawkins's and Burney's Histories of 
Music. The Round has been recently sung in public, and gave so much satisfaction, 
even to modern hearers, that a repetition was demanded. It is published in a detached 
form for four voices. 

Plate 2. — " An, the syghes that come fro' my heart," from a manuscript of 
the time of Henry VIII,, in the British Musenm (MSS. Reg., Append., 58). For 
the melody in modern notation, see p. 57. 



XIV. EXPLANATION OF THE FACSIMILES. 

In transcribing old music without bars, it is necessary to know that the ends of 
phrases and of lines of poetry are commonly expressed by notes of longer duration 
than their relative value. Much of the music in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua is 
wrongly barred, and the rhythm destroyed by the non-observance of this rule. As 
one of many instances, see " Tell me, dearest, what is love," taken from a manuscript 
of James the First's time {3his. Antiq., i. 55). By carrying half the semibreve at 
the end of the second bar into the third, he begins the second line of poetry (" 'Tis 
a lightning from above") on the half- bar instead of at the commencement, and thus 
falsifies the accent of that line and of all that follows. The antiquarian way would have 
been, either to print the semibreve within the bar, or, which is far better, a minim with 
a pause over it. In modernizing the notation, even the pause is unnecessary. Webbe 
also bars incorrectly in the Convito Armonico. For instance, in " We be three poor 
mariners," the tune is right the first time, but at the recurrence (on " Shall we go 
dance the Round, the Round, the Round?") he commences on the half-bar, because 
he has given too much time to the word " ease" in the bar immediately preceding. 

Plate 3. — " Green Sleeves," a tune mentioned by Shakespeare, from " William 
Ballet's Lute Book," described in note '' at p. 86. This is the version I have printed 
at p. 230, but an exact translation of the copy will be found in my " National English 
Airs," i. 118. It is only necessary to remark that, in lute-music of the sixteenth 
century, bars are placed rather to guide the eye than to divide the tune equally. The 
time marked over the lines is the only sure guide for modern barring. 

Plate 4. — " Sellenoer's Round," from a manuscript in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
at Cambridge, commonly known as " Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book." See also 
p. 71. 

Dr. Burney speaks of this manuscript first as " going under the name of Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginal Book," and afterwards quotes it as if it had really been so. 
I am surprised that he should not have discovered the error, considering that he had it 
long enough in his possession to extract one of the pieces, and to give a full descrip- 
tion of the contents, (iii. 86, et seq.) It is now so generallj' known by that name, 
that, for brevity's sake, I have employed it throughout the work. Nevertheless, it 
can never have been the property of Queen Elizabeth. It is written throughout in 
one handwriting, and in that writing are dates of 1603, 1605, and 1612. 

It is a small-sized folio volume, in red morocco binding of the time of James I., 
elaborately tooled and ornamented with fleurs de lis, &c., gilt edges, and the pages 
are numbered to 419, of which 418 are written. 

The manuscript was purchased at the sale of Dr. Pepusch's collection, in 1762, by 
R. Bremner, the music-publisher, at the pi-ice of ten guineas, and by him given to 
Lord Fitzwilliam. 

Ward gives an account of Dr. Bull's pieces included in this virginal book, in his 
Zives of the Gresliam Professors, fol., 1740, p. 203, but does not say a word of the 
volume having belonged to Queen Elizabeth. We first hear of it in Dr. Pepusch's 
possession, and, as he purchased many of his manuscripts in Holland (especially those 
including Dr. Bull's compositions), it is by no means improbable that this English 
manuscript may also have been obtained there. I am led to the conjecture by finding 
the only composer's name invariably abbreviated is that of " Tregian." At the com- 
mencement of Verstegan's Restitution of decayed Intelligence, Antwerp, 1605, is a 



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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Ashe, J. W. L., Esq., Exeter. 

Allen, G. P., Esq., Organist of St. 

George's, Wolverhampton; 
Allen, G. B., Esq., Armagh. 
Alston, The Rev. E. 0., Dennington 

Rectory. 
Amott, J., Esq., Organist of the Cathedral, 

Gloucester. 
Atkins, R. A., Esq., Organist of the 

Cathedral, St. Asaph's. 
Arcedeckne, Andrew, Esq. 
AsHBURNHAM, The Right Hon. the 

Countess of. 
AsHPiTEL, Arthur, F.S.A. 

Bartholomew, Mrs. Mounsey. 

Bacon, G. P., Esq., Lewes. 

Bagnold, Mrs. 

Barnett, Mr. John Francis. 

Barlow, Mr. W., Manchester. 

Beevor, C, Esq. 

Benedict, Jules, Esq. 

Best, T. W., Esq., Organist of St. George's 

Hall, Liverpool. 
Binfield, Miss, Reading. 2 copies. 
Blake, Thomas, Esq. 
Blockley, John, Esq. 
Bloxsome, Charles, Esq., Sheffield. 
Bishop, John, Esq., Cheltenham. 
Barnett, John, Esq., Cheltenham. 
Blumenthal, J., Esq. 
Black, Dr. 
Bowers, Miss, Clifton. 
BosANQUET, Mrs. Godfrey 
Bourne, Dr., Ashted House, Birmingham. 
Braine, W. R., Esq., Kensington. 



Broadwood, Henry F., Esq. 
Broadwood, Walter, Esq. 
Bros, Thomas, Esq. 
Brown, Graham, Esq. 
Brown, T. P., Esq., Jersej'. 
Brdoe, Lord Charles. 
BucHER, M., Edinburgh. 
BussELL, H., Esq., Dublin. 
Buck, Dr., Norwich. 
BuNNETT, E., Esq., Norwieli. 
Burohett, J. R., Esq. 
Benson, G., Esq. 
Birkenhead, Miss. 
Begrez, J., Esq. 
Butterworth, Mr., Sheffield. 

Cawdor, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 

Calthorp, Thomas, D., Esq. 

Oawood, Martin, Esq., Leeds. 

Callcott, W. H., Esq., Kensington. 

Chaplin, Captain, Hastings. 

Chater, George, Esq. 

Chisholm, H. W., Esq. 

Close, Thomas, Esq., Nottingham. 

Clarke, Mr., Preston. 

Cocks, Robert Lincoln, Esq. 

Cohen, Albert, Esq. 

Cooper, G. Armytage, Esq., Lecturer on 
Music. 

Compton, Henry, Esq., Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia. 

Copeland, W. R., Esq., Liverpool. 

Cox, Captain C. J., Fordwich House, 
Kent. 

Crotch, Rev. R. W., Uphill House, near 
Weston-super-Mare. 



XVllI. 



LIST OP SUBSCRIBERS. 



Crossley, G. J., Esq., Bowdeii, near Man- 
chester. 
OUMMINGS, — Esq. 
Curtis, W., Es(1., Nottingham. 

Davis, Miss. 

Davidson, W., Esq., Aberdeen. 

Davekport, John, Esq. 

De Capell Broke, Lady. 

De la Rub, William, Esq. 2 copies. 

Delavante and Co., Manchester. 

De JIonti, Mr. J. H., Glasgow. 2 copies. 

Db Vos, Polydoke, Esq., Jersey. 

Dixon, Eobert VV., Esq., Seaton Carew. 

Done, W., Esq., Organist of the Cathedral, 

Worcester. 
Doneraile, The Right Hon. Viscountess. 
Dock, Mr. W., Bath. 
DuERDiN, John, Esq. 2 copies. 
DuNRAVEN, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 
DuGQAN, Joseph, Esq. 
Dyce, The Rev. Alexander. 

Eborall, Miss, Lichfield. 

Edgar, Mrs. George. 

Ella, John, Esq. 2 copies. 

Engel, Carl, Esq. 

EuiNG, William, F.S.A., Scot., Glasgow. 

Favarger, Re'ne', Esq. 

Fagg, Mr., Hull. 

Parren, William, Esq. 

Farrer, T. H., Esq. 

Fellowes, Lady. 

Ferrari, Signor Adolfo. 

Fitzwilliam, Mrs. Edward. 

Foster, John, Esq., Gent, of Her Majesty's 

Chapels Royal. 
Fowler, Charles, Esq., Torquay. 

Geattan, IL W., Esq. 

GiRAUD, Frank, Esq., Faversham. 

GiBBS, Walter S., Esq., Bath. 

GitEEN, John, Esq. 

Green, Miss, Ashby do la Zouche. 

Goss, The Rev. John, Hereford. 



Goss, John, Esq., Organist and Composer 

to Her Majesty's Chapels Royal. 
Godfrey, Charles, Esq. 

Hdtton, Maxwell, Esq., Dublin. 

Harrison, J., Esq., Deal. 

Hacking, Richard, Esq., Mus. Bac, Bury, 

Lancashire, 
Harrison, W., Esq., F.G.S., F.Z.S., Galli- 

greaves House. 
Hale, Mr. C, Cheltenham. 
Hawkins, The Rev. W. B. 
Hayes, Mrs., St. Catharine's. 
Harris, Mr., Northampton. 
Harvey, The Rev. G. H., Wimbledon. 
Hammond, Mr. 

Hayward, Henry, Esq., Wolverhampton. 
Halle, Charles, Esq. 
Hatton, J. L., Esq. 
Hendrie, Robert, Esq. 
Hennell, G. R., Esq. 
Hemery, Mr. 
Hills, William, Esq. 
Higham, F., Esq., Wolverhampton. 
Hime, Mr. B., Manchester. 
HoLL, William, Esq. 
HoLL, Henry, Esq. 
HoLL, Francis, Esq. 
Hopkins, E. J., Esq., Organist of the 

Temple Church. 
Holmes, W. H., Esq. 
Hopkins, J. L., Mus. Doc, Cambridge. 
Howe, H., Esq., Isleworth. 
Hopkinson, Messrs., Leeds. 
HoRNE, F. Lennox, Esq. 
Holland, W., Esq. 
HULLAH, J. P., Esq. 
Hdtton, The Rev. Hugh. 

Isaac, B. R., Esq., Liverpool. 

Jackson, Mr., Bradford. 

Jewson, J. P., Esq., Stockton-on-Tees. 

Knapton, Miss, Ripon. 
Kerslake, Mr., Bristol. 2 copies. 
■Kreeft, S. C, Esq., Consul-General. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



XIX. 



Kendall, J. F., Esq. 
Kbrky, John, Esq. 
Keene, Charles, Efsq. 
Ketelle, S. W., Esq., Newcastle. 
Kirk, J. M., Esq., Halifax. 
King, H. Stavely, Esq., M.D. 
Knight, Mr., Chichester. 
King, Donald, Esq. 

Lablache, Signor F. 

Land, Edward, Esq. 

Lambert, D., Esq., York. 

Lambeth, Henry A., Esq., Glasgow. 

Lewis, Miss, Putney. 

LiNwooD, Miss. 

LoHR, G. A., Esq., Leicester. 

Lover, Samdel, Esq. 

LovETT, Mr. 

LocKEY, Charles, Esq. 

Mason, Joseph Edward, Esq. 

Mason, Thomas, jiin., Esq., Newcastle- 
under-Lyme. 

Marshall, J. W., Esq., Richmond, York- 
shire. 

Masson, Miss. 

Martineau, Philip, Esq. 

Mackenzie, J. Whitefoord, Esq., Edin- 
burgh. 
, Martin, G. W., Esq. 

Mackway, Mr. 

Mercer, The Kev. W., M.A., Sheffield. 

Mills, R., jun., Esq. 

Morant, The Lady Henrietta. 

MoRANT, John, Esq., Brockenhurst House, 

Lymington. 
,'MoNK, Edwin George, Mus. Doc, Organist 
of the Cathedral, York. 

Monk, W. H., Esq., Organist of King's 
College, London. 

Morris, Val., Esq. 

Mdrby, Thomas, Esq. 

Mario, Signor. 

Maclure, Andrew, Esq. 

MoRiER, G. J., Esq. 

Moore, The Hon. Mrs. Montgomery, 
Dublin. 



Newman, The Rev. W. A., D.D., Wolver- 
hampton. 

NioHOL, — Esq. 

Nicholls, W. H., Esq. 

Nicholson, Alfred, Esq. 

Norbury, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 

Norman, Rev. R. VV., St. Peter's College, 
near Abingdon. 

Norwood, Jasper, Esq., Preston. 

Norman, Mrs., The Rookery, Bromley. 

Ollivier, Mr. Robert. 

Osborne, G. A., Esq. 

Odseley, The Rev. Sir Frederick Arthur 

Gore, Bart., Professor of Music in the 

University of Oxford. 
OuLD, Edwin, Esq. 

Paget, R., Esq. 

Parker, John "William, Esq. 

Paterson, Mr. R. Roy, Edinburgh. 

Pole, S. Chandos, Esq. 

Pdedie, Mr. John, Edinburgh. 

Pye, Kellow, Esq., Wimbledon. 

Rawlings, — Esq., Shrewsbury. 

Ravey, Mr. 

Reed, T. German, Esq. 

Richards, Mr. T. 

Richardson, — Esq., Swindon. 

Romee, Frank, Esq. 

Robinson, Joseph, Esq., Dublin. 

RowE, Mrs., Plymouth. 

Rhodes, Jeremiah, Esq,, Pontefract. 

RoBB, Mrs. 

RoBECK, The Baron de, Swordlestown. 

RuDALL, Rose, and Carte, Messrs. 

Stanford, John, Esq., Dublin. 
Salaman, Charles, Esq. 
Sandys, W., Esq., F.S.A. 
Salt, George, M., Esq., Shrewsbury. 
Sacred Harmonic Society (The) 
Spark, W., Esq., Organist, Leeds. 
Smith, G. Townshend, Esq., Organist of the 
Cathedral, Herefonl. 



XX. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Spencer, The Rev. Peter, Temple Ewell, 
near Dover. 

SiMJis, E., Esq., Coventry. 

SiMMS, Mr. H., Bath. 

Smart, Sir Georqe. 

Smith, Montbm, Esq. 

Smith, Albert, Esq. 

Smith, Samuel, Esq., Bradford. 

Smith, W. H., Esq., Sheffield. 

Smith, Mr. John, Leeds. 

Smith, George, Esq. 

Singleton, Rev. R. C, Kingstown, Dublin. 

Signet Library, (The) Edinburgh. 

Silver, William, Esq. 

Swift, Joseph, Esq. 

Skelton, G. J., Esq., Hull. 

Shea, Alexander, Esq. 

Shelmerdine, W., Esq., Nottingham. 

Shoreham College. 

Stanyon, John, Esq., Leicester. 

Stanley, E. H., Esq. 

Stephenson, W. F., Esq., Organist, Bishop- 
ton. 

Sloper, Lindsay, Esq. 

Sutton and Potter, Messrs., Dover. 

Stocqueler, J. H., Esq. 

Sykes, Luke, R., Esq. 

Spalding, S., Esq. 

Squire, F., Esq. 

Stokes, Dr., Dublin. 

TKAVERSjMias M.T., Hartsbourne, Bushey, 

Herts. 
Thaoker, a. C, Esq., Peterborough. 
Taylor, Hussey, Esq. 
Taylor, Bianchi, Esq., Bath. 
Thackeray, W., Esq. 
Tait, W., Esq., Melrose. 



Thomson, James, Esq., Glasgow. 
Theupp, John, Esq. 
Turner, Mr., Stockport. 3 copies. 
TuRLE, Miss, Lj'me Regis. 
Travers, Miss, Hillingdon. 

Vernon, The Right. Hon. Lord. 
Vantini, Townsend, Esq. 

Ward, The Right Hon. Lord. 2 copies. 

Walker, George, Esq., Aberdeen. 

Wallerstein, F. G., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Walsh, E., Esq. 

Warren, E., Esq., Organist of Christ 
Church, Dover. 

Wallace, W. Vincent, Esq. 

Ward, The Rev. Arthur R., St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

Warren. Mr. John, Royston. 

Weiss, W. H., Esq. 

Werner, Louis, Esq. 

Webster, Alfred, Esq., Bath. 

Williams, T., Esq., Fairlight, Tunbridge 
Wells. 

Wighton, Mr. A. J., Dundee. 

Wilson, M, C, Esq. 

WiNSLow, Forbes, Esq., M.D., D.C.L. 

Winn, W., Esq. 

Winstanley, j. B., Esq., Bramston House, 
near Leicester. 

WooLcoMBE, The Rev. W. Walker, Man- 
chester. 

Wood, Messrs. J. M., and Co., Glasgow. 
2 copies. 

Wood, Messrs., Edinburgh. 2 copiies. 

Woodman, W., Esq., Hobhill, Morpeth. 

Wylde, Henry, Esq., Mus. Doc. 



ON ENGLISH MINSTRELSY, 
SONGS AND BALLADS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Minstrelsy from the Saxon Period to the Reign of Edward I. 

Music and Poetry are, in every country, so closely connected, during the 
infancy of their cultivation, that it is scarcely possible to speak of the one without 
the other. The industry and learning that have been devoted to the subject of 
English Minstrelsy, and more especially in relation to its Poetry, by Percy, 
Warton, and Ritson, have left an almost exhausted field to their successors. 
But, while endeavouring to combine in a compressed form the various curious 
and interesting notices that have been collected by their researches, or which 
the labours of more recent writers have placed within my reach, I hope I may 
not prove altogether unsuccessful in my endeavour to throw a few additional rays 
of light upon the subject, when contemplated, chiefly, in a musical point of view. 

" The Minstrels," says Percy, " were the successors of the ancient Bards, who 
under dilFerent names were admired and revered, from the earliest ages, among 
the people of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and the North ; and indeed by almost all 
the first inhabitants of Europe, whether of Celtic or Gothic race ; but by none 
more than by our own Teutonic ancestors, particularly by all the Danish tribes. 
Among these, they were distinguished by the name of Scalds, a word which 
denotes ' smoothers and polishers of language.' The origin of their art was 
attributed to Odin or Wodin, the father of their Gods ; and the professors of it 
were held in the highest estimation. Their skill was considered as something 
divine ; their persons were deemed sacred ; their attendance was solicited by kings ; 

and they were everywhere loaded with honours and rewards As these 

honours were paid to Poetry and Song, from the earliest times, in those countries 
which our Anglo-Saxon ancestors inhabited before their removal into Britain, we 
may reasonably conclude that they would not lay aside all their regard for men 
of this sort, immediately on quitting their German forests. At least, so long as 
they retained their ancient manners and opinions, they would still hold them in 
high estimation. But as the Saxons, soon after their establishment in this 
island, were converted to Christianity, in proportion as literature prevailed among 
them, this rude admiration would begin to abate, and poetry would no longer be a 

B 



2 , ENGLISH MINSTRELSY, 

peculiar profession. Thus the poet and the minstrel early with us became two 
persons. Poetry was cultivated by men of letters indiscriminately ; and many of 
the most popular rhymes were composed amidst the leisure and retirement of 
monasteries. But the Minstrels continued a distinct order of men for many ages 
after the Norman conquest; and got their livelihood by singing verses to the 
harp, principally at the houses of the great. There they were still hospitably 
and respectfully received, and retained many of the honours shown to their pre- 
decessors, the bards and scalds. And though, as their art declined, many of 
them only recited the compositions of others, some of them still composed songs 
themselves, and all of them could probably invent a few stanzas on occasion. 
I have no doubt but most of the old heroic ballads .... were composed by this 
order of men." 

The term Minstrel, however, comprehended eventually not merely those who 
sang to the harp or other instrument, romances and ballads, but also such as 
were distinguished by their skill in instrumental music only. Of this abundant 
proof will be given in the following pages. Warton says, "As literature, the 
certain attendant, as it is the parent, of true religion and civility, gained ground 
among the Saxons, poetry no longer remained a separate science, and the profes- 
sion of bard seems gradually to have declined among them: I mean the bard 
under those appropriated characteristics, and that peculiar appointment, which he 
sustained among the Scandinavian pagans. Yet their natural love of verse and 
music still so strongly predominated, that in the place of their old Scalders, a new 
rank of poets arose, called Gleemen, or Harpers." These probably gave rise to 
the order of English Minstrels, who floarished till the sixteenth century." 

Ritson, in his Dissertation on Romance and Minstrelsy (prefixed to his Col- 
lection of Ancient English Metrical Romances) , denies the resemblance between 
the Scalds and the Minstrels, and attacks Percy with great acrimony for as- 
cribing with too great liberality, the composition of our ancient heroic songs 
and metrical legends, to those by whom they were generally recited. Percy, 
in the earlier editions of his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, said : " The Minstrels 
seem to have been the genuine successors of the ancient Bards, who united the 
arts of poetry and music, and sung verses to the harp, of their own composing,^^ 
which he afterwards modified into " composed ly themselves or others." With this 
qualification there appears to be no essential difference between their systems, as 
the following quotation from Ritson will show : " That the difierent professors of 
minstrelsy were, in ancient times, distinguished by names appropriated to their 
respective pursuits, cannot reasonably be disputed, though it may be difficult to 
prove. The Trouveur, Trouverre, or Eijmour, was he who composed romans, 

" GiEEMEN, or Harpers. Fabyan, speaking of Blage- strongest internal proof that this profession was extremely 

bride, an ancient British king, famous for his skill in common and popular here before the Korman conquest. 

poetry and music, calls him "aconynge musicyan, called The Anglo-Saxon harpers and gleemen were the 

of the Britons god of Gleemen." The learned Percy says : immediate successors and imitators of the Scandinavian 

"This word i^teeis derived from the Anglo-Saxon SliJS Scalds." We have also the authority of Bade for the 

(gligg), mmica, music, minstrelsy (Somner). This is, practice of social and domestic singing to the harp, in 

the common radix, whence arises such a variety of terms the Saxon language, upon this island, at the beginning of 

and phrases relating to the minstrel ai-t, as atfords the the eighth century. 



GLEEMEN, SCALDS, BARDS. . 3 

conies, fabliaux, chansons and lais ; and those who confined themselves to the 
composition of contes diad. fabliaux obtained the appellation of contours, conieours, or 
fabliers. The Menetrier, Menestrel, or Minstrel, was he who accompanied his song 
by a musical instrument, both the words and the melody being occasionally fur- 
nished by himself, and occasionally by others." 

Le Grand says : " This profession which misery, libertinism, and the vagabond 
life of this sort of people, have much decried, required, however, a multiplicity of 
attainments, and of talents, which one would, at this day, have some difiiculty to 
find reunited, and we have more reason to be astonished at them in those days of 
ignorance ; for besides all the songs, old and new, — besides the current anec- 
dotes, the tales and fabliaux, which they piqued themselves on knowing, — besides 
the romances of the time which it behoved them to know and to possess in part, they 
could declaim, sing, compose music, play on several instruments, and accompany 
them. Frequently even were they authors, and made themselves the pieces 
they uttered." — Ritson''s Dissertation, p. clxiii. 

The spirit of chivalry which pervades the early metrical romances could not 
have been imparted to this country by the Romans. As Warton observes, 
" There is no peculiarity which more strongly discriminates the manners of the 
Greeks and Romans from those of modern times, than that small degree of atten- 
tion and respect with which those nations treated the fair sex, and the incon- 
siderable share which they were permitted to take in conversation, and the general 
commerce of life. For the truth of this observation, we need only appeal to the 
classic writings : from which it appears that their women were devoted to a state 
of seclusion and obscurity. One is surprised that barbarians should be greater 
masters of complaisance than the most polished people that ever existed. No 
sooner was the Roman empire overthrown, and the Goths had overpowered 
Europe, than we find the female character assuming an unusual importance and 
authority, and distinguished with new privileges, in all the European govern- 
ments established by the northern conquerors. Even amidst the confusions of 
savage war, and among the almost incredible enormities committed by the Goths 
at their invasion of the empire, they forbore to offer any violence to the women." 

That the people of England have in all ages delighted in secular or social 
music, can be proved by numerous testimonies. The Scalds and Minstrels were 
held in great repute for many ages, and it is but fair to infer that the reverence 
shown to them arose from the love and esteem in which their art was held. The 
Romans, on their first invasion of this island, found three orders of priesthood 
established here from a period long anterior. The first and most influential were 
the Druids ; the second the Bards, whose business it was to celebrate the praises 
of their heroes in verses and songs, which they sang to their harps ; and the third 
were the Eubates, or those who applied themselves to the study of philosophy. 

The Northern annals abovmd with pompous accounts of the honors conferred 
on music by princes who were themselves proficients in the art ; for music had 
become a regal accomplishment, as we find by all the ancient metrical romances 
and heroic narrations, — and to sing to the harp was the necessary accomplishment 



4 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY.- 

of a perfect prince, or a complete hero. The harp seems to have been, for many 
ages, the favorite instrument of the inhabitants of this island, whether under 
British, Saxon, Danish, or Norman kings. Even so early as the first invasion of 
Britain by the Saxons, we have an incident which records the use of it, and which 
shows that the Minstrel or Bard was well-known among this people ; and that their 
princes themselves could, upon occasion, assume that character. Colgrin, son of that 
Ella who was elected king or leader of the Saxons, in the room of Hengist, was 
shut up in York, and closely besieged by Arthur and his Britons. Baldulph, 
brother of Colgrin, wanted to gain access to him, and to apprize him of a rein- 
forcement which was coming from Germany. He had no other way to accom- 
plish his design, but by assuming the character of a Minstrel. He therefore 
shaved his head and beard, and dressing himself in the habit of that profession, 
took his harp in his hand. In this disguise he walked up and down the trenches 
without suspicion, playing all the while upon his instrument as a harper. By 
little and little he advanced near to the walls of the city, and making himself 
known to the sentinels, was in the night drawn up by a rope. Rapin places the 
incident here related under the year 495. The story of King Alfred entering 
and exploring the Danish camp under the disguise of a Minstrel, is related by 
Ingulph, Henry of Huntingdon, Speed, William of Malmesbury, and almost all 
the best modern historians ; but we are also told that before he was twelve years 
old, he could repeat a variety of Saxon songs, which he had learned from hearing 
them sung by others, who had themselves, perhaps, only acquired them by tradition, 
and that his genius was first roused by this species of erudition. 

Bale asserts that Alfred's knowledge of music was perfect ; and it is evident 
that he was an enthusiast in the art, from his paraphrase of Bede's description of 
the sacred poet Csedmon's embarrassment when the harp was presented to him in 
turn, that he might sing to it, " be hearpan singan ;" Bede's words are simply 
" Surgebat a media csena, et egressus, ad suum domum repedabat :" but Alfred 
adds, that he arose for shame (aras he for sceome) ; implying that it was a dis- 
grace to be found ignorant of the art. 

We may also judge of the Anglo-Saxon love for song, from the course pursued 
by St. Aldhelme, Abbot of Malmesbury, who died in 709. Being desirous of 
instructing his then semi-barbarous countrymen, he was in the daily habit of 
taking his station on the bridges and high roads, as if a Gleeman or Minstrel 
by profession, and of enticing them to listen to him, by intermixing more serious 
subjects with minstrel ballads. — Grul. Malms, cle JPontificalibus. Lib. 5. And 
in the ancient life of St. Dunstan (whose feat of taking the evil one by the nose 
with a pair of red-hot pincers, was so favorite a sign for inns and taverns) he is 
said, not only to have learnt " the vain songs of his nation," but also " to have 
constructed an organ with brass pipes, and filled with air from bellows." 
The Saint was a monk of Glastonbury, and born about 925. 

That the harp was the common musical instrument of the Anglo-Saxons, may 
also be inferred from the word itself, which is not derived from the British, or 
any other Celtic language, but of genuine Gothic original, and current among 



ANGLO-SAXONS, CAMBRO-BEITONS, AND DANES. 5 

every branch of that people, viz. : Ang. Sax. hearpe and hearpa ; Iceland, Jiarpa 
and haurpa ; Dan. and Belg. harpe ; German, harpffe and harpffa ; Gal. harpe ; 
Span, harpa ; Ital. arpa. The Welsh, or Gambro-Britons, call their harp teijlin, 
a word for which no etymon is to be found in their language. In the Erse its 
name is crwth. That it was also the favorite musical instrument of the Britons 
and other Northern nations in the middle ages, is evident from their laws, 
and various passages in their history. By the laws of Wales (Leges Wallicse) , a 
harp was one of the three things that were necessary to constitute a gentleman, 
or a freeman ; and none could pretend to that character who had not one of these 
favorite instruments, or could not play upon it. To prevent slaves from pre- 
tending to be gentlemen, it was expressly forbidden to teach, or to permit, them 
to play upon the harp ; and none but the king, the king's musicians, and 
gentlemen, were allowed to have harps in their possession. A gentleman's harp 
was not liable to be seized for debt ; because the want of it would have degraded 
him from his rank, and reduced him to that of a slave. 

Alfred entered the Danish camp A.D. 878 ; and about sixty years after, a 
Danish king made use of the same disguise to explore the camp of our king 
Athelstan. With his harp in his hand, and dressed like a minstrel, Aulaff, king 
of the Danes, went among the Saxon tents ; and taking his stand by the king's 
pavilion, began to play, and was immediately admitted. There he entertained 
Athelstan and his lords with his singing and his music, and was at length dis- 
missed with an honorable reward, though his songs might have disclosed the fact 
that he was a Dane. Athelstan was saved from the consequences of this stratagem 
by a soldier, who had observed AulafF bury the money which had been given him, 
either from some scruple of honor or superstitious feeling. This occasioned 
a discovery. 

Now if the Saxons had not been accustomed to have Minstrels of their own, 
Alfred's assuming so new and unusual a character would have excited suspicions 
among the Danes. On the other hand, if it had not been customary with the 
Saxons to show favor and respect to the Danish Scalds, Aulaif would not have 
ventured himself among them, especially on the eve of a battle. From the 
uniform procedure of both these kings, we may fairly conclude that the same 
mode of entertainment prevailed among both people, and that the Minstrel was 
a privileged character with each. 

May it not be further said, — what a devotion to the art of music must have 
existed in those rude times, when the vigilance of war was lulled into sleep and 
false security, and the enmities of two detesting nations were forgotten for 
awhile, in the enjoyment of sweet sounds ! 

That the Gleeman or Minstrel held a stated and continued office in the court 
of our Anglo-Saxon kings, can be proved satisfactorily. We have but to turn to 
the Doomsday Book, and find under the head : Glowecesterscire, fol. 162, col. 1. 
— " Berdic, Joculator Regis, habet iii villas," &c. That the word Joculator (at 
this early period) meant Harper or Minstrel, is sufficiently evident from Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, of whom Dr. Percy observes very justly, " that whatever credit is 



6 ENGLISH MIlJSTRELSY. 

due to him as a relator of facts, he is certainly as good authority as any for the 
signification of words." 

The musical instruments principally in use among the Anglo-Saxons, were the 
Harp, the Psaltry, the Fi^ele, and a sort of Hoi-n called in Saxon " Pip " or 
Pipe. The Harp, however, was the national instrument. In the Anglo-Saxon 
Poem of Beowulf it is repeatedly mentioned. 

" There was the noise of the harp, the clear song of the poet." . . . . " There 
was song and sound altogether, before Healfdene's Chieftains ; the wood of joy 

(harp) was touched, the song was often sung." " The beast of war- (warrior) 

touched the joy of the harp, the wood of pleasure," &c. 

The FiSele (from which our words fiddler and fiddle are derived) was a sort of 
viol, played on by a bow. The Psaltry, or Sawtrie, was strung with wire." 

The Normans were a colony from Norway and Denmark, where the Scalds 
had arrived at high renown before Eollo's expedition into France. Many 
of those men no doubt accompanied him to the duchy of Normandy, and left 
behind them successors in their art ; so that when his descendant William 
invaded this kingdom, a.d. 1066, he and his followers were sure to favor the 
establishment of the minstrel profession here, rather than suppress it ; indeed, 
we read that at the battle of Hastings, there was in William's army a valiant 
warrior, named Taillefer, distinguished no less for the minstrel arts, than for his 
courage and intrepidity. This man, who performed the oflBce of Herald-minstrel 
(Menestrier huchier) , advanced at the head of the army, and with a loud voice 
animated his countrymen, singing a war-song of Roland, i. e., "Hrolfr or Rollo," 
says our Anglo-Saxon historian, Sharon Tm-ner ; — then rushing among the 
thickest of the English, and valiantly fighting, lost his life. 

The success of his ancestor RoUo, was one of the topics of the speech in which 
William addressed his army before the battle, to excite in them the emulation of 
establishing themselves in England as he had done in Normandy. A " Chanson 
de Roland " continued in favor with the French soldiers as late as the battle of 
Poictiers, in the time of their king John, for, upon his reproaching one of them with 
singing it at a time when there were no Rolands left, he was answered that 
Rolands would still be found if they had a Charlemagne at their head. This was 
in 1356. 

Dr. Burney conjectured that the song, " L'homme armee," which was so popular 
in the fifteenth century, was the Chanson de Roland ; but M. Bottee de Toulmon 
has quoted the first foui- lines of " L'homme armee" from the Proportionales 
Musices of John Tinctor, and proved it to be only a love-song. He has also 
printed the tune, which he extracted from one of the many- Masses in which it 
was used as a, subject to make Descant on.'' 

" Representations of Anglo-Saxon harps and pipes will elegant in shape than those in Sir John Hawkins's His- 

be found in Harl. MSS. 603, which also contains a toiy, copied from Kircher's Musurgia. A representation 

psaltry, in shape like the lyre of Apollo, but with more of the Fithele will be found in the Cotton Collection, 

strings, and having a concave back. It agrees with that Tiberius, c. vi., and in Strult's Sports and Pastimes, 

which Augustine describes as carried in the band of the Both the manuscripts cited are of the tenth century, 

player, which had a shell or concave piece of wood on it, •> Annuaire Historique pour I'ann^e, 1837. Public par 

that caused the strings to resound, and is much more la Societe de VHistoire de France. 



NORMANS. — BATTLE OP HASTINGS. 



Robert Wace, in the Roman de Rou, says that Taillefer sang with a loud voice 
(chanta a haute voix) tlie songs of Charlemagne, Roland, &c., and M. de 
Toulmon considers the song of Roland to have been a Chanson de Geste, or 
metrical romance ; and that Taillefer merely declaimed parts of such poems, hold- 
ing up those heroes as models to the assembled soldiers. The Chanson de Roland, 
that was printed in Paris in 1837-8 (edited by M. Michel) from a copy in the 
Bodleian Library, is a metrical romance in praise of the French hero, the Orlando 
Innamorato, and Furioso of Boiardo, Berni, and Ariosto, but apparently of no such 
antiquity,'' and it seems improbable that he should have been the subject of the 
Norman minstrel's song. All metrical romances, however, were originally recited 
or chanted with an accompaniment ; and Dr. Crotch has printed a tune in the 
third edition of his Specimens of Various Styles of Music, vol. 1. p. 133, as the 
" Chanson Roland sung by the Normans as they advanced to the battle of 
Hastings, 1066," which I give as a curiosity, but without vouching for its 
authenticity. 

CHANSON ROLAND. 




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Dr. Crotcli does not name the source from which he obtained this air, nor 
have I been successful in tracing it.^ The story of Taillefer may, however, be 
altogether apochryphal, as it is not mentioned by any contemporanj historian. 

The English, according to Fordun, spent the night preceding the battle in 



" It contains, also, about 4,000 verses ; and it seems still 
more improbable that so lengthy a composition should 
have been generally and popularly known. It is more 
likely to have originated in the favorwith which an earlier 
song was received. 

^ The Chanson de Roland that has been printed re- 



cently, edited by Sir Henry Bishop, is a Composition by 
the Marquis de Paulmy, taken from Barney's History of 
Music, vol ii. p. 276, but Dr. Burney does not give it as 
an ancient song or tune. The tune, indeed, is not even 
in imitation of antiquity. 



8 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

singing and drinking. " Ulam noctem Angli totam in cantibus et potibus 
insomnem duxerunt." — c. 13. 

Ingulphus, a contemporary of William the Conqueror, speaks of the popular 
ballads of the English in praise of theu' heroes ; and William of Malmesbury, 
in the twelfth centui*y, mentions them also. Three parishes in Gloucestershire 
■were appropriated by William to the support of his minstrel ; and although his 
Norman followers would incline only to such of their own countrymen as excelled 
in the art, and would listen to no other songs but those composed in their own 
Norman-French, yet as the great mass of the original inhabitants were not ex- 
tirpated, these could only understand their own native Gleemen or Minstrels ; and 
accordingly, they fostered their compatriot Minsti-els with a spirit of emulation 
that served to maintain and encourage them and their productions for a consider- 
able period after the invasion. That they continued devoted to their Anglo- 
Saxon tongue,'^ notwithstanding the opposition of their tyrannical conquerors, is 
sufficiently plain. 

" Of this," says Percy, " we have proof positive in the old metrical romance 
of Horn-Child, which, although from the mention of Sarazens, &c., must have 
been written at least after the first crusade in 1096, yet, from its Anglo-Saxon 
language, or idiom, can scarcely be dated later than within a century after the 
Conquest. This, as appears fi'om its very exordium, was intended to be sung to a 
popular audience, whether it was composed by or for a Gleeman, or Minstrel. But 
it carries all the internal marks of bemg the work of such a composer. It appears 
of genuine Miglish growth ; for, after a careful examination, I cannot discover any 
allusion to French or Norman customs, manners, composition, or phraseology : no 
quotation, ' as the romance sayeth : ' not a name or local reference, which was 
likely to occur to a French rimeur. The proper names are all of northern 
extraction. Child Horn is the son of Allof {i.e., Olaf or Olave), king of Sudenne 
(I suppose Sweden), by his queen Godylde, or Godylt. Athulf and Fykenyld are 
the names of subjects. Eylmer, or Aylmere, is king of Westnesse (a part of 
Ii-eland) ; Rymenyld is his daughter ; as Erminyld is of another king, Thurstan ; 
whose sons are Athyld and Beryld. Athelbrus is steward of king Aylmer, &c. &c. 
All these savour only of a northern origin, and the whole piece is exactly such a 
performance as one would expect from a Gleeman or Minsti-el of the north of 
England, who had derived his art and his ideas from his Scaldic predecessors 
there." 

Although Ritson disputed the English origin of this romance. Sir Frederick 
Madden, in a note to the last edition of Warton's English Poetry, has proved 
Percy to be right, and that the French Romance, Dan Horn (on the same subject 
as Child Horn), is a translation from the English. In the Prologue to another 
Romance, King Atla, it is expressly stated that the stories of Aelof (Allof), 
Tristan, and others, had been translated into French from the English. 

« "The dialect ofour Alfred, of the ninth century, in his in a regular and intelligible series, from the dialect now in 

Saxon translation of Boethius and Bede, is more clear use to the ninth century: that is, from pure English to 

and intelligible than the vulgar language, f5KB%a7!deB(, pure Saxon, such as was spoken and written by King 

of any other country in Europe. For I am acquainted Alfred, unmixed with Latin, Welch, or Norman."— 

with no other language, which, like our own, can mount Burney's History of Music, vol. ii. p. 209. 



WILLIAM I. TO RICHARD I. 9 

After the Conquest, the first notice we have relating to the Minstrels is the 
founduig of the Priory and Hospital of St. Bartholomew,'' in Smithfield, by 
Royer, or Raherus, the King's Mmstrel, in the the third year of King Henry I., 
A.D. 1102. Hem-y's conduct to a luckless Norman mmstrel who fell into his power, 
tells how keenly the minstrel's sarcasms were felt, as well as the ferocity of Henry's 
revenge. " Luke de Ban-e," said the king, " has never done me homage, but he has 
fought against me. He has composed facetiously indecent songs upon me ; he has 
sung them openly to my prejudice, and often raised the horse-laughs of my malig- 
nant enemies against me." Henry then ordered his eyes to be pulled out. The 
wretched minstrel rushed from his tormentors, and dashed his braias against 
the wall.'' 

In the reign of King Henry H., Galfiid or Jeffrey, a harper, received in 1180 
an annuity from the Abbey of Hide, near Winchester ; and as every harper was 
expected to sing," we cannot doubt that this reward was bestowed for his music 
and his songs, which, as Percy says, if they were for the solace of the monks there, 
we may conclude would be in the English language. The more rigid monks, 
however, both here and abroad, were greatly offended at the honours and rewards 
lavished on Minstrels. John of Salisbury, who lived in this reign, thus declaims 
against the extravagant favour shown to them : " For you do not, like the fools of 
this age, pour out rewards to Minstrels (Histriones et Mimos ^) and monsters of 
that sort, for the ransom of your fame, and the enlargement of your name." 
—{Epist. 247.) 

" Minstrels and Poets abounded under Henry's patronage : they spread the love 
of poetry and literature among his barons and people, and the influence of the 
royal taste soon became visible in the improved education of the great, in the 
increasing number of the studious, and in the multiplicity of authors, who wrote 
during his reign and the next." — Sharon Turner's Hist. Encj. 

In the reign of Richard I. (1189.) minstrelsy flourished with pecuUar splendour. 
His romantic temper, and moreover his own proficiency in the art, led him to be 
not only the patron of chivalry, but also of those who celebrated its exploits. 
Some of his poems are still extant. The romantic release of this king from the 
castle of Durrenstein, on the Danube, by the stratagem and fidelity of his Min- 
strel Blondel, is a story so well known, that it is needless to repeat it here.'' 

Another circumstance which proves how easily Minstrels could always gain 
admittance even into enemies' camps and prisons, occurred in this reign. The 
young heiress of D'Evreux, Earl of Salisbury, " was carried abroad, and secreted 

"^ Vide the Monasticorit torn. ii. pp. 166 67, for a curious Lord Howard's agreement with William Wastell, Harper 

history of this priory and its founder. Also Stowe's Sur- of London, to teach a boy named Colet" to harp and to sing." 

vey, lathe Pteasaunt Hislori/ of Thomas of Reading, 4to. "^ Histrio, Mimus, Joculator, and Ministrallus, are all 

1662, he is likewise mentioned. His monument, in good nearly equivalent terms for Minstrels in Mediaeval Latin, 

preservation, may yet be seen in the parish church of " Incepit more Histrionico, fabulas dicere, et plerumque 

St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, London. cantare." " Super quo Histriones caniabant, sicut mode 

''Quoted from Ordericus Vitalis. Hist. Eccles. in Sharon cantatur de Rolando et Oliverio." " Dat sex Mimis 

Turner's Hist. England. Domini Clynton, caniantibus, ciiharisantibus, luden- 

" So in Horn-Child, K. Allof orders his steward, tibus," &c. 4 s. Geoffrey of Monmouth uses Joculator as 

Althebrus to "teche him of harpe and song." And equivalent to Citharista, in one place, and to Con /or in 

Chaucer, in his description of the Limitour or Mendicant another. See Notes to Percy's Essay. 

Friar, speaks of harping as inseparable from singing — '* in ' The best authority for this story, which has frequently 

his harping, when that he had sung." Also in 1481, see been doubted, is the Chronique de Rains, written in the 



10 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

by her French relations in Normandy. To discover the place of her concealment, 
a knight of the Talbot family spent two years in-exploring that province, at first 
under the disguise of a pilgrim ; till having found -where she was confined, in 
order to gain admittance he assumed the di-ess and character of a harper, and 
being ?k jocose person, exceedingly skilled in ' the Gests of the Ancients,' — so they 
called the romances and stories which were the delight of that age, — he was gladly 
received into the family, whence he took an opportunity to carry off the young 
lady, whom he presented to the king ; and he bestowed her on his natural brother, 
William Longespee (son of fair Eosamond), who became, in her right, Earl of 
Salisbury. 

In the reign of king John (a.d. 1212) the English Minstrels did good service 
to Kanulph, or Randal, Earl of Chester. He, being beseiged in his Castle of 
Rothelan (or Rhuydland) , sent for help to De Lacy, Constable of Chester, who, 
" making use of the Minstrels of all sorts, then met at Chester fair, by the allure- 
ments of their music, assembled such a vast number of people, who went forth 
under the conduct of a gallant youth, named Button (his steward and son-in-law) 
that he intimidated the Welsh, who supposed them to be a regular body of armed 
and disciplined soldiers, so that they instantly raised the siege and retired." 

For this deed of service to Ranulph, both De Lacy and Dutton had, by 
respective charters, patronage and authority over the Minstrels and others, who, 
under the descendants of the latter, enjoyed certain privileges and protection for 
many ages. 

Even so late as the reign of Elizabeth, when this profession had fallen into such 
discredit that it was considered in law a nuisance, the Minstrels under the juris- 
diction of the family of Dutton are expressly excepted out of aU acts of Parlia- 
ment made for their suppression; and have continued to be so excepted ever since. "^ 

"We have innumerable particulars of the good cheer and great rewards given to 
the Minstrels in many of the convents, which are collected by Warton and others. 
But one instance, quoted from Wood's Hist. Antiq. Ox., vol. i. p. 67, during the reign 
of king Henry HI. (sub. an. 1224), deserves particular mention. Two itinerant 
priests, on the supposition of their being Minstrels, gained admittance. But the 
cellarer, sacrist, and others of the brethren, who had hoped to have been entertamed 
by their diverting arts, &c., when they found them to be only two indigent ecclesi- 
astics, and were consequently disappointed of their mu-th, beat them, and turned 
them out of the monastery." 

In the same reign (a.d. 1252) we have mention of Master Richard, the king's 
Harper, to whom that monarch gave not only forty shillings and a pipe of wine, 
but also a pipe of wine to Beatrice, his ^vife. Percy remarks, that the title of 
Magister, or Master, given to this Minstrel, deserves notice, and shows his 
respectable situation. 

"The learned and pious Grosteste, bishop of Lincoln, who died in 1253, is said, 

13th Century. — See WrighVs Biograph.Brit., Anglo Norman newal of the same clauses in the last act on this subject, 

Period, p. 325. passed in the reign of George III. The ceremonies 

a See the statute of Eliz. anno. 39. cap. iv. entitled an attending the exercise of this jurisdiction are described 

Act for punishment of rogues, vagabonds, &c.; also a re- by Dugdale (Bar i.. p. 101), and from him, by Percy. 



KING JOHN TO EDWARD I. H 

in some verses of Robert de Brunne, who flourislied about tbe beginning of the 
next century, to have been very fond of the metre and music of the Minstrels. 
The good prelate had written a poem in the Romanse language, called Manuel 
Peche, the translation of which into English, Robert de Brunne commenced in 
1302, with a design, as he tells us himself, that it should be sung to the harp at 
public entertainments." 

For lewde [unlearned] men I undertoke That talys and rymys wyl blithly here, 
In Englysshe tunge to make thys boke, Yn gamys and featys, and at the ale 
For many ben of swyche mauere Love men to listene trotevale. [triviality] 

The following anecdote concerning the love which his author, bishop 
Grosteste, had for music, seems to merit a place here, though related in rude 
rhymes. 

I shall yow telle as I have herde " The vertu of the Harpe, thurgh 

. Of the bysshope Seynt Roberde, [through] skylle and ryght, 

Hys toiiame [surname] is Grostest " Wyll destrye the fendys [fiends] myght; 

Of Lynkolne, so seyth tbe gest, " And to the Cros by gode skylle 

He loved moehe to here the Harpe, " Is the Harpe ylykened weyl. 

For mannes wytte it makyth sharpe. " Tharefore, gode men, ye shall lere, [learn] 
Next hys chanmbre, besyde hia study, " Wlian ye any Gleman here, 
Hys Harper's chaumbre was fast therby. " To wurschep God at your powere, 
Many tymes, by nightes and dayes, " As Davyd seyth in the Sautere. [Psalter] 

He had solace of notes and layes, " In harpe and tabour and symphan" gle 

One askede hym the resun why " Wurschep God : in trumpes and sautre, 

He hadde delyte in Mynstralsy ? " In cordes, in organes, and bells ringyng : 

He answerde hym on thys manere " In all these wurschepe the heveue 

Why he helde the Harpe so dere : Kyng, &c." 

Before entering on the reign of Edward I., I quit the Minstrels for awhile, to 
endeavour to trace the progress of music up to that period. It will be necessary 
to begin with the old Church Scales, it having been asserted that all national 
music is constructed upon them — an assertion that I shall presently endeavour 
to confute ; and by avoiding, as far as possible, all obsolete technical, as well 
as Greek terms, which render the old treatises on Music so troublesome a study, 
I hope to convey such a knowledge of those scales as will answer the purpose of 
such general readers as possess only a slight knowledge of music. 



CHAPTER n. 

Music OF THE Middle Ages. — Music in England to the end of 
THE Thirteenth Century. 

During the middle ages Music was always ranked, as now, among the seven 
liberal arts, these forming the Trivium and Qiiadrivium, and studied by all 
those in Europe who aspked at reputation for learning. The Trivium com- 
prised Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic ; the Quadrivium comprehended Music, 

* Either part-singing, or the instrument called the symphony. 



12 MUSIC OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 

Arithmetic, Geometry, and Astronomy. Sharon Turner remarks, that these 
comprised not only all that the Romans knew, cultivated, or taught, but 
embodied " the whole encyclopiedia of ancient knowledge." If we may trust 
the following jargon hexameters, which he quotes as " defining the subjects 
they comprised," Music was treated as an art rather than as a science, and 
a practical knowledge of it was all that was required : — 

Gramm. loquitur ; Dia. vera docet ; Rhet. verba colorat 
3Ius. canit ; Ar. numerat; Geo. ponderat; Ast. colit astra. 

But the methods of teaching both the theory and the practice of music were so 
dark, difficult, and tedious, before its notation, measure, and harmonial laws were 
settled, that we cannot wonder when we hear of youth having spent nine or ten 
years in the study of scholastic music, and apparently to very little purpose. 

In the latter part of the fourth century (a.d. 374 to 397), Ambrose, bishop of 
Milan, introduced a model of Church melody, in which he chose four series 
or successions of notes, and called them simply the first, second, third, and fourth 
tones, laying aside, as inapplicable, the Greek names of Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, 
^olic, Ionic, &c. These successions distinguished themselves only by the posi- 
tion of the semitones in the degrees of the scale, and are said to be as follows : 

Ist tone, defgabcd 

2nd tone, — efgabode 

3rd tone, — f g a b c d e f 

4:th tone, gabcdefg 

These, Pope Gregory the Great (whose pontificate extended from 590 to 604) 
increased to eight. He retained the four above-mentioned of Ambrose, adding to 
them four others, which were produced by transposing those of Ambrose a fourth 
lower ; so that the principal note (or key-note, as it may be called) which for- 
merly appeared as the first in that scale, now appeared in the middle, or strictly 
speaking, as the fourth note of the succession, the four additional scales being 
called the plagal, to distinguish them from the four more ancient, which received 
the name of authentic. 

In this manner their order would of course be disarranged, and, instead of being 
the first, second, third, and fourth tones, they became the first, third, fifth, and 
seventh. 

The following are the eight ecclesiastical tones (or scales) which still exist as such 
in the music of the Romish church, and are called Gregorian, after their founder : 

1st tone Authentic, 

2d do. Plagal, 

3d do. Authentic, E'^f k a B'^^c d E 

4th do. Plagal, 

5th do. Authentic, 

6th do. Plagal, 

7th do. Authentic, Gab'^cDefG 

8th do. Plagal, 

It will be perceived at the first glance, that these Gregorian tones have only 





D 


e^f 


A b-^c 


D 


e""f 


— B~c 


d 


E~f 


C 


d 


e~F 




D 


e~f 



g 


A 


K^c 


D 


g 


A 






g 


a 


B'-^c 


d 


g 


a 


B 




g 


a 


b-C 


d 


g 


a 


b-^c 




G 


a 


b-c 


D 


G 


a 


b"c 


D 



GREGORIAN TONES. 13 

the intervals of the diatonic scale of 0, such as are the white keys of the pianoforte, 
■without any sharps or flats. The only allowable accidental note in the Canto 
fermo or plain song of the Romish church is B flat, the date of the introduction 
of which has not been correctly ascertained.'' No sharp occurs in genuine chants 
of high antiquity. In some modern books the flat is placed at the clef upon h, for 
the fifth and sixth modes, but the strict adherents to antiquity do not admit this 
innovation. These tones only difi"er from one another in the position of the half 
notes or semitones, as from h to c, and from e to/. In the four plagal modes, the 
final or key note remains the same as in the relative authentic ; thus, although in the 
sixth mode we have the notes of the scale of C, we have not in reality the key of 
C, for the fundamental or key note is/; and although the first and eighth tones 
contain exactly the same notes and in the same position, the fundamental note of 
the first is d, and of the eighth g. There is no other difference than that the 
melodies in the four authentic or principal modes are generally (and should 
strictly speaking be) confined within the compass of the eight notes above the key 
note, while the four plagal go down to a fourth below the key note, and only 
extend to a fifth above it. 

No scale or key of the eight ecclesiastical modes is to us complete. The first 
and second of these modes being regarded, according to the modern rules of 
modulation, as in the key of D minor, want a flat upon h ; the third and fourth 
modes having their termination in E, want a sharp upon/; the fifth and sixth 
modes being in F, want a flat upon h ; and the seventh and eighth, generally 
beginning and ending in G major, want an /sharp. 

The names of Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, &c., have been applied to 
them with equal impropriety (more particularly since Glareanus, who floiu'ished 
in the sixteenth century) ; they bear no more resemblance to the Greek scales than 
to the modern keys above cited. 

Pope Gregory made an important improvement by discarding the thoroughly 
groundless system of the tetrachord, adopted by the ancient Greeks,'' and by 
founding in its place that of the octave, the only one which nature indicates. And 
another improvement no less important, in connexion with his system of the 
octave, was the introduction of a most simple nomenclature of the seven sounds of 
the scale, by means of the first seven letters of the alphabet. Burney says that the 
Roman letters were first used as musical characters between the time of Boethius," 
who died in 526, and St. Gregory ; but Kiesewetter'^ attributes this improvement 
in notation entirely to Gregory, in whose time the scale consisted only of two 
octaves, the notes of the lower octave being expressed by capital letters, and the 

" It was probably derived from the tetrachords of the reference in the divisions of the monochord, not as 

Greek scale, which admitted both b flat and b natural, but musical notes or characters, 

which it is not necessary to discuss here. ^ " History of the Modern Music of Western Europe, 

^ In the old Greek notation there were 1620 tone charac- from the first century of the Christian era, to the present 

ters, with which Musicians were compelled to burthen day," &c., by K. G. Kiesewetter, translated by Robert 

their memories, and 990 marks actually different from Miiller, 8vo., 1848. It is a very clearly and concisely 

each other. written history, and contains in an appendix within the 

^ It appears from Burney, that Boethius used the first compass of a few pages, as much of the Greek music as 

fifteen letters of the alphabet, but only as marks of any modem can require to know. 



14 MUSIC OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 

higher by small letters. Eventually a third octave was added to the scale, four 
notes of which are attributed to Guido, and one to his pupils ; the two remaining 
notes still later. The highest octave was then expressed by double letters; as, aa, 
hh, &c. These three octaves in modern notes would constitute the following scale : 

A B D E F G a b c d e f g aa bb cc dd ee ff gg 



First octave. Second octave. Third octave. 

This is the alphabetical system of names for the notes which we, in England, 
still retain for every purpose but that of exercising the voice, for which solfaing 
on vowels is preferred. 

Gregory's alphabetical system of notation was, however, only partially adopted. 
Some wrote on lines varying from seven to fifteen in number, placing dots, like 
modern crotchet-heads, upon them, but making no use of the spaces. Others used 
spaces only, and instead of the dots wrote the words themselves in the spaces, dis- 
jointing each syllable to place it in the position the note should occupy. A third 
system was by points, accents, hooks, and strokes, wi'itten over the words, and they 
were intended to represent to the singer, by their position, the height of the note, 
and by their upward or downward tendency, the rising or falling of the voice. It 
was, however, scarcely possible for the witer to put do-wn a mark so correctly, 
that the singer could tell exactly which note to take. It might be one or two 
higher or lower. To remedy this, a red line was drawn over, and parallel to the 
words of the text, and the marks were written above and below it. A fm-ther 
improvement was the use of two lines, one red and the other yellow, the red for F, 
the yellow for 0, as it only left three notes (G, A, and B) to be inserted between 
them.^ 

Such was the notation before the time of Guido, a monk of Arezzo, in Tuscany, 
who flourished about 1020. He extended the number of lines by drawing one 
line under F, and another between F and C, and thus obtained four lines and 
spaces, a number, which in the Rituals of the Romish Church has never been 
exceeded. 

The clefs were originally the letters F and C, used as substitutes for those red 
and yellow lines. The Base clef still marks the position of F, and the Tenor 
clef of C, although the forms have been changed. 

Guido, in his Antiphonarium, gives the hymn Tit queant laxis'^ (from the 

» Specimens of this notation, with red and yellow lines, FAmuli tuorum : 

will he found in Martini's Storia delta Musica, vol. i. SOLve poUuti, 

p. 184; in Bumey's History, vol. ii. p. 37 ; in Hawkins's LAbii reatum, 

History, p. 947 (8vo. edition) ; and in Kiesewetter's Sancte Johannes. 

p. 280. Also of other systems mentioned above. gj y;^^ not the settled name for B until nearly the end 

t Hymn for St. John the Baptist's day, written by of the seventeenth century; and, although it was proposed 

Paul the Deacon, about 774. in 1547, Butler in his Principles of Musick, 1636, gives 

UT queant laxis the names of the notes as Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, pha. In 

REsonare fibris, 1673, Gio. Maria Bononcini, father of Handel's pseudo rival, 

Mlra gestorum used Do in place of Ut, but the French still retain Ut. 



SCALES, NOTATION, CLEFS, AND DESCANT. 15 

initial lines of wMch the names of the notes, Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, were taken), in 
old ecclesiastical notation, and in the Chronicle of Tours, under the year 1033, he 
is mentioned as the first who applied those names to the notes. He did not add 
the Greek gamma (our G) at the bottom of the scale," as was long supposed, 
for Odo, Abbot of Cluny, in Burgundy, had used it as the lowest note, in his 
Enchiridion, a century before. 

To Franco, of Cologne (who, by the testimony of Sigebert, his cotemporary, 
had acquired great reputation for his learning in 1047, and Uved at least till 1083, 
when he filled the office of Preceptor of the Cathedral of Liege), is to be ascribed 
the invention of characters for timey By this he conferred the most important 
benefit on music, for, till then, written melody was entirely subservient to syllabic 
laws, and music in parts must have consisted of simple counterpoint, such, says 
Bui-ney, as is still practised in our parochial psalmody, consisting of note against 
note, or sounds of equal length. 

The first ecclesiastical harmony was called Descant, and by the Italians, Mental 
Counterpoint (Contrappunto alia mente). It consisted of extemporaneous singing 
in foui-ths, fifths, and octaves, above and below the plain song of the Church ; and 
although in its original sense, it implied only singing in two parts, it had made 
considerable advances in the ninth century, towards the end of which we find 
specimens, still existing, of harmony in three and four parts. When Descant was 
reduced to wi'iting, it was called Counterpoint, from punctum contra punctum, 
point against point, or written notes placed one against the other. 

Hubald, Hucbald, or Hugbald, as he is variously named, and who died in 930, 
at nearly ninety years of age, has left us a treatise, called Musica Enchiriadis, 
which has been printed by the Abbe Gerbert, in his Scriptores Ecclesiastici. In 
chapters X. to XIV., De Symphoniis, he says: "There are three kinds of 
symphony (harmony) , in the fourth, fifth, and octave, and as the combination of 
some letters and syllables is more pleasing to the ear than others, so is it with 
sounds in music. All mixtures are not equally sweet." In the fifteenth chapter 
he uses a transient second and third, both major and minor ; and in the eighteenth 
he employs four thirds in succession. Burney says : " Hubald' s idea that one 
voice might wander at pleasure through the scale, while the other remains fixed, 
shows him to have been a man of genius and enlarged views, who, disregarding 
rules, could penetrate beyond the miserable practice of his time, into our Points 
d'Orgue, Pedale, and multifarious harmony upon a holding note, or single base, 
and suggests the principal, at least, of the boldest modern harmony." It is in 
this last sense of amplifying a point, that we still retain the verb to descant in 
common use. Guide describes the Descant existing in his time, as consisting of 



■^ To distinguish G on the lowest line of the Base from scale, for the raoiiochord, and placed notes upon lines and 

the G in the fifth space, the former was marked with the spaces ; after whom came Magister Franco, who invented 

Greek r, and hence the word garamut, applied to the the figures, or notes, of the Cantus mensurabilis (qui 

whole scale. invenit in cantu mensuram figurarum). Marchetto da 

*■ John de Muris, who flourished in 1330, in giving a list Padova, who wrote in 1274, calls Franco the inventor of the 

of anterior musicians, who had merited tlie title of four first musical characters: and Franchinus Gafl^urius 

inventors, names Guido, who construf ted the gammut, or twice quotes him as the author of the time-table. 



16 MUSIC OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 

fourths, fifths, and octaves under the plain-song or chant, and of octaves (either 
to the plain song or to this base) above it. He suggests what he terms a smoother 
and more pleasing method of under-singing a plain-song, in admitting, besides the 
fourth and the tone, the major and minor thirds ; rejecting the semitone and the 
fifth. " No advances or attempts at variety seem to have been made in counterpoint, 
from the time of Hubald, to that of Guido, a period of more than a hundred 
years ; for with all its faults and crudities, the counterpoint of Hubald is at least 
equal to the best combinations of Guido ;" but the monk, Engelbert, who wrote in 
the latter end of the thirteenth century, tells us that all " regular descant " con- 
sists of the union of fourths, fifths, and octaves, so that these uncouth and bar- 
barous hai-monies, in that regular succession which has been since prohibited, 
continued in the Church for four centuries. 

Before the use of lines, there were no characters or signs for more than two 
kinds of notes in the Church ; nor since ecclesiastical chants have been wiitten 
upon four lines and four spaces, have any but the square and lozenge characters, 
commonly called Gregorian notes, been used in Canto fermo : and, although the 
invention of the time-table extended the limits of ingenuity and contrivance to 
the utmost verge of imagination, and became all-important to secular music, 
the Church made no use whatever of this discovery. 

That melody received no great improvement from the monks, need excite 
no wonder, as change and addition were alike forbidden; but not to have 
improved harmony more than they did for many centuries after its use was 
allowed, is a matter of just surprise, especially since the cultivation of music 
was a necessary part of their profession. 

We have occasional glimpses of secular music through then* writings ; for 
instance, Guido, who gives a fair definition of harmony in the sense it is now 
understood (Armenia est diversarum vocum apta coadunatio), says that he 
merely writes for the Church, where the pure Diatonic genus was first used, but 
he was aware of the deficiency as regards other music. " Sunt prceterea et alia 
musicorum genera aliis mensuris aptata." Franco (about 1050) just mentions 
Discantum in Cantilenis Rondellis— " Descant to Rounds or Roundelays," — but 
no more. 

When Franco writes in four parts, he sometimes gives five lines to each part, 
the five lowest for the Tenor or plain song, the next five for the Medius, five for 
the Triplum Discantus, and the highest for the Quadruplum. Each has a clef 
allotted to it. Although many changes in the form of musical notes have been 
made since his time, the lines and spaces have remained without augmentation or 
diminution, four for the plain song of the Romish Church, and five for secular 
music. 

He devotes one chapter to characters for measuring silence, and therein gives 
examples of rests for Longs, Breves, Semibreves, and final pauses. He also 
suggests dots, or points of augmentation. Bars are placed in the musical examples, 
as pauses for the singers to take breath at the end of a sentence, verse, or phrase 
of melody. And this is the only use made of bars in Canto fei'mo. 



ANGLO-SAXON MUSIC. 17 

Turning to England, Milton tells us, from tlie Saxon annals, that in 668, 
Pope Vitalian sent singei-s into Kent, and in 680, according to the Venerable 
Bede," Pope Agatho sent John, the Praecentor of St. Peter's at Rome, to 
instruct the monks of Weremouth in the manner of performing the ritual, and he 
opened schools for teaching music in other parts of the kingdom of Northumber- 
land. Bede was also an able musician, and is the reputed author of a short 
musical tract in two parts, de Musica theorica, and de Musica pradica, seu men- 
surata ; but Burney says, although the first may have been written by him, the 
second is manifestly the work of a much more modern author, and he considers it 
to have been produced about the twelfth century, i. e., between the time of Guido 
and the English John de Muris. There must always be a difficulty in identifying 
the works of an author who lived at so remote a period, without the aid of 
contemporary authority, or of allusions to them of an approximate date; and when 
he has written largely, such difficulties must be proportionably increased. But, 
rejecting both the treatises on music, if he be the author of the Commentary on 
the Psalms, which is included in the collected editions of his works of 1563 
and 1688, sufficient evidence will remain to prove, not only his knowledge of 
music, but of all that constituted the " regular" descant of the church from the 
ninth to the thu'teenth century. I select one passage from his Commentary on 
the 52nd Psalm. " As a skilful harper in drawing up the cords of his instrument, 
tunes them to such pitches, that the higher may agree in harmony with the lower, 
some differing by a semitone, a tone, or two tones, others yielding the consonance 
of the fourth, fifth, or octave ; so the omnipotent God, holding all men predestined 
to the harmony of heavenly life in His hand like a well-strung harp, raises some 
to the high pitch of a contemplative life, and lowers others to the gravity of active 
life." And he thus continues : — " Giving the consonance of the octave, which 
consists of eight strings ;" . . . . " the consonance of the fifth, consisting of five 
strings ; of the fourth, consisting of four strings, and then of the smaller vocal 
intervals, consisting of two tones, one tone, or a semitone, and of there being 
semitones in the high as well as the low strings."^ Our great king, Alfred, 
according to Sir John Spelman, " provided himself of musitians, not common, or 
such as knew but the practick part, but men skilful in the art itself;" and in 866, 
according to the annals of the Chui-ch of Winchester, and the testimony of many 

» As a proof of the veneration in which Bede was held, harmoniam prEedestinatos in manu sua, quasi citharam 

and the absurd legends relating to him, I quote from quandam, chordis convenientibus ordinatani, habens, 

a song of the fifteenth century; — quosdam quidem ad acutum contemplativae vitae sonum 

'■ When Bede had prechd to the stonys dry intendit, alios verb ad activaj vita: gravitatem temperando 

The my[gh]t of God made [t]hem to cry remittit."-" ut ad alios comparati quasi diapason con- 

Amen :-certys this no ly[e] ! " sonantiam, qua octo chordis constat, reddant Suos 

autem ad diapente 'consonantiam, quinque chordis con- 

Songs and Carols. Percy Soc. No. 73, p. 31. . . .... .,,. ^ . . ,,. ., „ - ,.„.,..„ ,.„„ 

^ -^ ^ stantem, eligit, illi possunt intelhgere qui tantae jam per- 

t " Sicut peritus citharseda chordas plures tendons in fectionis sunt Diatesseron quatuor chordis constans, 

cithara, temperat eas acumine et gravitate tali, ut .... Per minora vero vocum intervalla quEe duos tones 

superiores inferioribus conveniant in melodia, quBedam aut unum, vel semitonium sonant .... Sed quia tani in 

semitonii, quajdam unius toni, qusedamduorumtonorum altisonis quam in grandisonis chordis habetur serai- 

differentiam gerentes, aliae vero diatesseron, aliae autem touium," &c.—Beda: Preshytcri Opera, vol. 8, p. 1070, fol. 

diapente, vel etiam diapason consonantiam reddentes : ita Busilca;, 1563, OE Colonice Agrippina:^ vol. 8, p. 908, 

et Dens omnipotens omnes homines ad coslestis vitje fol. 1688, 



18 MUSIC IN ENGLAND, TIME OF HENKY II. 

ancient writers, he founded a Professorship at Oxford,* for the cultivation of music 
as a science. The first who filled the chair was Friar John, of St. David's, who 
read not only lectures on Music, but also on Logic and Arithmetic. Academical 
honors in the faculty of music have only been traced back to the year 1463, when 
Henry Habington was admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Music, at Cambridge, 
and Thomas Saintwix, Doctor of Music, was made Master of King's College, in 
the same university ; but it is remarkable that music was the only one of the 
seven sciences that conferred degrees upon its students, and England the only 
country in which those degrees were, and are still conferred. 

About 1159, when Thomas a Becket conducted the negociations for the 
marriage of Henry the Second's eldest son with the daughter of Louis VH., and 
went to Paris, as chancellor of the English Monarch, he entered the French towns, 
his retinue beuig displayed with the most solicitous ostentation, "preceded by two 
hundred and fifty boys on foot, in groups of sis, ten, or more together, singing 
English songs, accordmg to the custom of their country." " This singing in groups 
resembled the " turba canentium," of which Giraldus afterwards speaks ; and the 
following passage from John of Salisbury, about 1170, shows at least the delight 
the people had in listening to part-singing, or descant. " The rites of religion 
are now profaned by music ; and it seems as if no other use were made of it than 
to corrupt the mind by wanton modulations, effeminate inflexions, and frittered 
notes and periods, even in the Penetralia, or sanctuary, itself. The senseless 
crowd, delighted with all these vagaries, imagine they hear a concert of su-ens, 
in which the performers strive to imitate the notes of nightingales and parrots, 
not those of men, sometimes descending to the bottom of the scale, sometimes 
mounting to the summit ; now softening, and now enforcing the tones, repeating 
passages, mixing in such a manner the grave sounds with the more grave, and 
the acute with the most acute, that the astonished and bewildered ear is unable 
to distinguish one voice from another." "= It was probably this abuse of descant 
that excited John's opposition to music, and his censures on the minstrels, as 
shown in the passage before quoted. It proves also, that descant in England did 
not then consist merely of singing in two parts, but included the licenses and 
ornaments of florid song. Even singing in canon seems to be comprised in the 
words, " pi'secinentium et succinentium, canentium et decinentium." 

About 1185, Gerald Barry, or Giraldus Cambrensis, archdeacon, and after- 

^ The earliest express mention of the University of spectum Domini, in ipsis penetralibus sanctuarii, las- 
Oxford, after the foundation of the schools there by civientis vocis luxu, quadam ostentatione sui, mulie- 
Alfred, is from the historian Ingulphus, whose youtii bribusmodisnotularumarticuloriimque CEesuris,stupentes 
coincided with the early part of the reign of Edward the animulas emollire nituutur. Cum pra?cinentium, et suc- 
Confessor. He tells us that, having been born in the City cinentium, canentium, et decinentium, intercinentium, 
of London, he was first sent to school at Westminster, et occinentium, praamolles modulationes audieris, Siren- 
and that from Westminster he proceeded to Oxford, arum concentus credas esse, non hominum et de vocuni 
where he studied the Aristotelian Philosophy, and the facilitate miraberis, quibus philomela vel psittacus, aut 
rhetoriticai writings of Cicero. si quid sonorius est, modes suos nequeunt coa^quare. Ea 

''"In ingressu Gallicanarura villarura et castrorum, siquidem est, ascendendi descendendique faeilitas; ea 

primi veniebant garciones pedites quasi ducenti quin- sectio vel geminatio notularum, ea replicatio articulorum, 

quaginta, gregatim euntes sex vel deni, vel plures simul, singulorumque consolidatio ; sic acuta vel acutissima, 

aliquid lingua sua pro more patriee suae cantantes." — gravibus et subgravibus temperantur, Ut auribus sui 

Stephattides, Vita S. Tttomcs Cantuar, pp. 20, 21. indicii fere subtrahetur autoritas. — Poticraticus, sive de 

• Musica cultum religionis innestat, quod ante con- Nugis Curialium, lib. i., c. G. 



GIEALDUS CAMBBENSIS' ACCOUNT. 19 

■wards bishop, of St. David's, gave the following description of the peculiar man- 
ner of singing of the Welsh, and the inhabitants of the North of England : " The 
Britons do not sing their tunes in unison, like the inhabitants of other countries, 
but in different parts. So that when a company of singers meets to sing, as is 
usual in this country, as many different parts are heard as there are singers, who 
all finally unite in consonance and organic melody, under the softness of B fiat.^ 
In the Northern parts of Britain, beyond the Humber, and on the borders of 
Yorkshire, the inhabitants make use of a similar kind of symphonious harmony 
in singing, but with only two differences or varieties of tone and voice, the one 
murmuring the under part, the other singing the upper in a manner equally soft 
and pleasing. This they do, not so much by art, as by a habit peculiar to them- 
selves, which long practice has rendered almost natm-al, and this method of singing 
has taken such deep root among this people, that hardly any melody is accustomed 
to be uttered simply, or otherwise than in many parts by the former, and in two 
parts by the latter. And what is more astonishing, their children, as soon as they 
begin to sing, adopt the same manner. But as not all the English, but only those 
of the North sing in this manner, I believe they had this art at first, like their 
language, from the Danes and Norwegians, who were more frequently accustomed 
to occupy, as well as longer to retain, possession of those parts of the island.'"' 
Now, allowing a little for the hyperbolic style so common with writers of that age, 
this may fairly be taken as evidence that part-singing was common in Wales, or 
that at least they made descant to their tunes, in the same way that singers did 
to the plain-song or Canto fermo of the Church at the same period ; also that 
singing in two parts was common in the North of England, and that children tried 
to imitate it. Burney and Hawkins think that what Giraldus says of the singing 
of the people of Northumberland, in two parts, is reconcileable to probability, 
because of the schools established there in the time of Bede, but Burney doubts 
his account of the Welsh singing in many parts, and makes this " turba 
canentium" to be of the common people, adding, " we can have no exalted idea 
of the harmony of an untaught crowd." These, however, are his own inferences ; 
Giraldus does not say that the singers were untaught, or that they were of 
the common people. As he is describing what was the custom in his own time, 

°- "Uniting under the softness of B flat," is not very una inferius sub murmurante altera ver6 supem6 deraul- 

intelligible, but one thing may be inferred from it, that cente pariter et delectante. Nee arte tantum sed* usu 

they sang in the natural scale, such as the fifth mode longaevo et quasi in naturam mora diutina jam converse, 

became by the use of B flat in the scale of F, and not iii heec vel ilia sibi gens hanc specialitatera comparavit. 

the modes that were peculiar to the church. B flat was Qui ade6 apud utramque invaluit et aUas jam radices 

only used in the fifth mode and its plagal. posuit, ut nihil hie simpliciter, ubi multipliciter ut apud 

^ In musico modulamine non uniformiter ut alibi, priores, vel saltem dupliciter ut apud sequentes, mellit6 

sed multipliciter multisque modis et modulis cantilenas proferri consuaverit. Pueris etiam (qu6d magis admi- 

emittunt, adeS ut in turba canentium, sicut huic genti randum) et fer6 infantibus, (cum primum ii fletibus in 

mos est, quot videas capita tot audias carmina dis- cantus erumpunt) eandem modulationem observantibus. 

criminique vocum varia, in unam denique sub B mollis Angli ver5 quoniam non generaliter omnes sed boreales 

dulcedineblanda consonantiam et organicam convenientia soliim hujusmodi vocum utuntur modulationibus, credo 

melodiara. In borealibus quoque majoris Britannise par- quod a Dacis et Norwagiensibus qui partes illas insula 

tibus trans Humbrum, Eboracique finlbus Anglorum frequentiiis oocupai-e ac diutiils obtinere solebant, sicut 

populi qui partes illas inhabitant simili canendo sym- loquendi affinitatem, sic canendi proprietutem contrax- 

phonica utuntur harmonia : binis tamen solummodo erunt. — Cambrice DescnptiOy cap. xiii. 
tonorura differentiis et vocum modulando varietatibus. 



20 HARPERS NOT TAUGHT BY MONKS. 

not what had taken place a centufy before, there seems no sufficient ground 
for disbelieving his statement,'' and least of all, should they who are of the opinion 
that all musical knowledge was derived from the monasteries, call it in question, 
since, as already shown, part music had then existed in the Church, in the form 
of descant, for three centuries. 

" If, however," says Burney, " incredulity could be vanquished with respect to 
the account which Giraldus Oambrensis gives of the state of music in Wales 
during the twelfth century, it would be a Welsh MS. in the possession of Richard 
Morris, Esq., of the Tower, which contains pieces for the harp, that are in full 
harmony or counterpoint ; they are written in a peculiar notation, and supposed 
to be as old as the year 1100 ; at least, such is the known antiquity of many of 
the songs mentioned in the collection," &c. It is not necessary here to enter 
into the defence of Welsh music, but the specimens Dr. Burney has printed from 
that manuscript, which he describes as in full harmony and counterpoint, are 
really nothing more than the few simple chords which must fall naturally under 
the hand of any one holding the instrument, and such as would form a child's 
first lessons. First the chord, G C E, and then that of B D F, form the entire 
bass of the only two lessons he has translated; and though from B to F is 
a " false fifth," it must be shown that the harper derived his knowledge of 
the instrument from the Church, before the assertion that it is more modern 
harmony than then in use can have any weight. In England, at least, not 
only the evidence of Giraldus, but all other that I can find, is against such a 
supposition. I have before alluded to the Romance of Horn-Child, (note c, to 
page 9), and here give the passage, to prove that such knowledge was not 
derived from the Church, as well as to show what formed a necessary part of 
education for a knight or warrior. It is from that part of the story where 
Prince Horn appears at the court of the King of Westnesse. 

Original Words. Words MoDEEiij^ED. 

" The kyng com in to halle, The king came into [the] hall 

Among his knyhtes alia, Among his knights all, 

Forth he clepeth Athelbrus, Forth he calleth Athelbrus, 

His stiward, and him seide thus : His steward, and [to] him said thus 

' Stiward, tac thou here " Steward, take thou here 

My fundling, for to lere My foundling, for to teach 

Of thine mestere Of thy mystery 

Of wode and of ryuere, Of wood and of river. 

Ant toggen o the harpe And to play on the harp 

With is nayles sliarpe. With his nails sharp. 

Ant tech him alle the listes And teach him all thou listest, 

That thou euer wystest. That thou ever knewest, 

Byfore me to keruen. Before me to carve 

And of my coupe to seruen : And my cup to serve : 

■^ Dr. Percy says, "The credit of Giraldus, which hath work, 'Antiquities of Ireland,' by Edward Ledwich, 
been attacked by some partial and bigoted antiquaries, LL.D. Dublin, 1790, 4to., p. 207. et seq." 
the reader will find defended in that learned and curious 



CHARACTER OF TUNES OFTEN DERIVED FROM INSTRUMENTS. 21 

Ant his feren deuyse And devise for his fellows- 

With ous other seruise ; With us other service ; 

Horn-Child, thou vnderstond Horn-Child, thou understand 

Tech Mm of harpe and of song.' " Teach him of harp and of song." 

In another part of the poem he is introduced playing on his harp. 

Horn sette him ahenche, Horn seated himself on a bench, 

Is harpe he gan clenche His harp he began to clench ; 

He made Rymenild a lay He made Rymenild a lay 

Ant hue seide weylaway, &c.° And he said wellaway ! &e. 

In searching into the early history of the music of any country, the first 
subject of inquiry should be the nature and character, as well as the peculiarities 
of scale, of the musical instruments they possessed. If the musical instruments 
in general use had an imperfect scale, the national music would generally, if not 
universally, have retained the peculiarities of that scale. Hence the characteristics 
of Scottish music, and of some of the tunes of the North of England, which re- 
semble it. In the following collection many can be pointed out as bagpipe tunes, 
such as " T^Tio liveth so merry in all this land, as doth the poor widow that selleth 
the sand," and " By the border's side as I did pass," both of which seem to 
require the accompaniment of the drone, while others, like "Mall (or Moll) 
Sims," strictly retain the character of harp music. Where, however, the harp 
was in general use, the scale would be more perfect than if some other instru- 
ments were employed, and hence the melodies would exhibit fewer peculiarities, 
unless, indeed, the harp was tuned to some particular scale, which, judging by 
the passage above quoted from Bede, does not seem to have been the case in 
England. 

About 1250 we have the song, Sumer is icumen in, the earliest secular com- 
position, in parts, known to exist in any country. Sir John Hawkins supposed that 
it could not be earlier than the fifteenth century, because John of Dunstable, to 
whom the invention of figm'ative music has been attributed, died in 1455. But 
Dr. Birmey remarks that Dunstable could not have been the inventor of that art, 
concerning which several treatises were written before John was born, and shows 
that mistake to have originated in a passage from Proportionales Musices, by John 
Tmctor, a native of Flanders, and the " most ancient composer and theorist of 
that country, whose name is upon record." It is as follows : " Of which new art, 
as I may call it (counterpoint) , the fountain and source is said to have been among 
the English, of whom Dunstable was the chief." ^ "Caput," literally meaning 
" head," had been understood in its secondary sense of " originator or beginner." 

Dr. Burney's opinion with respect to the age of this canon seems to have been 
very unsettled (if indeed he can be said to have formed one at all). He first 
presents it as a specimen of the harmony in our country, " about the fourteenth 

■* Warton's History of English Poetry, vol. i., p. 38, fuisse perhibetur." From Proportionale Musices, dedi- 

8vo., 1840. Gated to Ferdinand, king of Sicily, Jerusalem, and 

'■ "Cujus, ut ita dicam, novEeartis (Contrapunctis), fons Hungary (who reigned from 1458 to 1494), by John 

et origo apud Anglos, quorum caput Dunstaple extitit, Tirictor, Chaplain and Maestro di Capella to that Prince. 



22 MANUSCRIPTS — THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 

and fifteenth century." On the same page he tells us that the notes of the 
MS. resemble those of Walter Oclington's Treatise" (1230), and seem to be of the 
•thirteenth or fourteenth century, and he can hardly imagine the canon much 
more modern. Then he is " sometimes mclined to imagine" it to have been 
the production of the Northumbrians, (who, according to Giraldus Cambrensis, 
used a kind of natural symphonious harmony,) but with additional parts, and a 
second drone-base of later times. By " additional parts" I suppose Burney 
to mean adding to the length of the tune, and so continuing the canon. Next 
in reviewing " the most ancient musical tract that has been preserved in our 
vernacular tongue" (by Lyonel Power), he says, this rule (a prohibition of 
taking fifths and octaves in succession) seems to have been so much unknown 
or disregarded by the composer of the canon, " Sumer is icxmaen in," as to 
excite a suspicion that it is " much more ancient than has been imagined." 
And finally, " It has been already shown that counterpoint, in the Chm-ch, 
began by adding parts to plain chant ; and in secular music, by harmonizing 
old tunes, as florid melody did by variations on these tunes. It was long 
before men had the courage to invent new melodies. It is a matter of sur- 
prise that so little plain counterpoint is to be found, and of this little, none 
correct, previous to attempts at imitation, fugue, and canon ; contrivances to which 
there was a very early tendency, in all probability, during times of extemporary 
descant, before there was any such thing as written harmony : for we find in the 
most ancient music in parts that has come down to us, that fugue and canon had 
made considerable progress at the time it was composed. The song, or round, 
' Sumer is icumen in,' is a very early proof of the cultivation of this art." He 
then proceeds to show how, according to Martini, from the constant habit of 
descanting in successive intervals, new melodies would be formed in harmony with 
the original, and whence imitations would naturally arise. 

Ritson, who knew more of the age of manuscripts than of musical history, is 
of opinion that Burney and Hawkins were restrained by fear from giving their 
opinion of its date, and says it may be referred to as early a period (at least) as 
the year 1250. Sir Frederick Madden,'' in a note to the last edition of Warton's 
English Poetry, says : " Ritson justly exclaims against the ignorance of those who 
refer the song to the fifteenth centmy, when the MS. itself is certainly of the 
middle of the thirteenth." Mr. T. Wright, who has devoted his attention 
almost exclusively to editing Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon, and early English 
manuscripts, says : " The latter part of this manuscript, contaming, among others, 
the long political song printed in my Pol. Songs, p. 72, was certainly written 
diu-ing the interval between the battle of Lewes, in May, 1264, and that of 
Evesham, in the year following, and most probably immediately after the first- 
mentioned event. The earlier part of the MS., which contains the music, was 
evidently wTitten at an earlier period — perhaps by twenty or thii-ty years — and 

•^ The best summary of the state of music in England, complete of all the early treatises, -whether written here 

about 1230, is contained in Walter Odington's Treatise, or abroad. 

wiiich is fully described in Burney's Mistory of Music, ^ Keeper of the Manuscripts in the British Museum, 
vol. ii., p. 155, et seq. Burney considers it the most 



SUMER IS ICUMEN IN. 23 

the song with its music must therefore be given to the first half of the thir- 
teenth century, at latest." I have thus entered into detail concerning this song 
(though all the judges of manuscripts, whom I have been enabled to consult, are 
of the same opmion as to its antiquity), because it is not only one of the first 
English songs with or without music, but the first example of counterpoint in six 
parts, as well as of fugue, catch, and canon ; and at least a centui-y, if not two 
hundi'ed years, eai-lier than any composition of the kind produced out of 
England." 

The antiquity of the words has not been denied, the progress of our language 
having been much more studied than our music, but the manuscript deserves much 
more attention from musicians than it has yet received.'' It is not in Gregorian 
notation, which might have been a bar to all improvement, but very much resem- 
bles that of Walter Odington, in 1230. All the notes are black. It has neither 
marks for time, the red note, nor the white open note, all of which were in use in 
the following century. 

The chief merit of this song is the airy and pastoi'al correspondence between 
the words and music, and I believe its superiority to be owing to its having been 
a national song and tune, selected, according to the custom of the time, as a basis 
for harmony, and that it is not entu'ely a scholastic composition. The fact of its 
having a natural di'one bass would tend rather to confirm this view than otherwise. 
The bagpipe, the true parent of the organ, was then in use as a rustic instrument 
throughout Em-ope. The rote, too, which was in somewhat better estimation, had 
a di'one, like the modern hurdy-gm-dy, from the tuniing of its wheel. When the 
canon is sung, the key note may be sustained througJwitt, and it will be in accord- 
ance with the rules of modern harmony. But the foot, or bm'den, as it stands 
in the ancient copy, will produce a very indifierent efiect on a modern ear,'' from its 
constantly making fifths and octaves with the voices, although such progressions 
were not forbidden by the laws of music in that age. No subject would be more 
natural for a pastoral song than the approach of Summer ; and, curiously enough, 
the late Mr. Bunting noted down an Irish song from tradition, the title of 
which he translated " Summer is coming," and the tune begins in the same way. 
That is the air to which Moore adapted the words, " Rich and rare were the gems 
she wore." Havmg given a fac-simile of " Sumer is icumen in," taken from the 

" The earliest specimen of secular part-music that has back of page B, and just after it is an Antiphon in praise 

yet been discovered on the Continent, is an old French of Thomas a Becket. At page 12 we have the musical 

song, for three voices, the supposed production of a singer scale in letters, exactly corresponding with the scale of 

and poet, by name Adam de la Hale, called Le Boiteux Guido, with the ut, re, mi, fa, &c., but only extending to 

d' Arras, who was in the service of the Comte de Provence. two octaves and four notes, without even the "e e," said 

The discovery has been recently made and communicated to have been added by his pupils. At the back of that 

by M. FHis, in his Revue Musicale. " It may be placed page is an explanation of the intervals set to music, to 

about the year 1280, if a, dilettante of the discantus of t!ie impress them on the memory by singing, and examples of 

following age has not experimentalised on the melody left the ligatures used in the notation of the manuscript. At 

by De la Hale, as on a tenor or Canto fermo; since the page S is a hymn, "Ave gloriosa mater Salvatoris," with 

other songs, in similar notation, are not in counterpoint ; Latin and Norman French words, in score in three parts, 

and the manuscript may be assigned to the fourieeiith on fifteen red lines undivided, and with three clefs for the 

century." It is given in Kiesewetter's History of Music. voices. The remainder of the musical portion of the 

''The Musical Notation in this MS. ( Harl. 978) is manuscript consists of hymns, &c., in one or two parts, 
throughout the same. Only two forms of note are used "^ We ought, perhaps, to except the lover of Scotch 

with occasional ligatures. " Sumeris icumen in" is on the Reels. 



24 



SUMER IS ICUMEN IN. 



manuscript, and as it may be seen in score in Burney and Hawkins' Histories, 
the tune is here printed, harmonized by Mr. Macfarren, as the first of National 
English Airs. A few obsolete words have been changed, but the original are 
giyen below. 

SUMER IS ICUMEN IN. About 1250. 

Rather slow, and smoothly. 



-r^-^^-h 



s 



r g f c r cctrf .f ■■ 



Summer is a coming in, Loud-ly sing Cuc-koo ; 



Groweth seed, and 



m^ 



E^ 



T 



Drone Bass. 



T 



T 



^M 



J.J ,j 



k±±^i ^^ ; 






-r=^Trj 



. . . . rr 

Sing Cue - koo ! Ewe bleat-etli af-ter lamb, Low' 



bloweth mead and springeth wood a - new. 



'th 



-^— 



^^ ^ — j- 



=T 



T 



T 



^^3^ 



r. i ; ,J / j ^ 



^ 






af- ter calf the cow 

1 . ,J-.^^ 



Bullock start-etli, Buck to fern go'th, Mer-ry sing Cue 



Aj ■ J ■ i^U^ 



Ei 



^ 



T 



T 



m 



m 



^ 



^^m 



irr~t~T 



-koo ! Cuckoo! Cuc-koo! Well singst thou. Cue - koo ! Nor cease thou e - ver now. 



i.i. ^-^ :^ i-e^^ J^ 



J ^ 



I 



i ^i AJ 



± 



Oeiginal Words. 
Sumer is icumen^ in, 
Lhude"" sing Cuccu, 
Groweth sed, and bloweth med 
And springth the wde nu 
Sing Cuccu ! 



Words Modernized. 
Summer is come in, 

Loud sing Cuckoo ! 
Groweth seed, and bloweth mead 
And spring'th the wood now 
Sing Cuckoo. 



^"icumen*' come (from the Saxon verb, cuman, 
come); 50 in Robert of Gloucester, z'paied for paid. 



to ^ Lhude, wde, a"we, and calve, are all to be pronounced as 

of two syllables. 



SONGS WITH MUSIC — THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 25 

Awe bleteth after lomb Ewe Heateth after lamb, 

Lliouth after calve cu ; Lowetli after calf [the] cow. 

Bulluc stertetli, bucke vertetb Bullock startetb," buck vertetb'' 

Murie sing Cuccu, Merry sing, Cuckoo ; 

Cuccu, Cuccu. Cuckoo, Cuckoo ! 

Wei singes thu Cuccu • Well sing'st tbou Cuckoo 

Ne swik thu naver nu. Nor cease thou never now. 

In the original, the " Foot," or Burden, is sung, as an under part by two 
voices, to the words, " Sing Cuccu, nu, sing Cuccu," making a rude base to it. 

Two other songs of the thirteenth century on the approach of Summer are 
printed in Reliquiae Antiquse (8vo. Lond. 1841), but without music. The first 
is taken from MSS. Egertou, No. 613, Brit. Mus., and begins thus : — 

" Somer is comen, and winter is gon, this day beginniz to longe [lengthen], 
And this foules everichon [birds every one] joy [t]hem wit[h] songe." 

The other from MSS. Digby, No. 86, Oxford, of the Thrush and the Nightingale : 

" Somer is comen with love to toune 
With blostme [blossom], and with brides roune [birds' songs] 
The note [nut] of hasel springeth," &o. 

In the Douce Collection (Bod. Lib., Ox., MS. No. 139), there is an English 
song with music, beginning — 

" Foweles in the frith, the fisses in the flod." 

and the MS., which contains it, is of the thirteenth century, but it is only in 
two parts; and in Harl. MSS. No. 1717, is a French or Anglo-Norman song, 
" Parti de Mai," which seems to have been cut from an older manuscript to form 
the cover of a Chronicle of the Dukes of Normandy, written by order of Henry 11. 
It is only for one voice, and a sort of hymn, but a tolerable melody. Both these 
may be seen in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua, Vol. 1. 

■ Another very early English song, with music, is contained in a manuscript, 
" Liber de Antiquis Legibus," now in the Record Room, Town Clerk's Ofiice, 
Guildhall. It contains a Chronicle of Mayors and Sheriffs of London, and of the 
events that occurred in their times, from the year 1188 to the month of August, 
1274, at which time the manuscript seems to have been completed. It is the 
Song of a Prisoner. The first four lines are more Saxon than modern English : — 

Original Woeds. Words Modernized.' 

Ar ne kuthe ich sorghe non Ere [this] knew I sorrow none 

Nu ich mot manen min mon Now I must utter my moan 

Karful wel sore ich syche Full of care well sore I sigh 

Geltles ilic sholye muchele schame Guiltless I suffer much shame 

Help, God, for thin swete name Help, God, for thy sweet name, 
Kyng of Hevene riche. King of Heaven-Kingdom. 

•» Jumps. ^ Frequents the green fern. 



26 NATIONAL SONGS NOT ON CHURCH SCALES. 

In the Arundel Collection (No. 292), there is a song in " a handwriting of 
the time of Edward II.," beginning — 

" Uncomly in cloystre I coure [cower] fill of care," 
which is on the comparative difiiculties of learning secular and church music, 
but, except in the line, " Thou bite§t asunder bequarre for bemol " (B natural 
for B flat), there is no reference to the practice of music. 

Secular music must have made considerable progress before the end of the 
thirteenth centui-y, for even Franco had spoken of a sort of composition called 
" Conductus," in which, instead of merely addmg parts to a plain song, the stu- 
dent was first to compose as pretty a tune as he could, and the:i to make descant 
upon it;'' and he further says, that in every other case, some melody already made 
is chosen, which is called the tenor, and governs the descant originating from il : 
but it is different in the Conductus, where the cantus (or melody) and the descant 
(or harmony) are both to be produced. This was evidently applied to secular 
composition, since, about 1250, Odo, Archbishop of Rheims, speaks of Conduct! et 
Motuli as " jocose and sciutHous songs." 

Accidental sharps, discords and their resolutions, and even chromatic counter- 
point, are treated on by Marchetto of Padua (in his Pomerium Ai'tis Musicae 
Mensiu'abilis) in 1274, and the Dominican Monk, Peter Herp, mentions in 
Chronicle of Frankfort, under the year 1300, that new singers, composers, and 
harmonists had arisen, who used other scales or modes than those of the Church.'' 
Pope John XXII. (in his decree given at Avignon in 1322) reproves those who, 
" attending to the neiv notes and new measures of the disciples of the neio school, 
would rather have their ears tickled with semibreves and minims, and such frivolous 
inventions, than hear the ancient ecclesiastical chant." White minims, with tails, 
to distinguish them from semibreves, seem first to have been used by John de 
Muris, about 1330, retaining the lozenge-shaped head to the note. He also used 
signs to distinguish triple from common time. These points should be borne in 
mind in judging of the age of manuscripts. 

It will be observed that " Sumer is icumen in" is not within the compass of 
any Church scale. It extends over the octave of F, and ends by descending to the 
seventh below the key note for the close, which, indeed, is one of the most common 
and characteristic terminations of English airs. The dance tune which follows 
next in order has the same termination, and extends over a still greater compass 
of notes. I shall therefore quit the subject of Church scales, relying on the 
practical refutation which a further examination of the tunes will afford. Buniey 
has remarked that at any given period secular music has always been at least a 
century in advance of Church music. And notwithstanding the improvements 
in musical notation made by monks, the Church still adhered to her imperfect 
system, as well as to bad harmony, for centuries after better had become general. 

* *' In Conductis aliter est operandum, quia qui vult qui inceperunt alios modos assuere." Wlien music de- 

faeere Couductum, primum cantum invenire deliet pul- viated from tlie Church scales, it was called by tlic old 

chriorem quam potest, deinde uti debet illo, ut de tenore, -writers generally, Musica faUii, and by Franchiiuis, 

facieudo discantum." Musica JicLa, sen colorala, from the cliromatic semitones 

b " Novicantores surrexere, et componist2c, et figuristae, used in it. 



CHURCH MUSIC ALWAYS IN ARREAE. 



27 



Even in the sixteentli century, modulation being still confined to the ecclesiastical 
modes, precluded the use of the most agreeable keys in music. Zarlino, who 
approved of the four modes added by Glareanus, speaks of himself, and a few 
others, having composed in the eleventh mode, or key of C natural (which was not 
one of the original eight) , to which they were led hj the vulgar musicians of the 
streets and villages, who generally accompanied rustic dances with tunes in this 
key, and which was then called, II moclo lascivo — The wanton key. I suppose it 
acquired this name, because, like the " sweet Lydian measure" of old, the in- 
terval from the seventh to the octave is only a semitone. 



DANCE TUNE. 



About 1300. 




j j'j J- , J -^s 



.):, n r 



Pf^^Hr^ i ^ - J ^EP=^ 



s 



^pj]g I J ? J^jffi ffn^tg^Ljjj jjj I !P 



rf. 



t^ \ iri-M> 



» .% : \ i : £ 



'^^ 



^ 



^^^^^^^^^ 



^ 



m 



0^ 



•5 — J ■ y ■— " J tl 




The above dance tune is taken from the Musica Antiqua by John Stafford 
Smith. He transcribed it from a manuscript then in the possession of Francis 
Douce, Esq. (who bequeathed the whole of his manuscripts to the Bodleian 
Library), and calls it, " a dance tune of the reign of Edward II., or earlier." 
The notation of the MS. is the same as in that which contams >S't«Her w icimen in, 



28 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY RESUMED. 

and I do not think it can be dated later than 1300. Dr. Crotch remarks : — 
" The abundance of appoggiaturas in so ancient a melody, and the number of bars 
in the phrases, four in one and five in another — nine in each part, are its most 
striking peculiarities. It is formed on an excellent design, similar to that of 
several fine airs of different nations. It consists of three parts, resembling each 
other excepting in the commencement of their phrases, in which they tower above 
each other with increasing energy, and is altogether a cm-ious and very favorable 
specimen of the state of music at this very early period." 

The omission of the eighth bar in each phrase would make it strictly in modern 
rhythm. 



CHAPTER in. 

English Minstrelsy from 1270 to 1480, and the gradual extinction 

OF THE old Minstrel. 

Edward the First, according to the Chronicle of Walter Hemmingford, about the 
year 1271, a short time before he ascended the throne, took his harper with him 
to the Holy Land, who must have been a close and constant attendant on his 
master, for when Edward was wounded at Ptolemais, the hai-per (Citharseda 
suus), hearing the struggle, rushed into the royal apartment, and, striking the 
assassin on the head with a tripod or trestle, beat out his brains. 

" That Edward ordered a massacre of the Welsh bards," says Sharon Turner, 
" seems rather a vindictive tradition of an irritated nation than an historical fact. 
The destruction of the independent sovereignties of Wales abolished the patronage 
of the bards, and in the cessation of internal warfare, and of external ravages, 
they lost their favorite subjects, and most familiar imagery. They declined 
because they were no longer encouraged." The Hon. Daines Barrington could 
find no instances of severity against the Welsh in the laws, &c. of this monarch," 
and that they were not extirpated is proved by the severe law which we find in 
the Statute Book, 4 Henry IV. (1402), c. 27, passed against them during the 
resentment occasioned by the outrages committed under Owen Glendour. In that 
act they are described as Rymours and Ministralx, proving that our ancestors 
could not distinguish between them and our own minstrels. 

In May, 1290, was celebrated the marriage of Queen Eleanor's daughter Joan, 
surnamed of Acre, to the Earl of Gloucester, and in the following July, that of 
Margaret, her fifth daughter, to John, son of the Duke of Brabant. Both cere- 
monies were conducted with much splendour, and a multitude of minstrels flocked 
from all parts to Westminster : to the fii-st came King Grey of England, King 
Caupenny from Scotland, and Poveret, the minstrel of the Mareschal of Champagne. 
The nuptials of Margaret, however, seem to have eclipsed those of her sister. 
Walter de Storton, the king's harper, distributed a hundred pounds, the gift of 

» See his observations on the Statutes, 4to. 4th Ed. 



EDWARD I. 29 

the bridegroom, among 426 minstrels, as Avell English as others." In 1291 , in the 
accounts of the executors of Queen Eleanor, there is an entry of a payment of 
39s., for a cup purchased to be given to one of the king's minstrels. 

The highly valuable roll, preserved among the records in the custody of the 
Queen's Remembrancer, which has been printed for the Roxburghe Club, marks 
the gradations of rank among the minstrels, and the corresponding rewards 
bestowed upon them. It contains the names of those who attended the cour 
pleniere held by King Edward at the Feast of Whitsuntide, 1306, at West- 
minster, and also at the New Temple, London ; because " the royal palace, 
although large, was nevertheless small for the crowd of comers." Edward then 
conferred the honor of knighthood upon his son. Prince Edward, and a great 
number of the young nobility and military tenants of the crown, who were sum- 
moned to receive it, preparatory to the King's expedition to Scotland to avenge 
the murder of John Comyn, and the revolt of the Scotch. 

On this occasion there were six kings of the minstrels, five of whom, viz., 
Le Roy de Champaigne, Le Roy Capenny, Le Roy Boisescue, Le Roy Marchis, 
and Le Roy Robert, i-eceived each five marks, or 3/. 6s. 8cl., the mark being 
13s. 4c?. It is calculated that a shilling in those days was equivalent to fifteen 
shillings of the present time ; according to which computation, they received 50?. 
each. The sixth, Le Roy Druet, received only 21. The list of money given to 
minstrels is principally in Latin ; but that of payments nmde to them being in 
Norman French, it is difficult to distinguish English minstrels from others. Le 
Roy de Champaigne was probably " Poveret, the minstrel of the Mareschal of 
Champagne," of 1290, Le Roy Capenny, " King Caupenny from Scotland," and 
Le Roy Robert, whom we know to have been the English king of the minstrels 
by other payments made to him by the crown (see Anstis' Register of the Order 
of the Garter, vol. ii. p. 303), was probably the " King Grey of England" of 
the former date. Among the names we find, Northfolke, Carletone, Ricard de 
Haleford, Adam de Werintone (Warrington ?) , Adam de Grimmeshawe, Merlin, 
Lambyn Clay, Fairfax, Hanecocke de Blithe, Richard Wheatacre, &c. The 
harpers are generally mentioned only by their christian names, as Laurence, 
Mathew, Richard, John, Robert, and Geofirey, but there are also Richard de 
Quitacre, Richard de Leylonde, William de Grimesar, William de Duifelde, John 
de Trenham, &c., as well as Adekyn, harper to the Prince, who was probably 
a Welsh bard. In these lists only the principal minstrels are named, the remain- 
ing sum being divided, by the kings and few others, among the menestraus de la 
commune. Harpers are in the majority where the particular branch of minstrelsy 
is specified. Some minstrels are locally described, as Robert " de Colecestria," 
John " de Salopia," and Robert " de Scardeburghe ;" others are distinguished 
as the harpers of the Bishop of Durham, Abbot of Abyngdon, Earls of Warrenne, 
Gloucester, &c. ; one is Guillaume sans maniere ; another, Reginald le menteur ; 
a third is called Makejoye ; and a fom-th, Perle in the eghe. 

• Pages Ixix. and Ixx. Introduction to Manners and Printed (or the Roxburghe Club, 1841, and quoted from 
Household Expenses of England in the 131h and 15th Wardrobe Book, IS Edward I. Rot. Miscell. in Turr, 
centuries, illustrated by original records. 4to. London. Lond. No. 56. 



30 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

The total sum expended was about 200/., which according to the preceding 
estimate would be equal to about 3,000/. of our money. 

The minstrels seem to have been in many respects upon the same footuig as the 
heralds ; and the King of the Heralds, Uke the King at Arms, was, both here and 
on the Continent, an usual officer in the courts of princes. Heralds seem even to 
have been included with minstrels in the preceding accouiit, for Carletone, who 
occupies a fan- position among them, receiving 1/. as a payment, and 5s. as a 
gratuity, is in the latter case described as Carleton " Haralde." 

In the reign of Edward JI., besides other grants to " King Robert," before 
mentioned, there is one in the sixteenth year of his reign to William de Morlee, 
" The king's minstrel, styled Hoy de North" of houses that had belonged to 
John le Boteler, called Roy Brunhaud. So, among heralds, Norroy was usually 
styled Roy cV Amies de North (Anstis. ii. 300), and the Kings at Arms in general 
were originally called Reges Heraldorum, as these were Reges Minstrallorum.^ 
— Percy'' s Essay. 

The proverbially lengthy pedigrees of the Welsh were registered by their bards, 
who were also heralds.'' 

In the reign of Edward H., A.D. 1309, at the feast of the installation of Ralph, 
Abbot of St. Augustm's, at Canterbury, seventy shillings was expended on 
minstrels, who accompanied their songs with the harp. — Warton, vol. i., p. 89. 

In this reign such extensive privileges were claimed by these men, and by dis- 
solute persons assuming their character, that it became a matter of public griev- 
ance, and a royal decree was issued in 1315 to put an end to it, of which the 
following is an extract : — 

"Edward by the grace of God, &c. to sheriffes, &c. greetyng, Forasmuch as... many 
idle persons, under colour of Mynstrelsie, and going in messages, and other faigned 
business, have ben and yet be receaved in other mens houses to meate and drynke, and 
be not therwith contented yf they be not largely consydered with gyftes of the lordes 
of the houses : &c....We wyllyng to restrayne suohe outrageous enterprises and idle- 
ness, &c. have ordeyned that to the houses of prelates, earles, and barons, none 

resort to meate and drynke, unlesse he be a Mynstrel, and of these Minstrels that there 
come none except it be three or four Minstrels of honour at the most in one day, 
unlesse he be desired of the lorde of the house. And to the houses of meaner men 

" Heralds and minstrels seem to have been on nearly The Arwyddvardd, in early Cambrian history, was an 

the same footing abroad. For Instance, Froissart tells us officer of national appointment, who, at a later period, 

" The same day th' Erie of Foix {rave to Heraudes and "^'as succeeded by the Prydydd, or Poet. One of these was 

MinstreUes the somme of fyve hundred frankes ; and to attend at the birth, marriage, and death of any man of 

gave to the Duke of Tourayn's MinstreUes gowns of high descent, and to enter the facts in his genealogy. 

Cloth of Gold, furred with Ermyns, valued at two hun- The Marwnad, or Elegy, composed at the decease of such 

dred franks."— C/iro;;ic^t? Ed. 1525, book 3, ch. 31. a person, was required to contain truly and at length his 

'' "The Welshman's pedigree was his title-deed, by genealogy and descent ; and to commemorate the survivor, 

which he claimed his birthright in the country. Every wife or husband, with his or her descent and progeny, 

one was obliged to shew his descent through nine gene- The particulars were registered in the books of the 

rations, in order to be acknowledged a free native, and by Arivyddvardd, and a true copy therefrom delivered to the 

which right he claimed his portion of land in the com- heir, to be placed among the authentic documents of the 

munity. Among a people, where surnames were not in family. The bard's fee, or recompense, was a stipend 

use, and where the right of property depended on descent, out of every plough land in the district ; and he made a 

an attention to pedigree was indispensable. Hence arose triennial Bardic circuit to correctand arrange genealogical 

the second order of Bards, who were the jiriyf/rfdiiifrrfrf, or entries." — Extracted from Meyrich's Introduction to his 

Bard-Heralds, whose duty it was to register arms and edition of Lewis Durm's Heraldic Visitations of Wales 

pedigrees, as well as undertake the embassies of state. 2 vols. ito. Llandovcri/. 1846. 



EDWARD II. 31 

that none come nnlesse he be desired, and that such as shall come so, holde themselves 
contented with meate and drynlie, and with such curtesie as the maister of the house 
wyl shewe unto them of his owue good wyll, without their asliyng of any thyng. 
And yf any one do agaynst this Ordinaunce, at the firste tyme he to lose his 3Im- 
strelsie, and at the second tyme to forsweare his craft, and never to be receaved for 
a Minstrel in any house.... Geven at Langley the vi. day of August, in the ix yere of 
our reigne." — Hearne's Append, ad Leland Collect., vol. vi., p. 36. 

Stow, in his Survey of London, in an estimate of the annual expenses of 
the Earl of Lancaster about this time, mentions a large disbursement for the 
liveries of the minstrels. That they received vast quantities of money and costly 
habiliments from the nobles, we learn from many authorities ; and in a poem on 
the times of Edivard LE., knights are recommended to adhere to theii- proper 
costume lest they be mistaken for minstrels. 

" Kny[gh]tes schuld weare clothes That no man may knowe 

I-schape in dewe manere, A mynstrel from a knyg[h]t 

As his order wo[u]ld aske, Well ny : 

As wel as schuld a frere [friar] : So is mekenes[s] fait adown 

Now thei beth [are] disgysed, And pride aryse an hye." 

So diverselych i-digt [bedight], Percy Soc., No. 82, p. 23. 

That minstrels were usually known by their di'ess, is shown by the following 
anecdote, which is related by Stowe : — " When Edward II. this year (1316) 
solemnized the feast of Pentecost, and sat at table in the great hall of West- 
minster, attended by the peers of the realm, a certain woman, dressed in the habit 
of a Minstrel, riding on a great horse, trapped in the Minstrel fashion, entered the 
hall, and going romid the several tables, acting the part of a Minstrel, at length 
mounted the steps to the royal table, on which she deposited a letter. Having 
done this, she turned her horse, and, saluting all the company, she departed." 
The subject of this letter was a remonstrance to the king on the favors heaped 
by him on his mmions to the neglect of his faithful servants. The door-keepers 
being called, and threatened for admitting such a woman, readily replied, " that 
it never was the custom of the king's palace to deny admission to Minstrels, 
especially on such high solemnities and feast days." 

On the capital of a column in Beverley Minster, is the inscription, " Thys 
pillor made the meynstyi-ls." Five men are thereon represented, foui* in short 
coats, reaching to the knee, and one with an overcoat, all having chains round 
their necks and tolerably large purses. The building is assigned to the reign of 
Henry VI., 1422 to 1460, when minstrelsy had greatly declined, and it cannot 
therefore be considered as representing minstrels in the height of then- prosperity. 
They are probably only instrumental performers (with the exception, perhaps, of 
the lute player) ; but as one holds a pipe and tabor, used only for rustic dances, 
another a crowd or treble viol, a thhd what appears to be a bass flute, and a 
fourth either a treble flute or perhaps that kind of hautboy called a wayght, or 
wait, and there is no harper among them — I do not suppose any to have been of 
that class called minstrels of honom-, who rode on horseback, with their servants 



32 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

to attend them, and who could enter freely into a king's palace. Such distinctions 
among minstrels are frequently drawn in the old romances. For instance, in the 
romance of Launfel we are told, " They had menstralles of moche honom-s," and 
also that they had " Fydelers, sytolyrs (citolers), and trompoteres." It is not, 
however, surprising that they should be rich enough to huild a column of a 
Minster, considering the excessive devotion to, and encouragement of, music which 
characterised the English in that and the two following centuries. 

No poets of any country make such frequent and enthusiastic mention of min- 

' strelsy as the English. There is scarcely an old poem but abounds with the 

praises of music. Adam Davy, or Davie, of Stratford-le-Bow, near London, 

flourished about 1312. In his Life of Alexander, we have several passages like 

this : — " Mcr[r]y it is ia haHe to he[a]re the liarpe, 

The myustrall synge, the jogelour carpe" (recite). 
And again, — " Mery is the twynkelyng of the harpour." 

The fondness of even the most illiterate, to hear tales and rhymes, is much 
dwelt on by Robert de Brunne, or Robert Mannyng, " the first of om- vernacular 
poets who is at all readable now." All rhymes were then sung with accompani- 
ment, and generally to the harp. So in 1338, when Adam de Orleton, bishop of 
Winchester, visited his Cathedral Priory of St. Swithin, in that city, a minstrel 
named Herbert was introduced, who sang the Song of Colhrond, a Danish Giant, 
and the tale of Queen Umima delivered from the plough-shares, or trial by fire, in 
the hall of the Prior. A similar festival was held in this Priory in 1374, when 
similar gestes or tales were sung. Chaucer's Troilus and Cresseide, though almost 
as long as the ^neid, was to be " redde, or else songe," and Warton has printed 
a portion of the Life of St. Swithin from a manuscript, with points and accents 
inserted, both over the words and dividing the line, evidently for the pm-poses of 
singing or recitation (History of English Poetry, vol. i., p. 15. 1840). We have 
probably by far more tunes that are fitted for the recitation of such lengthy stories 
than exist in any other country. 

In the year 1362, an Act of Parliament passed, that " all pleas in the court 
of the king, or of any other lord, shall be pleaded and adjudged in the English 
tongue" (stat. 36 Edw. HE., cap. 15) ; and the reason, which is recited in the 
preamble, was, that the French tongue was so unknown in England that the 
parties to the law-suits had no knowledge or understanding of what was said for 
or against them, because the coimsel spoke French. This was the era of Chaucer, 
and of the author of Pierce Plowman — two poets whose language is as different as 
if they had been born a centui'y apart. Longland, instead of availing himself of the 
rising and rapid improvements of the English language, prefers and adopts the style 
of the Anglo-Saxon poets, even prefering their perpetual alliteration to rhyme. 
His subject — a satire on the vices of the age, but particularly on the corruptions 
of the clergy and the absurdities of superstition — does not lead him to say much 
of music, but he speaks of ignorance of the art as a just subject of reproach. 
" They kennen [know] no more mynstralcy, ne musik, men to gladde, 
Than Mundy the muller [miller], of multa fecit Dens !" 



PIERCE PLOWMAN. — CHAUCER. 33 

He says, however, of himself, in allusion to the minstrels : — 
" Ich can nat tahre, ne trompe, ne telle faire gestes, 
Ne fithelyn, at fe[a]stes, ne harpen : 
Japan ne jagelyn, ne gentilliche pipe ; 

Nother sailen [leap or dance], ne sautrien, ne singe with the giterne." 
He also describes his Friar as much better acquainted with the " Rimes of 
Rohinliode and of Randal, erle of Ghester,^'' than with his Paternoster. 

Chaucer, throughout his works, never loses an opportunity of describing or 
alluding to the general use of music, and of bestowing it as an accomplishment 
upon the pilgrims, heroes, and heroines of his several tales or poems, whenever 
propriety admits. We may learn as much from Chaucer of the music of his day, 
and of the estimation in which the art was then held in England, as if a treatise 
had been written on the subject. 

Firstly, from the Canterbury Tales, in his description of the Squire (line 91 
to 96) , he says : — 

" Syngyngc he mas, or Jlomtynge [fluting] al the day ; 
He was as fresh as is the moneth of May : 
Short was his goune, with sleeves long and wyde ; 
Well cowde he sitte on hors, and faire ryde. 
ITe cowde songes wel make and endite, 

Juste (fence) and eke daimce, and wel p[o]urtray and write." 
Of the Nun, a Prioress (line 122 to 126) , he says : — 
" Ful wel sche sang the servise devyne, 
Entuned in hire nose ful seemyly ; 
And Frenscli sche spak ful faire and fetysly [neatly], 
Aftur the schole of Stratford att6 Bowe, 
For Frensch of Parys was to hire unknowe " [unknown]. 
The Monk, a jolly fellow, and gi-eat sportsman, seems to have had a passion for 
no music but that of hounds, and the bells on his horse's bridle (line 169 to 171) : 
" And whan he rood [rode], men might his bridel heere 
Gyngle in a whistlyng wynd so cleere, 
And eke as lowde as doth the chapel belle." 
Of his Mendicant Friar, whose study was only to please (lines 235 — 270), 
he says : — " And certayn he hadde a mery note ; 

Wel coutlie he synge andplaye on a rote [hurdy-gurdy]. . . . 
Somewhat he lipsede [lisped] for wantounesse, 
To make his Englissch swete upon his tunge ; 
And in his harpyng, whan that he had sunge, 
His eyghen [eyes] tvs^nkeled in his he[a]d aright, 
As don the sterrfes [do the stars] in the frosty night." 
Of the Miller (Ime 564 to 568), he says :— 

" Wel cowde he ste[a]le corn, and tollen thries [take toll thrice] ; , 
And yet he had a thombe of gold/ parde, 
A whight cote and blewe hood we[a]i'ed he ; 

» Tyrwhitt says there is an old proverb—" Every honest nevertheless he was as honest as his brethren. There are 
miller has a thumb of gold." Perhaps it means that many early songs on thievish millers and bakers. 

D 



34 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

A haggepipe cowcle Tic hlome and sowne [sound], 
And therewithal he brought us out of towne." ' 

Of the Pardoner (line 674 to 676) :— 

" Fill lowde he sang, ' Come hider, love, to me.' 
This Sompnour bar[e] to him a stif hurdoim,^ 
Was never trompe [trumpet] of half so gre[a]t a soun" (sound). 
Of the poor scholar, Nicholas (line 3213 to 3219) :— 
" And al above ther lay a gay samtrye [psaltry], 
On which he made, a-nightes, melodye 
So swetely, that al the chambur rang : 
And Angehis ad Virginem he sang. 
And after that he sang The Kynge's note ; 
Ful often blessed was his mery throte." 
Of the Carpenter's Wife (lines 8257 and 8) :— 

" But of her song, it was as lowde and yerne [brisk] 
As eny swalwe [swallow] chiteryng on a berne" [barn]. 

Of the Parish Clerk, Absolon (lines 3328 to 3335) :— 
" In twenty manners he coude skip and daunce, 
After the schole of Oxenforde the. 
And with his legges casten to and fro ; 
And pleyen songes on a small JRubible" [Rebec], 
Ther-to he sang som tynie a lowde qiiynyhle ;'' 
And as n'el coude he pleye on a giterne : 
In al the toun nas [nor was] brewhous ne taverne 
That he ne visited with his solas" [solace]. 
He serenades the Carpenter's Wife, and we have part of his song (lines 3352 — 64) : 
" The moone at night ful cleer and brighte schoon. 
And Absolon his giterne hath i-take, 

For paramours he seyde he wold awake 

He syngeth in hys voys gentil and smal — 
' Now, deere lady, if thi wills be, 
I pray you that ye wol rewe [have compassion] on me.' 
Full wel acordyng to his gyternyng, 
This carpenter awook, and herde him syng." 

Of the Appi-entice in the Cook's Tale, who plays both on the ribible and gitterne : 
" At every brideale wold he synge and hoppe ; 
He lt)ved bet [better] the taverne than the schoppe." 

» A curious reason for the use of the Bagpipe in Pil- singing the burden, or bnss, to his song in a deep loud 

grimages will he found in State Trials — Trial of William voice. Bourdon is the French for Drone; and Foot, 
Thorpe. Henry IV., an. 8, shortly after Chaucer's death. • Undersong, and Burden mean the same thing, although 

" I say to thee that it is right well done, that Pilgremys Burden was afterwards used in the sense of Ditty, or 

have with them both Syngers, and also Pipers, that whan any line often recurring in a song, as will be seen here- 

oneofthem, thatgoethbar[e]fo[o]te, strikethhis too upon after. 

a stone, and hurteth hym sore, and maketh hym to blede; •= Ribible (the diminutive of Ribibe or Rebec) is a small 

it is well done that he orhis fel[l]owbegyn than aSonge, fiddle with three strings. 

or else take out of his bosome a. Baggepype ioxto &n\Q ^ To sing a "quinible" means to descant by singing 

away with soche myrthe the hurte of his felow." fifths on a plain-song, and to sing a '* quatrible" to des- 

i" This Sompnour (Sumner or Summoner to the Eccle- cant by fourths. The latter term is used by Cornish in 

siastical Courts, now called Apparitor) supported him by his Treatise between Trowthe and Enformacion. 1528. 



NOTICES OF MUSIC BY CHAUCER. 35 

The Wife of Bath says (lines 5481 and 2, and 6039 and 40), that wives were 

chosen — " some, for they can synge and daunce. 

And some for gentilesse or daliaiince 

How conthe I daunce to an harpe smale, 
And synge y-wys as eny nightyngale." 
I shall conclude Chaucer's inimitable descriptions of character with that of hia 
Oxford Clerk, who was so fond of books and study, that he loved Aristotle better 

" Than robes riche, or fidel or sautrie 

Souning in moral virtue was his speech, 
And gladly woidd he lerne and gladly teclie." 
We learn from the preceding quotations, that country squu-es in the fourteenth 
century could pass the day in singing, or playing the flute, and that some could 
" Songes well make and indite:" that the most attractive accomplishment in 
a young lady was to be able to sing well, and that it afforded the best chance of 
her obtaining an eligible husband ; also that the cultivation of music extended 
to every class. The Miller, of whose education Pierce Plowmari speaks so slight- 
ingly, could play upon the bagpipe ; and the apprentice both on the ribible and 
gittern. The musical instruments that have been named are the harp, psaltry, 
fiddle, bagpipe, flute, trumpet, rote, rebec, and gittern. There remain the lute, 
organ, shalm (or shawm), and citole, the hautboy (or wayte), the horn, and 
shepherd's pipe, and the catalogue will be nearly complete, for the cittern or 
cithren difiered chiefly from the gittern, in being strung with wire instead of gut, 
or other material. The sackbut was a bass trumpet with a slide,'' like the modern 
trombone ; and the dulcimer differed chiefly from the psaltry in the wires being 
struck, instead of being twitted by a plectrum, or quill, and therefore requiring 
both hands to perform on it. 

In the commencement of the Pardoner's Tale he mentions lutes, harps, and 
gitterns for dancmg, as well as singers with harps ; in the Knight's Tale he repre- 
sents Venus with a citole in her right hand, and the organ is alluded to both in 
the History of St. Cecilia, and in the tale of the Cock and the Fox. 
In the House of Fame (Urry's Edit., line 127 to 136), he says: 
" That madin loude Minsti-alsies 
In Cornmnse [bagpipe] and eke in Shalmies,^ 

1 •' As he that plaies upon a Sagbut, by pulling it up the shrillness to have arisen from over-blowing, or else 

and down alters his tones and tunes." — Burion's Anatomy the following quotation will appear contradictory : — 

of Melanclinly, Svo. Edit, of 1800, p. .379. " A Shawme maketh a swele souiide, for he tiinyihe the 

^ A very early drawing of the Shalm, or Shawm, is in basse, 

one of the illustrations to a copy of Froissart, in the Brit. It mountithe not to hye, but hepithe rule and space. 

Mus. — Royal MSS. IS, E. Another in Commenius' \si yf it be hlowne withe to vehement a wyndc, 

Visible World, translated by Hoole, 1650, (he translates It makithe it to mysgovcrne out of his kynde." 

the Latin word gingras, shawm,) from which it is copied This is one of the " proverbis " that were written about 

into Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, edited by Singer, vol. i. the time of Henry VII., on the walls of the Manor House 

p. 114., Ed. 1825. The modern clarionet is an improve- at Leckingfield, near Beverley, Yorkshire, anciently be- 

ment upon the shawm, which was played with a reed, longing to the Percys, Earls of Northumberland, but now 

like the wayte, or hautboy, but being a bass instrument, destroyed. There were many others relating to music, 

with about the compass of an octave, had probably more and musical instruments (harp, lute, recorder, claricorde, 

the tone of a bassoon. It was used on occasions of state. clarysymballis, virgynalls, clarion, organ, singing, and 

"What stately music have you? You have shawms? musical notation,) and the inscribing them on the walls 

Ralph plays a stately part, and he must needs have adds another to the numberless proofs of the estimation 

shawms." — Knight of ilie Burning Pestle. Drayton speaks in which the art was held. A manuscript copy of them 

of it as shrill-toned : *' E'en from the shrillest shawm, unto is preserved in Bib. Reg. 18. D. II. Brit. Mus. 
the cornamute." — Polyolbion, vol. iv., p. n7G. I conceive 



36 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

And in many an othir pipe, 
That craftely began to pipe 
Bothe in Douced and eke in Rede,'^ 
That bin at feastes with the brede [bread] : 
And many a Floite and litlyng Home 
And Pipes made of grenti come. 
As have these little Herd^groomes 
That kopin Beastes [keep oxen] in the broomes." 
As to the songs of his time, see the Frankeleyne's Tale (line 11,254 to 60) : — 
" He was dispeired, nothing dorst he seye 
Sauf [save] in his songes somewhat wolde be wreye [betray] 
His woo, as in a general compleyning ; 
He said he loved, and was beloved nothing. 
Of suche matier made he many Layes, 
Songes, Coinpleyntes, Roimdelets, Virelayes: 
How that he dorstd not bis sorwe [sorrow] telle, 
Bnt languisheth as doth a fuyr in helle." 
and he speaks elsewhere of Ditees, Rondils, Bcdades, &c. 

The foUowiiig passages relate to minstrelsy, and to the manner of playing the 
harp, pointing and performing with the nails; as the Spaniards do now with the 
guitar. The first is from the House of Fame (Urry, line 105 to 112) : — 
. . . . " Stoden .... the castell all aboutin 
Of all mani^ of Minstralis 
And gestours that tellen tales 
Both of wepyng and of game, 
And all that 'longeth unto fame ; 
There herde I playin on an Harpe 
Tliat ysounid hothe well and sliarpe" 
and from Troylus, lib. 2, 1030 : — 

" For though that the best harper upon live 
Would on the beste sounid jolly harpe 
That evir was, with all his fingers five 

Touch aie o (one) string, or aie o warble harpe, 
Were his nailes poi')icted nevir so sliarpe 
It shoulde makin every wight to[o] dull 
To heare [h]is Glee, and of his strokes ful." 
Even the musical gamut is mentioned by Chaucer. In the supplementary tale 
he makes the host give " an hid[e]ouse cry in ge-sol-re-ut the haut," and there is 
scarcely a subject connected with the art as practised in his day, that may not be 
illustrated by quotation from his works ; 

" For, gif he have nought sayd hem, leeve [dear] brother, 
In o bo[o]k, he bath seyd hem in another." 

■^ Tyrwhitt thinks Doncete an Instrument, and quotes a reed), I infer by "douced" that flutes are intended; the 

Lydgate — toneofwliich, especially the largeflute, is extremely soft. 

" Ther were trumpes and trumpetes, I had a collection of English flutes, of which one was 

Lowde shall [m]ys and doucetes." nearly a yard and a half long. All had mouth-pieces like 

but it seems to me only to mean soft pipes in opposition the flageolet, and were blown in the same manner; the 

to loud shalms. By the distinction Chaucer draws, "both tone very pleasing, but less powerful and brilliant than 

in douced and in reed" (the shalm being played on by the modern or "German" flute. 



60WER. — RICHARD II. 37 

I shall conclude these numerous extracts with one of the song of nature, from 
the Knighte's Tale, ( line 1493 to 98) :— 

" The busy lark6, messager of daye, 
Sahieth in hire song the morwe [morning] gray ; 
And fyry Phehus ryseth up so bright, 
That al tlie orient laugheth of the light, 
And with his strem^s dryeth in the greves [groves] 
The silver dropfis, hongyng on the leeves." 

Having quoted so largely from Chaucer, whose portraiture of character and 
persons has never been excelled, it will be unnecessary to refer to his contem- 
porary, Gower, fui-ther than to say that in his Confessio Amantis, Venus greets 
Chaucer as her disciple and poet, who had filled the land in his youth with 
dittoes and " songes glade," which he had made for her sake ; and Gower says of 
himself: — " And also I have ofte assaide 

Roundel, Balades, and Virelaie 

For her on whom myn hert laie." 

But about the same time, in the Burlesque Romance, The T[o]urnament of 
Tottenham (written in ridicule of chivalry) , we find a notice of songs in six parts 
which demands attention. In the last verse : — 

" Mekyl mirth was them among ; 
In every corner of the hous 
Was melody delycyous 
For to he[a]re precyus 

Of six menys song." 

It has been supposed that this is an allusion to Sumer is icumen in, which 
requires six performers, but in all probability thei'e were many such songs, 
although but one of so early a date has descended to us. We find in the Statutes 
of New College, Oxford (which was founded about 1380), that William of 
Wykeham ordered his scholars to recreate themselves on festival days with songs 
in the hall, both after dinner and supper ; and as part-music was then in common 
use, it is reasonable to suppose that the founder intended the students thereby to 
combine improvement and recreation, instead of each singing a difierent song. 

In the fourth year of king Richard II. (1381), John of Gaunt erected at 
Tutbury, in Staifordshire, a Qourt of Minstrels similar to that annually kept at 
Chester ; and which, like a court-leet, or com't-baron, had a legal jui'isdiction, 
with full power to receive suit and service from the men of this profession within 
five neighbouring counties, to determine their controversies and enact laws ; also 
to apprehend and arrest such of them as should refuse to appear at the said court, 
annually held on the 16th of August. For this they had a charter, by which 
they were empowered to appoint a King of the Minstrels, with four officers to 
preside over them. They were every year elected with great ceremony ; the 
whole form of which, as observed in 1680, is described by Dr. Plot in his History 
of Staffordshire. That the barbarous diversion of bull-running was no part of the 
original institution, is fully proved by the Rev. Dr. Pegge, in Archseologia, vol. ii.. 
No. xiii., p. 86. The bull-running tune, however, is still popular in Staffordshire. 



38 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

Du Fresne in hia Glossary (art. Ministrelli) , speaking of the King of the 
Minstrels, says, "His office and power are defined in a French charter of 
Henry IV., king of England, in the Monasticon Anglicanum, vol. i., p. 355;" 
but though I have searched through Dugdale's Monasticon, I find no such 
charter. 

In 1402, we find the before-mentioned statute against the Welsh bards, 
(4 Henry IV., c. 27).'' As they had excited their countrymen to rebellion 
against the English government, it is not to be wondered (says Percy) that the 
Act is conceived in terms of the utmost indignation and contempt against this 
class of men, who are described as Rymours, Ministralx, which are apparently 
here used as only synonymous terms to express the Welsh bards, with the usual 
exuberance of our Acts of Parliament; for if their Ministralx had been mere 
musicians, they would not have requu-ed the vigilance of the English legislature 
to suppress them. It was their songs, exciting their countrymen to insurrection, 
which produced " les diseases et mischiefs en la terre de Gales." 

At the coronation of Henry V., which took place in Westminster Hall (1413), 
we are told by Thomas de Elmham, that " the number of harpers was exceedingly 
great ; and that the sweet strings of their harps soothed the souls of the guests 
by their soft melody." He also speaks of the dulcet sounds of the united 
music of other instruments, in which no discord interrupted the harmony, 
as " inviting the royal banqueters to the full enjoyment of the festival." — 
(Vit. et. Gest. Henr. V., c. 12, p. 23.) Minstrelsy seems still to have 
flourished in England, although it had declined so greatly abroad ; the Provenyals 
had ceased ^vi'iting during the preceding century. When Henry was preparing 
for his great voyage to France in 1415, an express order was given for his 
minstrels to attend him. — (Rymer, ix., 255.) Monstrelet speaks of the English 
camp resounding with the national music (170) the day preceding the battle of 
Agincoui-t, but this must have been before the king " gave the order for silence, 
Avhich was afterwards strictly observed." 

When he entered the City of London in triumph after the battle, the gates and 
streets were hung with tapestry representing the histories of ancient heroes ; and 
boys with pleasing voices were placed in artificial turrets, singing verses in his 
praise. But Henry ordered this part of the pageantry to cease, and commanded 
that for the future no "ditties should be made and sung by Minstrels'" or others," 
in praise of the recent victory ; " for that he would whollie have the praise 
and thankes altogether given to God." 

Nevertheless, among many others, a minstrel-piece soon appeared on the 
Seyge of Harflett (Harfleur), and the Battayle of Agynhourte, " evidently," says 
Warton, " adapted to the harp," and of which he has printed some portions. 

alt runs in these terms: "Item, pour eschuirplusieurs ^ Hollinslied, quoting from Thomas de Elmliam, whose 

diseases et mischiefs qont advenuz devaunt ces heures en words are, " Quod cantus de suo triumpho fieri, seu per 
la terre de Gales par plusieurs Westours Rymours, Citharistas vel alios (luoscunque cantari penitus pro- 
Minstralx et autres Vacabondes, ordeignez est, et hibebat." It will be observed that HuUinshed translates 
establiz, que nul Westour, Rymour Minstral, ne Vaca- Citharistas {literally harpers) minstrels, 
bond soit aucunemeut sustenuz en la terre de Gales pur 
faire kymorthas ou coillage sur la commune poeple 
ilioeques." 



HENRY V. 



39 



(Hist. Eng. Poet., vol. ii. p. 257.) Also the following song, wliich Percy has 
printed in his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, from a M.S. in the Pepysian Library, 
and Stafford Smith, in his Collection of English Songs, 1779 fol., in fac-simile of 
the old notation, as well as in modern score, and with a chorus in three parts to 
the words, " Deo gratias, Anglia, redde pro victoria." The tune is here given 
with the first verse of the words," for although the original is a regular composi- 
tion in three parts, it serves to shew the state of melody at an early period, and 
the subject is certainly a national one. 



SONG ON THE VICTOEY OP AGINCOUET. 



Slowly and Majestically, 



1415. 




Our king went forth to Normandy, With gi'ace and might of chi-val-iy , The God for him wrouglit 



m¥^ 



( 



gfr 



?r?^: 



f 



t 



t 



i 



-m- 



ritard. 




5^=J=* 



fe 



maiv'lously, Where-fore England may call and cry, 



^ 



j= 



E^ 



- There are also two well-known ballads on the Battle of Agincourt ; the one 
commencing " A council grave our king did hold;" the other " As our king lay 
musuig in his bed," which will be noticed under later dates ; and a three-men's 
song, which was simg by the tanner and his fellows, to amuse the guests, in 
Hey wood's play. King Udivard IV., beginning — ■ 

" Agincourt ! Agincourt ! I<now ye not Agincourt ? 
Where the English slew or hurt 
All the French foemen?" &c. 

Although Henry had forbidden the minstrels to celebrate his victory, the order 
evidently did not proceed from any disregard for the professors of music or of 
song, for at the Feast of Pentecost, which he celebrated in 1416, having the 
Emperor and the Duke of Holland as his guests, he ordered rich gowns for sixteen 
of his minstrels. And having before his death orally granted an annuity of an 



i* I do not intend to reprint songs or ballads that are 
contained in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, -without 
some particular motive, for that delightful book can be 
purchased in many shapes and at a small cost. As a 
general rule, the versions given by Percy are best suited 



to music, because more metrical than others, although 
they may be less exactly and minutely in accordance 
with old copies, which are often very carelessly printed 
or transcribed. 



40 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

hundred shillings to each of his minstrels, the grant was confirmed in the first 
year of his son, Henry VI. (a.d. 1423), and payment ordered out of the ex- 
chequer. Both the biographers of Henry declare his love for music." Lydgate 
and Occleve, the poets whom he patronized, attest also his love of literature, and 
the encouragement he gave to it. 

John Lydgate, Monk of Bury St. Edmunds, describes the minstrelsy of his 
time less completely, but in nearly the same terms as Chaucer. 

Lydgate was a very voluminous writer. Ritson enumerates 251 of his pieces, 
and the list is far from being complete. Among his minor pieces are many songs 
and ballads, chiefly satirical, such as " On the forked head-dresses of the ladies," 
on " Thievish Millers and Bakers," &c. A selection from these has been recently 
printed by the Percy Society. 

Among the devices at the coronation banquet of Henry VI. (1429), were, in 
the first course, a "sotiltie" (subtlety) of St. Edward and St. Lewis, in coat 
armour, holding between them a figure like King Henry, similarly armed, and 
standing luith a ballad under his feet." In the second, a device of the Emperor 
Sigismund and King Henry V., arrayed in mantles of garter, and a figure like 
Henry VI. kneeling before them with a ballad against the Lollards ;'' and in the 
third, one of our Lady, sitting with her child in her lap, and holding a crown in 
her hand, St. George and St. Denis kneeling on either side, presenting to her 
King Henry ivith a ballad in his hand.'' These subtleties were probably devised 
by the clergy, who strove to smother the odium which, as a body, their vices had 
excited, by turning public attention to the further persecution of the Lollards.*^ 
In a discourse which was prepared to be delivered at the Convocation of the 
Clei'gy, ten days after the death of Edward IV., and which still exists in MS. 
(MS. Cotton Cleopatra, E. 3), exhorting the clergy to amendment, the writer 
complains that " The people laugh at us, and make us their songs all the day 
long." Vicious persons of every description bad been induced to enter the church 
on account of the protection it afforded against the secular power, and the facilities 
it provided for continued indulgence in their vices. 

In that age, as in more enlightened times, the people loved better to be pleased 
than instructed, and the minstrels were often more amply paid than the clergy. 
During many of the years of Henry VI., particularly in the year 1430, at the 
annual feast of the fraternity of the Holie Crosse, at Abingdon, a town in 
Berkshire, twelve priests each received four pence for singing a dirge : and the 
same number of minstrels were rewarded each with two shillings and four pence, 
besides diet and horse-meat. Some of these minstrels came only from Mayden- 
hithe, or Maidenhead, a town at no great distance, in the same county. ( Liber 
Niger, p. 598.) In the year 1441, eight priests were hired from Coventry, 
to assist in celebrating a yearly obit in the church of the neighbouring priory of 

^ "Musicis delectabatur." — Tit. Liv., p. 5. "Instru- '^ Quoted by Sharon Turner, from Fab. -119. 

mentis organicis pluriraum deditus." — Elmham. '^ Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, had been put to 

'' Ritson has printed one of these ballads against the death in the preceding reign. 
Lollards, in his Ancient Songs, p. 6.1, 1790, taken from 
MS. Cotton, Vespasicm, B. 16. Brit. Mus. 



■HENRY VI. 41 

Maxtoke ; as were six minstrels (MiMi) belonging to the family of Lord Clinton 
who lived in the adjoining Castle of Maxtoke, to sing, harp, and play in the hall 
of the monastery, during the extraordinary refection allowed to the monks on that 
anniversary. Two shillings were given to the priests, and four to the minstrels : 
and the latter are said to have supped in camera pida, or the painted chamber of 
the convent, with the sub-prior, on which occasion the chamberlain furnished 
eight massive tapers of wax. (Warton, vol. ii., p. 309.) However, on this occa- 
sion, the priests seem to have been better paid than usual, for in the same year 
(1441) the prior gave no more than sixpence to a preaching friar. 

As late as in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth, we find an entry in the 
books of the Stationers' Company (1560) of a similar character : Item, payd to 
the preacher, 6s. 2d. Item, payd to the minstrell, 12s. ; so that even in the 
decline of minstrelsy, the scale of remuneration was relatively the same. 

A curious collection of the songs and Christmas carols of this reign (Henry 
VI.) have been printed recently by the Percy Society. (Songs and Carols, No. 73.) 

The manuscript book from which they are taken, had, in all probability, belonged 
to a country minstrel who sang at festivals and merry makings, and it has been, 
most judiciously, printed entire, as giving a general view of the classes of poetry 
then popular. A proportion of its contents consists of carols and religious songs, 
such as were sung at Christmas, and perhaps at other festivals of the Church. 
Another class, in which the MS. is, for its date, peculiarly rich, consists of 
drinking songs. It also contains a number of those satirical songs against the 
fair sex, and especially against shrews, which were so common in the middle ages, 
and have a certain degree of importance as showing the condition of private 
society among our forefathers. The larger number of the songs, including some 
of the most interesting and curious, appear to be unique, and the others 
are in general much better and more complete copies than those previously 
known (viz. in MS. Sloane, No. 2593, Brit. Mus). The editor of the MS. 
(Mr. T. Wright) observes that " The great variations in the different copies of 
the same song, show that they were taken down from oral recitation, and had 
often been preserved by memory among minstrels, who were not unskilful at 
composing, and who were not only in the habit of, voluntarily or involuntarily, 
modifying the songs as they passed through their hands, and adding or omitting 
stanzas, but of making up new songs by stringing together phrases and lines, and 
even whole stanzas from the different compositions which were imprinted on their 
memories." But what renders the manuscript peculiarly interesting, is, that it 
contains the melodies of some of the songs as well as the words. From this it 
appears that the same tune was used for different words. At page 62 is a note, 
which in modern spelling is as follows : " This is the tune for the song following ; 
if so be that ye will have another tune, it may be at your pleasure, for I have set 
all the song." The words of the carol, " Nowell, Nowell," (Noel) are wi-itten 
under the notes, but the wassail song that follows, and for which the tune was also 
mtended, is of a very opposite character, "Bryng us in good ale." I have 
printed the first verse of each under the tune, but it requires to be sung more 
quickly for the wassail song than for the carol. 



42 



ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 
CHRISTMAS CAROL. 



The Burden or Chorus. 

4- 



^^^^m 



^=te$ 



About 1460, 



Now - ell, nowell, now - ell, nowell, 
Bring us in good ale, good ale, 



[Now-ell, now-ell, now - ell.] 
And bring us in good ale : 



This 



P- 



m 



ES 



ffi 



m 



8 -S^ • -*- 



J 



^ Carol. 



^^^ f ^^^^ 4 



^^ 



|f=^ 



*=•: 



ir-rr 



^ 



IS the sa - lu - ta - tion of the an-gel Ga - bi-i - el. 

For oiu-bless-ed La-dy'ssake, bring us in good ale. 



Ti-dings true there 
Bring us in no 



^ 



S 



^ 



-#- 



^H4 



=1 



=^ 



^=rT. 



^^ 



be come new, sent from the Trin - i - ty, By Ga - bri - el to Na - za - reth, 

brown bread, for that is made of bran, Nor bring us in no white bread, For 



^^m 



m 



m 



r^ 



s 



i 



ci - ty of Ga - h - lee : 
there - in is no gain. 



^ 



■^ 



t=s=w 



^ 



A clean maiden and pure virgin. Through her hu-mi-li 
But bring us in good ale, good ale. And bring us in good 

■ J ."i t .J ^J* • 



^ 



^ 



'mr^m 



~~-^' * -1- -l-"^~* ♦ -3- • p 



Se 



r=ssf 



- ty . . Hath con-cei-ved the per - son second in De - i 
ale. For our blessed La-dy'ssake, Bring us in good 



ty. 

ale. 



sEi* 



^ 



i 



^ 



i 

^ The two bars marked off by a line are added, because 
there would not otherwise be music enough for the Was- 
sail Song. They are a mere repetition of the preced- 
ing, and can be omitted at pleasure. The only way in 



which the latter could have been sung to the music as 
written in the manuscript, would be by omitting the line 
" And bring us in good ale ; " but, as it is merely a repe- 
tition, it could be omitted. 



CHRISTMAS CAROL AND WASSAIL SONG. 43 

The notation of the original is in semibreves, minims, and crotchets, which 
are diminished to crotchets, quavers, and semiquavers, as became necessary in 
modernizing tlie notation ; for the quickest note then in use was the crotchet." 
The Christmas carol partakes so much of the character of sacred music, that it is 
not surprising it should be in an old scale. If there were not the flat at the sig- 
nature, which takes off a little of the barbarity, it would be exactly m the eighth 
Gregorian tone. 

There are seven verses to the carol, but as they are not particularly interesting, 
perhaps the words of the wassail song will be preferred, although we should not 
now sing of " our blessed lady," as was common in those days. 
Bring iis in no brown bread, for that is made of bran, 
Nor bring us in no white bread, for therein is no gain, 

But bring us in good ale, and bring us in good ale ; 
For our blessed Lady's sake, bring us in good ale. 
Bring us in no beef, for there is many bones. 
But bring us in good ale, for that go'th down at once. And bring, &c. 

Bring us in no bacon, for that is passing fat. 

But bring us in good ale, and give us enough of that. And bring, &c. 

Bring us in no mutton, for that is passing lean. 

Nor bring us in uo tripes, for they be seldom clean. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no eggs, for there are many shells, 

But bring us in good ale, and give us nothing else. But bring, &e. 

Bring us in no butter, for therein are many hairs, 

Nor bring us in no pig's flesh, for that will make us bears. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no puddings, for therein is all God's good, 

Nor bring us in no venison, that is not for our blood. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no capon's flesh, for that is often dear. 
Nor bring us in uo duck's flesh, for they slobber in the mere, [mire] 
But bring us in good ale, and bring us in good ale, 
For ovTr blessed lady's sake, bring us in good ale. 

An inferior copy of this song, without music, is in Harl. M.S., No. 541, from 
which it has been printed in Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. xxxiv. and xxxv. 

With the reign of Edward IV. we may conclude the history of the old wandering 
minstrel. Lr 1469, on a complaint that persons had collected money in different 
parts of the kingdom by assuming the title and livery of the king's minstrels, he 
granted to "Walter Halliday, Marshal, and to seven others whom he names, 
a charter of incorporation. They were to be governed by a marshal appointed for 
life, and two wardens to be chosen annually, who were authorized to admit mem- 
bers ; also to examine the pretensions of all who exercised the minstrel profession, 
and to regulate, govern, and punish them throughout the realm (those of Chester 

• After the Percy Society had printed the Songs, I was MS. was entrusted, disappeared, and with him the manu- 
to have had the opportunity of transcribing all the Music ; script, which is, perhaps, already in some library in the 
hut, in the mean time, the bookbinder to whom this rare United States. 



44 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

excepted). " This," says Percy, " seems to liave some resemblance to the Earl 
Marshal's court among the heralds, and is another proof of the great affinity and 
resemblance which the mmstrels bore to the College of Arms." Walter Halliday, 
above mentioned, had been retained in the service of the two preceding monarchs, 
and Edward had granted him an annuity of ten marks for life, in 1464. 

In this reign we find also mention of a Serjeant of the minstrels, who upon 
one occasion did his royal master a singular service, and by which his ready access 
to the king at all hours is very apparent : for "as he [K. Edward IV.] was in 
the north contray, in the Monneth of Septembre, as he lay in his hedde, one 
named Alexander Carlile, that was Sarjaunt of the Mynstrellis, cam to him 
• in grete hast, and badde hym aryse, for he hadde enemyes cumming for to take 
him, the which were within six or seven miles," &c. 

Edward seems to have been very liberal to his minstrels. He gave to several 
annuities of ten marks a year (6 Pari. Rolls, p. 89), and, besides their 
regular pay, with clothing and lodging for themselves and their horses, they had 
two servants to carry theii' instruments, four gallons of ale per night, wax candles, 
and other indulgences. The charter is printed in Rymer, xi. 642, by Sir 
J. Hawkins, vol. iv., p. 366, and Barney, vol. ii., p. 429. All the minstrels 
have English names. 

When Elizabeth, his queen, went to Westminster Abbey to be churched (1466), 
she was preceded by troops of choristers, chanting hymns, and to these succeeded 
long lines of the noblest and fairest women of London and its vicinity, attended by 
bands of musicians and trumpeters, and forty-two royal singers. After the banquet 
and state ball, a state concert commenced, at which the Bohemian ambassadors 
were present, and in' their opinion as well as that of Tetzel, the German who accom- 
panied them, and who has also recounted their visit to England, no better 
singers could be found in the whole world,^ than those of the English king. 
These ambassadors travelled through France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, 
and parts of Germany, as well as England, affording them, therefore, the widest 
field for comparison with the singers of other countries. 

At this time every great family had its establishment of musicians, and among 
them the harper held a prominent position. Some who were less wealthy retained 
a harper only, as did many bishops and abbots. In Sir John Howard's expenses 
(1464) there is an entry of a payment as a new year's gift to Lady Howard's 
grandmother's harper, "that dwellyth in Chestre." When he became Lord 
Howard he retained in his service, Nicholas Stapylton, William Lyndsey, and 
" little Richard," as singers, besides " Thomas, the harperd," (whom he provided 
with a "lyard," or grey "gown"), and children of the chapel, who were succes- 
sively four, five, and six in number at different dates. Mr. Payne Collier, who 
edited his Household Book from 1481 to 1485 for the Roxburghe Club, remarks 

^ Tetzel says, " Nach dem Tantz do muosten des Korgesang, das alls gesatzt was, das lieblich zu lioren 

Kunigs Cantores kutnen und muosten singen .... ich was." — lb. p. 158. 

mein das, in der Welt, nit besser Cantores sein." "Des Leo Von Rozmital, brother of tlie Queen of Bohemia 

hohmisehen Hcrrn Leo's von Rozmital Ritter, — II of und says, "Musicos nullo uspiam in loco jucundiores et 

Pilger — Reise, 1465-1467," Sfc, 8ro,, Stuttgart, 1844, p. 157. suaviores audivimus, quam ibi ; eorum cliorus sexaginta, 

Again Tetzel says, *' Do hbrten wir das aller kostlichst circiter cantoribus constat." —lb. p. 42. 



EDWARD IV. 45 

on " the great variety of entries in connection with music and musical performers," 
as forming " a prominent feature" of the book. " Not only lyere the musicians 
attached to noblemen, or to private individuals, liberally rewarded, but also those 
who were attached to particular towns, and who seem to have been generally 
requked to perform before Lord Howard on his various journies. On the 14th of 
October, 1841, he entered into an agreement with William Wastell, harper of 
London, that he should teach the son of John Colet, of Colchester, harper, for 
a year, in order, probably, to render him competent afterwards to fill the post of 
one of the family musicians." 

Here also a part of the stipulation was that, at the end of the year, Lord 
Howard should give Wastell a gown, which seems to have been the distinguishing 
feature of a harper's di-ess. In Laneham's letter from Kenilworth (1575), 
describing the " device of an ancient minstrel and his song," which was to have 
been proffered for the amusement of queen Elizabeth, this " Squire minstrel, of 
Middlesex, who travelled the country this summer season, unto worshipful men's 
houses," is represented as a harper with a long gown of Kendal green, gathered 
at the neck with a narrow gorget, and fastened before with a white clasp ; his 
gown having long sleeves down to mid-leg, but slit from the shoulders to the 
hand, and lined with white. His harp was to be " in good grace dependent before 
him," and his " wrest," or tuning-key, " tied to a green lace, and hanging by." 
He wore a red Cadiz girdle, and the corner of his handkerchief, edged with blue 
lace hung from his bosom. Under the gorget of his gown hung a chain, " re- 
splendent upon his breast, of the ancient arms of Islington." The acts of king 
Arthur were the subject of his song. 

The Romances which still remained popular [1480] are mentioned by William 
of Nassyngton [in a MS. which Warton saw in the library of Lincoln Cathedral], 
who gives his readers fair notice that he does not intend to amuse them. 

" I warne you first at the begynnynge And of many other Gestes, 

That I will make no vayne carpynge, As namely, when they come to festes ; 

Of dedes of armes, ne of amours, Ne of the lyf of Bevys op Hamptoune, 

As does Mynatrellia and Gestours, That was a Knyght of grete renowne ; 

That maketh carpynge in many a place Ne of Sye Gye of Warwyke, &c. 

Of OcTAviANE and Isbnbrace, Warton, vol. iv., p. 368. 

The invention of printing, coupled with the increased cultivation of poetry and 
music by men of genius and learning, accelerated the downfall of the Minstrels. 
They could not long withstand the superior standard of excellence in the sister 
arts, on the one hand, and the competition of the ballad-singer (who sang without 
asking remuneration, and sold his songs for a penny) on the other. In little more 
than fifty years from this time they seem to have fallen into utter contempt. We 
have a melancholy picture of their condition, in the person of Richard Sheale, 
■which it is impossible to read without sympathy, if we consider that to him we 
are indebted for the preservation of the celebrated heroic ballad of Chevy Cliace, 
at which Sir Philip Sidney's heart was wont to beat, " as at the sound of a 



46 ENGLISH MINSTRELSY. 

trumpet;"* and of which Ben Jonson declared he would rather have heen the 

author, than of all he had ever written. This luckless Minstrel had been robbed 

on Dunsmore Heath, and, shame to tell, he was unable to persuade the public 

that a son of the Muses had ever been possessed of sixty pounds, which he 

averred he had lost on the occasion. The account he gives of the effect upon his 

spirits is melancholy, and yet ridiculous enough. [As the preservation of the 

old spelling is no longer essential to the rhyme or metre, I venture to give it in 

modern orthography.] 

" After my robbery my memory was so decay'd 

That I could neither sing, nor talk, my wits were so dismay'd. 

My audacity was gone, and all my merry talk, 

There are some here have seen me as merry as a liawk ; 

But now I am so troubled with fancies in my mind, 

I cannot play tbe merry knave, according to my kind. 

Yet to take thought, I perceive, is not the next way 

To bring me out of debt, — my creditors to pay. 

I may well say that I had but evil hap 

For to lose about threescore pounds at a clap. 

The loss of my money did not grieve me so sore, 

But the talk of the people did grieve me much more. 

Some said I was not robb'd, I was but a lying- knave. 

It was not possible for a Minstrel so much money to have. 

Indeed, to say the truth, it is right well known 

That I never had so much money of my own, 

But I had friends in London, whose names I can declare, 

That at all times would lend me two hundred pounds of ware, 

And with some again such friendship I found, 

That they would lend me in money nine or ten pound. 

The occasion why I came in debt I shall make relation — 

My wife, indeed, is a silk-woman, by her occnpation; 

In linen cloths, most chiefly, was ber greatest trade, 

And at fairs and markets she sold sale-ware that she made, 

As shirts, smocks, and partlets, head-clothes, and other things, 

As silk thread and edgings, skirts, bands, and strings. 

At Lichfield market, and Atherston, good customers sbe found, 

Also at Tamworth, where I dwell, sbe took many a pound. 

When I had got my money together, my debts to have paid, 

This sad mischance on me did fall, that cannot be denay'd ; [denied] 

I thought to have paid all my debts and to have set me clear, 

And then what evil did ensue, ye shall hereafter hear : 

Because my carriage should be light I put my money into gold, 

And without company I rode alone — thus was I foolish bold ; 

I thought hy reason of my harp no man would me suspect, 

For Minstrels oft with money, they he not much infect.'' 

From the " Chant of Richard Sheale," — British Bibliographer, vol. iv., p. 100. 

» "I neverheavd the old song of Percy and Douglas, that in the dust and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it 

I found not ray heart moved more than with a trumpet: and work, trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindare !" — 

yet it is sung but by some blind crowder, with no rougher Sir Philip Sidney^ s Defence of Poetry. 
voice than rude style; which being so evil aparelled 



RICHARD SHEALE. — EXTINCTION OF MINSTRELSY. 47 

Sheale was a Minstrel in the service of Edward, Earl of Derby, who died in 
1574, celebrated for his bounty and hospitality, of whom Sheale speaks most 
gratefully, as well as of his eldest son, Lord Strange. The same MS. contains an 
" Epilogue " on the Countess of Derby, who died in January, 1558, and his 
version of Chevy Chace must have been written at least ten years before the 
latter date, if it be the one mentioned in the Complaynte of Scotland, which was 
■written in 1548. 

In the thirty-ninth year of Elizabeth, an act was passed by which " Minstrels, 
wandering abroad" were held to be "rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars," 
and were to be punished as such. This act seems to have extinguished the pro- 
fession of the Minstrels, who so long had basked in the sunshine of prosperity. 
The name, however, remained, and was applied to itinerant harpers, fiddlers, 
and other strolling musicians, who are thus described by Puttenham, in his Arte 
of English Poesie, printed in 1589. Speaking of ballad music, he says, " The 
over busy and too speedy return of one manner of tune, doth too much annoy, 
and, as it were, glut the ear, unless it be in small and popular musicks sung by 
these Cantabanqui upon benches and barrels' heads, where they have none other 
audience than boys or country fellows that pass by them in the street ; or else by 
blind harpers, or such like tavern minstrels, that give a fit of mirth for a groat ; 
and their matter being for the most part stories of old time, as the Tale of Sir 
Topas, Bevis of Southampton, Guy of Warwick, Adam Bell and Clym of the 
Clough, and such other old romances or historical rhimes, made purposely for the 
recreation of the common people at Christmas dinners and bride-ales, and in 
taverns and alehouses, and such other places of base resort. Also they" [these 
short tunes] " be used in Carols and Rounds, and such like light and lascivious 
poems, which are commonly more commodiously uttered by these bufibns, or vices 
in plays than by another person." 

Ritson, whose animosity to Percy and Warton seems to have extended itself 
to the whole minstrel race, quotes, with great glee, the following lines on their 
downfall, which were written by Dr. Bull, a rival musician : — 

" When Jesus went to Jairus' house, 
(Whose daughter was about to die) 
He turned the Minstrels out of doors, 
Among the rascal company : 
Beggars they are with one consent, — 
And rogues, by act of Parliament." 



POPULAR MUSIC, 
SONGS AND BALLADS, 

REIGNS OF HENRY VII., HENRY VIII., EDWARD VI., 

AND MARY. 



Little occurs about music and ballads during the short reigns of Edward V. and 
Richard III. 

Richard was very liberal to his musicians, giving annuities to some, and 
gratuities to others. (See Harl. MS., No. 433.) But his chief anxiety seems to 
have been to increase the akeady splendid choral establishment of the Chapel 
Royal. For that purpose he empowered John Melynek, one of the gentlemen of 
the chapel, " to take and seize for the king" not only childi-en, but also " all 
such singing nmi expert in the science of music, as he could find and think able 
to do the king's service, within all places of the realm, as well cathedi'al churches, 
colleges, chapels, houses of religion, and all other franchised or exempt places, or 
elsewhere." (Harl. MS., 433, p. 189.) But it is not my object to pursue the 
subject of royal establishments fm-ther. 

In the privy purse expenses of Henry VH., from the seventh to the twentieth 
year of his reign, there are many payments relating to music and to popular 
sports, from which the following are selected : — 

1492. Feb. 4th, To the cliikle that playeth on the records 

[recorder] - - - - £100 

April 6th, To Gwyllim for flotes [flutes] with a case - 3 10 

May 8th, For making a case for the kinges suerde, and a 

case for James Hide's harp - - 10 8 

July 8th. To the maydens of Lambeth for a May - 10 

August 1st, At Canterbury, To the children, for singing in 

the gardyn - - - - 3 4 

1493. Jan 1st, To the Queresters [choristers], at Paule's and 

St. Steven - - - - - 13 4 

Jan. 6th, To Newark [William Newark, the composer] for 

making a song - - - - 10 

Nov. 12th, To one Cornysshe for a prophecy, in rewarde 13 4 

Probably William Cornish, jun., composer, who belonged to the king's chapel, 
and was the author of a poem, called " A Treatise between Trouth and Informa- 
cion." He was paid 13s. 4f?. on Christmas day, 1502, for setting a carol. 



HENRY VII. 49 

Nov. 30th, Delivered to a mercliaunt, for a pair" of Organnes 30 
Dec. 1st, To Basset, riding for th' organ pleyer of Liehe- 
felde ..---- 
1494:. Jan. 2, For playing of the Mourice [Morris] Daunce - 
Nov. 29th, To Burton, for making a Masse 

„ To my Lorde Prince's Luter, in rewarde 

1495. Aug 2nd, To the women that songe before the king and 

the quene, in rewarde - - - 

Nov. 2nd, To a woman that singeth with a fidell - 
Nov. 27th, To Hampton of Wourcestre, for making of 

Balades, in rewarde . - . 

1496. April 25th, To Hugh Denes, for a lute 
June 25th, To Frensheman, player of the organea 
Aug. 5th, To a Preste that wrestelled at Ceceter - 
Aug. 17th, To the queue's fideler, in rewarde 

1499. June Gth, To the May-game at Greenwich 

1501. May 21st, For a lute for my lady Margaret [the king's 

eldest daughter, then about twelve years old, 

afterwards Queen of Scots] 
Sept. 30th, To theym that daunced the mer' [morris] daunce 
Dec. 4th, To the Princesse stryng mynstrels at Westminster 

1502. Jan. 7th, To one that sett the king's cleyvecordes 
Feb. 4th, To one Lewes, for a morris daunce 

1504. March Gth, For a pair of Clavycordes ... 

„ To John Sudborough, for a songe 

1505. July 25th, To the gentylmen of the kinges chapell, for to 

drinke with a bucke ... 
Aug. 1st, For a lute for my Lady Mary 
There is also a great variety of payments to the musicians of different towns, 
as the " Waytes" of Dover, Canterbury, Dartford, Coventry, and Northampton ; 
the minstrels of Sandwich, the sha^vms of Maidstone ; to bagpipers, the king's 
piper (repeatedly), the piper at Huntingdon, &c. ; to harpers, some of whom were 
Welsh. And there are also several entries " To a Walsheman for a ryme ;" 
liberal presents to the poets, of his mother (the Countess of Richmond), of the 
prince, and of the king ; to " the rymer of Scotland," who was in all probability the 
Scotch poet, William Dunbar, who celebrated the nuptials of James IV. and the 
princess Margaret, in his " Thistle and the Rose," and to an Italian poet. All 
these may be seen in Excerpta Historica (8vo., 1833), and, as the editor 
remarks : — " To judge from the long catalogue of musicians and musical instru- 
ments, flutes, recorders, ti'umpets, sackbuts, harps, shalmes, bagpipes, organs, and 
round organs, clavicords, lutes, horns, pipers, fiddlers, singers, and dancers, Hem-y's 
love of music must have been great, which is further established by the fact, that 
in every town he entered, as well as on board the ship which conveyed him to 
Calais, he was attended by minstrels and waits." 

■* A pair of organs, means a set of organs, i.e., an organ. we still say, " a^atr of steps" — " up two pair of stairs." 
A pack of cards was formerly called a pair of cards, and 



13 


4 


2 





1 





1 





6 


8 


2 





1 





13 


4 


6 


8 


6 


8 


1 6 


8 


4 





13 


4 


1 6 


8 


2 





10 


4 


1 13 


4 


13 





1 





2 





13 


4 



60 HENRY VIII. 

A manuscript, containing a large number of songs and carols, has been recently 
found in the library of Balliol Coll., Oxford, -where it had been accidently con- 
cealed, behind a book-case, during a great number of years. It is in the hand- 
writing of Eichard Hill, merchant of London, and contains entries from the year 
1483 to 1535. Six or eight of the songs and carols are the same as in the book 
printed by the Percy Society, to which I have referred at page 41, and especially 
the carol, " Nowell Nowell," but the volume does not contain music. The song 
of the contention between Holly and Ivy, beginning " Holly beareth berries, berries 
red enough," which is printed in Ritson's Ancient Songs, from a manuscript 
of Henry the Sixth's time, is there also, proving that some of the songs are 
of a much earlier date than the manuscript, and that they were still in favor. At 
fol. 210, V. is a copy of the " Nut-browne Mayde," and at the end of it " Explicit 
quod, Rich. Hill," which was the usual mode of claiming authorship of a work. 

In the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, Cambi-idge, there is a manuscript 
book of vocal music (No. 87), containing the compositions of the most eminent 
masters, English and foreign, of the time of Henry VH., written for the then 
Prince of Wales. It was the Prince's book, is beautifully written on vellum, and 
illuminated with his figure in miniature. 

Hem-y VHI. was not only a great patron of music, but also a composer; and, 
according to Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who wrote his life, he composed two 
complete services, which were often sung in his chapel. Hollinshed, in speaking 
of the removal of the court to Windsor, when Henry was beginning his progress, 
tells us that he " exercised himselfe dailie in shooting, singing, dansing, -ftTessling, 
casting of the barre, plaieing at the recorders, flute, virginals, in setting of songs, 
and making of ballades." All accounts agree in describing him as an amiable and 
accomplished prince in the early part of his reign; and the character given of him 
to the Doge of Venice, by his three ambassadors at the English court, could 
scarcely be expressed in more favorable terms. In their joint despatch of 
May 3rd, 1515, they say : " He is so gifted and adorned with mental accomplish- 
ments of every sort, that we believe him to have few equals in the world. He 
speaks English, French, and Latin ; understands Italian weU ; plays almost 
on every instrument, and composes faii'ly (delegnamente) ; is prudent and sage, 
and free from every vice."* 

In the letter of Sagudino (Secretary to the Embassy) , writen to Alvise Foscari, 
at this same date, he says : " He is courageous, an excellent musician, plays the 
virginals well, is learned for his age and station, and has many other endowments 
and good parts." On the 1st of May, 1515, after the celebration of May-day at 
Greenwich, the ambassadors dined at the palace, and after dinner were taken into 
certain chambers containing a number of organs, virginals (clavicimbani), flutes, 
and other instruments ; and having heard from the ambassadors that Saguduio 
was a proficient on some of them, he was asked by the nobles to play, which 

» Despatch written by Pasqualigo, Badoer, and Gius- of Venice, from January, 1515, to July 26, 1519. Trans- 
tinian conjointly. See four years at tlie Court of Henry lated by Rawdon Brown. 8vo., 1854, vol. i., p. 76, 
VIII., Selection of Despatches addressed to the Signory 



VENETIAN AMBASSADORS — ERASMUS. 61 

he did for a long while, both on the virginals and organ, and says that he bore 
himself bravely, and was listened to with great attention. The prelates told him 
that the king would certainly wish to hear him, for he practised on these instru- 
ments day and night. 

Pasqualigo, the ambassador-extraordinary, gives a similar account at the same 
time. Of Henry he says : " He speaks French, English, and Latin, and a little 
Italian, plays well on the lute and virginals, sings from book at sight, di-aws the 
bow with greater strength than any man in England, and jousts marvellously. 
Believe me he is in every respect a most accomplished prince ; and I, who have 
now seen all the sovereigns in Christendom, and last of all these two of France 
and England, might well rest content," &c. Of the chapel service, Pasqualigo 
says : " We attended High Mass, which was chaunted by the bishop of Durham, 
with a superb and noble descant choir"" (Capella di Discanto) ; and Sagudino 
says : " High Mass was chaunted, and it was sung by his majesty's choristers, 
whose voices are really rather divine than human ; they did not chaunt, but sung 
like angels (non cantavano, ma jubilavano) ; and as for the deep bass voices, 
I don't think they have their equals in the world." '' (Vol. i., p. 77.) 

Upon these despatches the editor remarks: "As Pasqualigo had been ambassador 
at the courts of Spain, Portugal, Hungary, France, and of the Emperor, he was 
enabled to form comparisons between the state of the science in those kingdoms 
and our own ; and, indeed, it is the universal experience of the Venetian ambas- 
sadors, and their peculiar freedom from prejudice or partiality (no jealousy or 
rivalry existing between them and England), that makes their comments on our 
country so valuable." (Vol. 1, p. 89.) 

Erasmus, speaking of the English, said that they challenge the prerogative of 
having the most handsome women, of keeping the best tables, and of being most 
accomplished in the skill of music of any people; "^ and it is certain that the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century produced in England a race of musicians equal to 
the best in foreign countries, and in point of secular music decidedly in advance 
of them. When Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex, went from Antwerp 
to Eome, in 1510, to obtain from Pope Julius H. the renewal of the " greater and 
lesser pardon" "^ for the town of Boston, for the maintenance of their decayed port, 

a Descant choir is not a proper term, because the Music Hu. — " Peace, man, prick-song may not be despised, 

of the King's Chapel was not extempore descant, but in For therewith God is well pleased, 

■written counterpoint of four parts. Several of the manu- Honoured, praised, and served 

scripts in use about this period, are preserved in the In the Church oft-times among." 

King's Library, British Museum, and some were Henry's Ig, — '* Is God well pleased, trow'st thou, thereby? 

own books. They are beautifully written manuscripts Nay, nay I for there is no reason why : 

on parchment, bearing the King's arms. In one a Canon For is it not as good to say plainly 

in eight parts is inserted on the words " Honi soit qui ♦ Give me a spade,' 

mal y pense." The references to these manuscripts As 'give me a spa-ve-va, ve-va-ve-vade?* 

will be found in Mr. Oliphant's Catalogue of Musical But if thou wilt have a song that is good, 

MSS., British Museum, towards the commencement. I have one of Robin Hood," &c. 

See Nos. 12, 13, 21, &c. « "Britanni, prater alia, formam, musicam, et lautas 

1, ml, a -J 1, i j^ i, L ■ . ■ ■ mensas propria sibi vindicent." — Erasmus Enconium 

^ The flond character of the counterpoint va use in ""="»"= iiit^pn 

churches in those days is slyly reproved in a dialogue be- . ,„. ' -, r. ., *, ,^- ♦« 

' ' ' " s i These pardons, says Foxe, gave them the power to 

tween Humanity and Ignorance, in the Interlude of The ^^^^^^^ f^^ remission, " a pa?na et culpa ; " also pardon 

^our Elements, printed about 1510. (Prick-song meant f^j j^uls in purgatory, on payment of 6s. id. for the first 

harmony written or pricked down, in opposition to plain- year, and 12d. for every year after, to the Church of St. 

song, where the descant rested with the will of the singer.) Botolph's, Boston. 



52 HENRY VIII. 

"being loth," says Foxe, "to spend much time, and more loth to spend his money, 
amoiag the greedy cormorants of the Pope's court," he devised to meet him on his 
return from hunting; and "having knowledge how the Pope's holy tooth greatly 
delighted in new-fangled strange delicates and dainty dishes, it came into his 
mind to prepare certain fine dishes of jelly, made after our covintry manner here 
in England ; which to them of Rome was not known nor seen before. This done, 
Cromwell observing his time accordingly, as the Pope was newly come from 
hmiting into his pavilion, he, with his companions, approached with his English 
presents, brought in with a three-man^ s song (as we call it) in the English tongue, 
and all after the English fashion. The Pope suddenly marvelling at the strange- 
ness of the song, and understanding that they were Englishmen, and that they 
came not empty-handed, willed them to be called in; and seeing the strangeness of 
the dishes, commanded by and by his Cardinal to make the assay ; who in tasting 
thereof, liked it so well, and so likewise the Pope after him, that knowing of them 
what their suits were, and requiring them to make known the making of that meat, 
he, incontinent, without any more ado, stamped both their pardons, as well the 
greater as the lesser." (Acts and Monuments.) The introduction of these songs 
into Italy is also mentioned by Michael Drayton in his Legend of Thomas 
Cromwell, Earl of Essex, which was first printed in quarto in 1609. 

" Not long it was ere Eome of me did ring, 
Hardly shall Eome such full days see again ; 
Of Freemen's Catches to the Pope I sing, 
Which won much licence for my countrymen. 
Thither the which I was the first did bring, 
That were unknown in Italy till then," &c. 

In the Life of Sir Peter Carew, by John Vowell, alias Hoker, of Exeter 
(Archseologia, vol. 28), Freemen's Songs are again mentioned. "From this time 
he (Sir Peter) continued for the most part in the court, spending his time in 
all coui-tly exercises, to his great praise and commendation, and especially to the 
good liking of the king (Henry VIH.), who had a great pleasure in him, as 
well for his sundry noble qualities, as also for his singing. For the king himself 
being much delighted to sing, and Sir Peter Carew having a pleasant voice, the 
king would often use him to sing with him certain songs they call Freemen Songs, 
as namely, 'By the bancke as I lay,' and 'As I walked the wode so wylde,' " &c. 

To sing at sight was so usual an accomplishment of gentlemen in those days, 
that to be deficient in that respect was considered a serious drawback to success in 
life. Skelton, in his Bowge at Court, introduces Harvy Hafter as one who cannot 
sing " on the booke," but he thus expresses his desire to learn : — 

" Wolde to God it wolde please you some day, 
A balade boke before me for to laye, 
And lerne me for to synge re, mi, fa, sol, 
, And when I fayle, bobbe me on the noil." 

Skelton's Works. Ed. Dyce, vol. i., p. 40. 



THE ENGLISH LOVE OF SONGS AND BALLADS. 53 

Barklay, in his fourth Eclogue, (about 1514) says — 

" When your fat dishes smoke hot upon your table, 
Then laude ye songs, and ballades magnifie ; 
If they be merry, or written craftely, 
Ye clap your handes and to the making harke, 
And one say to another, Lo, here a proper warke ! " 

The interlude of " The Foui- Elements" was printed by Eastall about 1510 ; 
and, in that. Sensual Appetite, one of the characters, recommends Humanity " to 
comfort his lyf naturall" with "daunsing, laughyng, or plesaunt songe," and 
says — " Make room, sirs, and let us be merry, 

With huff a galand, syng Tyrll on the berry. 

And let the wide world wynde. 
Sing Frisk a jolly, with Hey trolly lolly. 
For I see it is but folly for to have a sad mind." 

Percy Soc, No. 74. 

" Hey, ho, frisca jolly, under the greenwood tree," is the burden of one of the 
songs in the musical volume of the reign of Hem-y VHI. (MS. Reg. Append. 58.) 
from which I have extracted several specimens. It contains, also, some instru- 
mental pieces, such as " My Lady Carey's Dompe," and " My Lady Wynkfield's 
Rownde," which when well played on the virginals, as recently, by an able lectui-er, 
are very effective and musical. 

Some of Henry the Eighth's own compositions are still extant. Li a collection 
of anthems, motets, and other church offices, in the handwriting of John Baldwin, 
of Windsor, (who also transcribed that beautiful manuscript, Lady Neville's 
Virginal Book, in 1591), is a composition for three voices, " Quam pulchra es, et 
quam decora." It bears the name Henricus Octavus at the beginning, and "quod 
Henricus Octavus" at the end of the cantus part. The anthem " Lord, the 
maker of all things," which is attributed to him in Boyce's Cathedral Music, is 
the composition of William Mundy ; the words only are taken from Henry the 
Eighth's primer. Some music for a mask, which Stafford Smith attributes to 
him, will be found in the Arundel Collection of MS. (Brit. Mus.) or in Musica 
Antiqua, vol. i. ; and one of his ballads, " Pastime with good company," is given 
as a specimen in the following pages. 

In 1533 a proclamation was issued to suppress " fond [foolish] books, ballads, 
rhimes, and other lewd treatises in the English tongue ;" and in 1537 a man of 
the name of John Hogon was arrested for singing a political ballad to the tune of 
" The hunt is up." It was not only among the upper classes that songs and 
ballads were then so general, although the- allusions to the music of the lower 
classes are less frequently to be met with at this period than a little later, when 
plays, which give the best insight to the manners and customs of private life, had 
become general. One passage, however, from Miles Coverdale's " Address unto 
the Christian reader" prefixed to his " Goastly Psalmes and Spii'ituall Songes," 
[1538] will suffice to prove it. " Wolde God that our Mynstrels had none other 
thynge to play upon, neither our carters and plowmen other thynge to whistle 



54 HENRY VIII. 

upon, save psalmes, hymns, and such like godly songes. . . And if women at 
the rockes,'' and spinnynge at the wheles, had none other songes to pass their tyme 
■withall, than such as Moses' sister, . . songe before them, they should be better 
occupied than with Sey, nonny, nonny — Hey, trolly, lolly, and such like fantasies." 
Despite the excellent intent with which this advice was given, it did not evidently 
make much impression, either then or after. The traditional tunes of every 
country seem as natui-al to the common people as warbling is to birds in a 
state of nature; the carters and ploughmen continued to be celebrated for their 
whistling, to the end of the eighteenth century, and the women thought rather with 
Ophelia : " You must sing doiun, a-down, an you call him a-down-a, Oh, how the 
wheel becomes it ! " 

Anthony a Wood says that Sternhold, who was Groom of the Chamber to 
Henry "VlLL., versified fifty-one of the Psalms, and " caused musical notes to be 
set to them, thinking thereby that the courtiers would sing them instead of their 
sonnets, but did not, only some few excepted." They were not, however, printed 
till 1549. On the title page it is expressed that they were to be sung "in private 
houses, for godly solace and comfort, and for the laying apart all ungodly songes 
and ballads." 

Although Henry VHI. had given all possible encouragement to ballads and 
songs in the early part of his reign, both in public and private, — and in proof 
of their having been used on public occasions, I may mention the coronation of 
Anne Boleyn, when a chou' of men and boys stood on the leads of St. Martin's 
Chm'ch, and sang new ballads in praise of her majesty, — yet, when they were re- 
sorted to as a weapon against the Reformation, or in opposition to any of his own 
opinions and varying commands, he adopted the summary process of suppressing 
them altogether. It is in some measm-e owing to that act, but principally to their 
perishable nature, that we have no printed ballads now remaining of an earlier 
date than that on the do^vnfall of his former favorite, Thomas, Lord Cromwell, 
which is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, at Somerset House. The 
act, which was passed in 1543, is entitled " An act for the advancement of true 
religion, and for the abolishment of the contrary" (Anno 34-35, c. i.), and recites 
that " froward and malicious minds, intending to subvert the true exposition of 
scripture, have taken upon them, by printed ballads, rhymes, etc., subtilly and 
craftily to instruct his highness' people, and specially the youth of this his realm, 
untruly. For reformation whereof, his majesty considereth it most requisite to 
pm'ge his realm of all such books, ballads, rhymes, and songs, as be pestiferous 
and noisome. Thei'efore, if any printer shall print, give, or deliver, any such, he 
shall suifer for the first time imprisonment for three months, and forfeit for every 
copy 10/., and for the second time, forfeit all his goods and his body be committed 
to perpetual prison." Although the act only expresses " all such books, ballads, 
rhymes, and songs as be pestiferous and noisome," there is a list of exceptions 
to it, and no ballads of any description are excepted. " Provided, also, that 

" Rock, a distaff; that is, the staff on which flax was the corresponding part of the spinning wheel. — Narss* 
held, when spinning was performed without a wheel : or Glossary. 



ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND PROCLAMATIONS AGAINST BALLADS. 55 

all books printed before tlie year 1540, entituled Statutes, Chronicles, Canterbury 
Tales, Cbaucer's books, Gower's books, and stories of men's lives, shall not be 
comprehended in the prohibition of this act." It was not, hoTvever, the first time 
that ballads had been employed for controversy on religious subjects. The ballads 
against the Lollards, and those against the old clergy, have been mentioned at 
page 40 ; and there is a large number extant against monks and friars, many of 
■which were, and some still are, popular. 

The first collection of songs in parts that was printed in England, was in 1530 ; 
but of that only a base part now remains.^ There are, however, many such collec- 
tions in manuscript in pubUc and private libraries. Stafibrd Smith's printed 
collection of songs in score, composed about the year 1500, is almost entirely 
taken from one manuscript. 

Henry Vm. left a large number of musical instruments at his death, the in- 
ventory of which may be seen in Harl. MSS. No. 1419, fol. 200 ; and, as might 
be expected, all his children were well taught in music. 

"Ballads," says Mr. Collier, "seem to have multiplied after Edward VI. came 
to the throne ; no new proclamation was issued, nor statute passed on the subject, 
while Edward continued to reign ; but in less than a month after Mary became 
queen, she published an edict against ' books, baUads, rhymes, and treatises,' 
which she complained had been ' set out by printers and stationers, of an evil 
zeal for lucre, and covetous of vile gain.' There is little doubt, from the few 
pieces remaining, that it was, in a considerable degree, efiectual for the end 



The following tunes are occasionally classed rather under the dates to which 
I consider them to belong, than by those of the copies from which they are derived; 
but as the authorities are given in every case, the reader has the means before him 
of forming his own opinion. Some, however, are classed rather for convenience of 
subject, as songs of Robin Hood, songs or tunes mentioned by Shakespeare, &c. 

After a few from manuscripts of the time of Henry VIH., there are specimens 
of " King Henry's Mirth, or Freemen's Songs," from a collection printed in 1609, 
which contains many " fine vocal compositions of very great antiquity,'"' But 
of those, I have only selected such as were also used as song or ballad tunes, 
sung by a single voice. 

* It contained compositions by Cornish, Pygot, Ash- It met with so much success, that in the same year he 

well, Tavemer, Gwynneth, Jones, Dr. Cowper, and Dr. published a second, called "Deuteromelia: or the second 

Fairfax. See the Index in Ritson's Ancient Songs, part of Musick's Melodie, or melodious musicke of plea- 

p. xxili., last edition. StatFord Smith's are principally by sant Roundelayes, K. H. [King Henry's] Mirth, or Free- 

Fairfax, Newark, Heath, Turges, Sheringham, and Sir men's Songs," &c. ; and in 1611, a third collection, called 

Thomas Philipps; but this list of composers might be " Melismata : Musical Phansies, fitting the court, city, 

increased greatly by including those in other manuscripts. and countrey humours." Some of the Songs and Catches 

'' In 1609, Thomas Ravenscroft, Mus. Bac, collected in these collections are undoubtedly of the reign of Henry 

and printed 100 old Catches, Rounds, and Canons, under VII., and it is to be presumed that the authors of all 

the title of "Pammelia: Musick's Miscellanie, or mixed were unknown to Ravenscroft, as, contrary to custom, 

varietie of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches." he does not mention them in any instance. 



56 



ENGLISH SONG AND BAILAB MUSIC. 



"Pastime with good Company." 

The words and music of this song are preserved in a manuscript of the time of 
Henry VIII., formerly in Ritson's possession, and now in the British Museum 
(Add. MSS., 5665) ; in which it is entitled The King's Ballad. Ritson 
mentions it in a note to his Historical Essay on Scotish Song, and Stafford Smith 
printed it in his Musica Antiqua in score for three men's voices. It is the first of 
those mentioned in Wedderburn's Complaint of Scotland, which was published in 
1549 : " Now I will rehearse some of the sweet songs that I heard among them 
(the shepherds) as after follows : in the first Pastance tvitJi good Company^'' &c. 
The time is also to be found arranged for the lute (without words) in the volume 
among the king's MSS. before cited (Append. 58), of which " Dominus Johannes 
Bray" was at one time the possessor. This may be considered as another proof 
of its former popularity. 

Song by Henry VIII. 



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In moderate time. 



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Pas-time with good com - pa-ny I love, and shall un - til I die ; 



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Gnidge who will, but none As - ny, So God l>e pleas'd this life wiil 1 : For my pastance, Eunt, 



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sing and dance ; My heart is set. All good-ly sport To my comfort, Who shall me let ? 



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Youth will needs have dalliance, 
Of good or ill some pastance ; 
Company me thinketh the best 
All thoughts and fantasies to digest. 

For idleness 

Is chief mistress 

Of vices all : 

Then who can say 
But pass the day 

Is best of all? 



Company with honesty 

Is virtue, — and vice to flee ; 

Company is good or ill, 

But ev'ry man hath his free will. 

The best I sue. 

The worst eschew : 

My mind shall be 
Virtue to use : 
Vice to refuse 

I shall use me. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



57 



" Ah ! THE SIGHS THAT COME FRO' MY HEART." 

This little love-song is the first in MSS. Reg. Append. 58., of the time of 
Henry VIII., and the air is both elegant and expressive. The cadence, or flom-ish 
at the end, is characteristic of the period, and there is a pretty attempt at 
musical expression on the words, " fro' my love depart." 



Smoothly and with expression. 



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Ah ! the syghes that come fro' my heart, They grieve me passing sore : 



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I must fro' my love de - part, Fare-well my joye for e- ver - more 



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Ah ! the sighs that come from my heart, 
They grieve me passing sore, 

Sith I must fro' my love depart, 
Farewell, my joye, for evermore. 

Oft to me, with her goodly face. 
She was wont to cast an eye : 

And now absence to me in place ? 
Alas ! for woe I die, I die ! 



I was wont her to behold. 

And take in armes twain ; 
And now, with sighes manifold, 

Farewell my joy ! and welcome pain ! 

Ah ! me think that should I yet. 
As would to God that I might ! 

There would no joys compare with it 
Unto my heart, to make it light. 



" Western wind, when wilt thou blow ? " 

This is also taken from MSS. Reg. Append. 58, time of Henry VHI. As the 
tmae appears to be in the ancient Dorian mode, it has been harmonized iii that 
mode, to preserve its peculiarity of character. 

The writer of a quarto volume on ancient Scotish melodies has asserted that 
all the ancient English music in Ritson's, or other collections, is of a heavy 
drawling character. An assertion so at variance with fact must either have 
proceeded from narrow-minded prejudice, or from his not having understood 
ancient musical notation. That he could not discriminate between Scotch and 
English music is evinced by the fact of his having appropriated some of the best 
known English compositions as ancient Scotish melodies." 



^ This writer also cites the authority of Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, who says uolliing of Ike hind; and in the same 



sentence, appropriates what Giraldus says in favour of 
Irish music to Scotcli, 



68 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The following song is one of those adduced by him in proof of the drawling of 
English music; but I have restored the words to their proper places, and it is by 
no means a drawling song. It should be borne in mind that these specimens of 
EngKsh music are long anterior to any Scotish music that has been produced. 



Moderate time. 



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Westron wynde when wyll thou blow? The smalle rain downe 'doth' rayne; 'Oh! 



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if my love were in my armys, ' Or' I in my bed a - gayne. 



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" Blow thy horn, Hunter ! " 

This is also copied from MSS. Reg. Append. 58, time of Henry VHI. It is a 
spirited tune, and should be sung more quickly in proportion than the others, 
because in modernizing the notation, I have only made a crotchet into a quaver, 
instead of into a semiquaver, as would have been more correct, considering the 
date of the manuscript. 

Boldly and well marked. 



J Xioiaiu uitti well -inuj kcu. i i 



Blow thy home, hun-ter, Cum, blow thy home on hye ! In yonder wode there lyeth a duo. In 



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fnyih she wo'll not dye. Cum, blow thy home, him-ter, fcum, blow thy home, joly hu 



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FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



59 



"The Three Kavens." 
This song is one of those included under the head of " Country Pastimes " in 
Melismata, 1611. Ritson in his Ancient Songs, remarlis : " It will be obvious 
that this ballad is much older, not only than the date of that book, but than most 
of the other pieces contained in it." It is nevertheless still so popular in some 
parts of the country, that I have been favored with a variety of copies of it, 
written down from memory ; and all diifering in some respects, both as to words 
and tune, but with sufficient resemblance to prove a similar origin. 
Slowly, smoothly, and with great expression. 




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There were three ra-vens sat on a tree, Down a down, hey down, hey down, They 



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were as black as they might be, With a down, 



The one of them said 



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to his mate,Where shall wo ' now' om' breakfast take ? With a down, deny, derry , deny down, do^vn 



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Down in yonder green field, Down a down, hey down, hey down, 

Tliere lies a knight slain, under his shield. With a down. 

His hounds they lie down at bis feet, 

So well ' do' they their master keep. With a down, derry, &c. 

His hawks they fly so eagerly, Down a down, &c. 

There's no fowl ' that ' dare him come nigh. With a down. 

Down there comes a fallow doe. 

As great with young as she might go. With a down, derry, &c. 

She lifted up his bloody head, Down a down, &c. 
And kiss'd his wounds that were so red; With a down. 
She got him up upon her back, 
And carried him to earthen lake. With a down, &c. 

She buried him before the prime : With a down, &c. 

She was dead herself ere even-song time. With a down. 

God send every gentleman 

Such hawks, such hounds, and such a leman [lov'd one]. With a down, &c. 



60 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" The Hunt is up." 
Among the favorites of Henry the Eighth, Puttenham notices " one Gray, 
what good estimation did he grow unto with the same King Henry, and afterwards 
with the Duke of Somerset, Protectour, for making certaine merry hallades, 
whereof one chiefly was, The himte is up, the hunte is ?«p." Perhaps it was the 
same William Gray who wrote a ballad on the downfall of Thomas Lord Cromwell 
in 1540, to which there are several rejomders in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries. The tune The Hunt is up was known as early as 1537, when 
information was sent to the Council against one John Hogon, who had offended 
against the proclamation of 1533, which was issued to suppress " fond books, 
ballads, rhimes, and other lewd treatises in the English tongue," by singing, 
" with a crowd or a fyddyll," a political song to that tune. Some of the words 
are inserted in the information, but they were taken down from recitation, and are 
not given as verse (see Collier's Shakespeare, i., p. cclxxxviii.) In the Complaint 
of Scotland, 1549, The Hunt is up is mentioned as a tune for dancing, for which, 
from its lively character, it seems peculiarly suited ; and Mr. Collier has a MS. 
which contains a song called " The Kinges Hunt is upp," which may be the very 
one written by Gray, since " Harry om* King" is twice mentioned in it, and a 
religious parody as old as the reign of Henry VIH. is in precisely the same 
measure. The following is the song : — 

"The Kinges Hunt is upp." 



Merrihj. 



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— )>' — =^ — 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, And 



well nigh 

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rfrrrrr 



day ; 



And Harry our King is gone hunting, To bring his deer to 



bay. 



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The east is bright with morning light, 

And darkness it is fled, 
And the merie home wakes up the morne 

To leave his idle bed. 



Beholde the skyes with golden dyes 

Are glowing all around, 
The grasse is greene, and so are the treene 

All laughing at the sound. 

Awake, all men, I say agen, 
Be mery as you maye. 

For Harry our Kinge is gone hunting, 
To bring his deere to baye. 



The horses snort to be at the sport, 
The dogges are running free. 

The woddes rejoyce at the mery noise 
Of hey tantara tee ree ! 

The sunne is glad to see us clad 

All in our lustie greene, 
And smiles in the skye as he riseth hj'e, 

To see and to be seene. 



FROM HENEY VII. TO MARY. 61 

The tune is taken from MusicFs delight on the Cithren, edition of 1666, -which 
contains many very old and popular tunes, such as " Trip, and go," and " Light 
o' Love" (both mentioned by Shakespeare), ■which I have not found in any other 
printed collection. Ritson, in his Ancient Songs, quotes the following song of 
one verse, -which is in the same measure, and -was therefore probably sung to the 
same tune. It may be found in Merry Drollery Oomplete, 1661, and the Wew 
Academy of Complements, 1694 and 1713. 

" The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 
And now it is almost day ; 
And he that's 'at home, in bed with his wife,' 
'Tis time to get him away." 

Any song intended to arouse in the morning — even a love-song — -was formerly 
called a hunfs-up. Shakespeare so employs it in Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Sc. 5 ; 
and the name -was of course derived from a tune or song employed by early 
hunters. Butler, in his Principles of Musik, 1636, defines a hunfs-up as 
" morning music ;" and Cotgrave defines "Resveil" as a hunt's-up, or ilforMzwy 
Sonff for a new-married wife. In^arnfield's Affectionate SJiepherd, 1594, — 
" And every morn by dawning of the day, 
When Phcsbus riseth with a bhishing face, 
SUvanus' chapel clerks shall chaunt a lay, 

And play thee hunt's-up in thy resting place. 
My cot thy chamber, my bosom thy bed. 
Shall be appointed for thy sleepy head." 
Again, in Wifs Bedlam, 1617, — 

" Maurus, last morne, at's mistress' window plaid 
An hunt's-up on his lute," &c. 

The follo-fting song, which is also taken from Mr. Collier's manuscript, is of 
the character of a love-song : — 

"The New Hunt's-up." 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady free. Awake, my lady gay, 

The sun hath risen, from out his prison, The stars are fled to the ocean bed, 

Beneath the glistering sea. And it is now broad day. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, The hunt is up, the hunt is up. 
Awake, my lady bright. Awake, my lady sheen. 

The morning lark is high, to mark The hills look out, and the woods about, 
The coming of day-light. Are drest in lovely green. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, • The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady fair, Awake, my lady dear. 

The kine and sheep, but now asleep, A morn in spring is the sweetest thing 

Browse in the morning air. Cometh in all the year. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up. 

Awake, my lady sweet, 
I come to thy bower, at this lov'd hour, 

My own true love to greet. 



62 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

The religious parody of The Hunt is up, wMch -was -written by John Thorne, 
has been printed by Mr. Halliwell, at the end of the moral play of Wit and 
Science, together mth other curious songs from the same manuscript (Addit. MS., 
No. 15,233, Brit. Mus.) There are seventeen verses ; the first is as foUows : — 

" The hunt ys up, the hunt j'S up, 
Loe I it is allmost daye ; 
For Christ our Kyng is cum a huntyiig, 
And browght his dears to staye," &c. 

but a more lively performance is contained in " Ane compendious booke of Godly 
and SpirituaU Songs . . . with sundrie . . . baUates changed out of prophaine 
Sanges," &c., printed by Andro Hart in Edinburgh in 1621. The writer is very 
bitter against the Pope, who, he says, never ceased, " under dispence, to get our 
pence," and who sold " remission of sins in aukl sheep skins;" and compares 
him to the fox of the hunt. The original edition of that book was printed in 1590. 

In Queen Elizabeth's and Lady NevUle's Vii-ginal Books, is a piece, with twelve 
variations, by Byrde, called " The Hunt is up," which is also called " Pescod 
Time," in another part of the former book. It Jbears no appearance of ever having 
been intended for words ; certainly the songs in question could not be sung 
to it. 

A tune called Tlie Queene^s Majesties neio Sunt is up, is mentioned in Anthony 
Munday's Banquet of daintye conceits, 1588 ; and the ditty he gives, to be sung 
to it, called " Women are strongest, but truth overcometh all things," is in the 
same measure as the above, but I have not found any copy of the tune under that 
name. In 1565, William Pickering paid 4(?. for a license to print " a ballett 
intituled The Hunte ys up," &c. (see Registers of Stationers' Company, p. 129J. 



" Yonder comes a Courteous Knight." 

This is one of King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs, in Deuteromelia, 1609, 
and is to be found as a ballad in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, 
voh i. 1698 and 1707, or in vol. iii. of the edition of 1719. The story seems to 
have been particularly popular, as there are three ballads of later date upon the 
same subject. It is of a young lady who, being alone and unprotected, finds the 
too urgent addresses of a knight likely to prove troublesome ; and, to escape 
from that position, pretends to yield to him, and persuades him to escort her 
home; but — 

" When she came to her father's hall, 
It was well walled round about. 
She yode in at the wicket gate, 
And shut the four-ear'd fool without. 

Then she sung down, a-down," &c. 

The knight, regretting the lost opportunity, expresses himself in very uncourteous 
terms on the deceit of women. The ballad is printed in Eitson's Ancient Songs. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



63 



Gracefully. • 



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Yon - der comes a cour-teous knight, Lus- ti-ly rak-ing o - ver the lay, 



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TT was well 'ware of a bon - ny lass, As she came wand'ring o- ver the way. Then 



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she sang down a down, hey down derry, Then she sang down a down, hey down derry. 



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" Oft have I ridden upon my Grey Nag." 

This is evidently a version of the tune called Dargason. (See p. 65.) The latter 
part diifers, but that may be because this copy is taken from Pammelia, 1609, 
where three old tunes, " Shall I go walk the woods so wild," "Robin Hood, Robin 
Hood, said Little John," and this, are arranged to be sung together by three 
persons at the same time. Perhaps, the two lines from the Isle of Gulls, which 
are quoted at page 64, formed a portion of this song. Only one verse is given in 
Pammelia, and I have not succeeded in finding any other copy. 



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Ofthavel ridden up - on my grey nag, And with his cut tail he play'd the wag, And 



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down he fell up - on his crag. Fa, la, re, la, la, ri dan - di 



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64 english song and ballad music. 

" Dargason." " 
In Ritson's Ancient Songs, class 4 (from the reign of Edward VI. to Elizabeth) 
is " A merry ballad of the Hawthorn tree," to be sung to the tune of Donkin 
Dargeson. This cm-iosity is copied from a miscellaneous collection in the Cotton 
Library (Vespasian A. 25), and Ritson remarks, "This tune, whatever it was, 
appears to have been in use till after the Restoration." I have found several 
copies of the tune ; one is in the Public Library, Cambridge, among Dowland's 
manuscripts. The copy here given is from the Dancing Master, 1650-51, where 
it is called Dargason, or the Sedany. The Sedany was a country dance, the figure 
of which is described in the The Triumph of Wit, or Ingenuity displayed, p. 206. 
In Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub, we find, " But if you get the lass from Dargison, 
what will you do with her ? " Giiford, in a note upon this passage, says, " In 
some childish book of knight-errantry, which I formerly read, but which I cannot 
now recall to mind, there is a dwarf of this name (Dargison), who accompanies a 
lady, of great beauty and virtue, through many perilous adventures, as her guard 
and guide." In the Isle of G-ulls, played by the children of the Revels, in the 
Black Fryars, 1606, may be found the following scrap, possibly of the original 
ballad : " An ambling nag, and a-down, a-down, 

We have borne her away to Dargison." 
See also " Oft have I ridden upon my grey nag," page 63. In the Douce collec- 
tion of Ballads (fol. 207), Bodleian Library, as well as in the Pepysian, is a song 
called " The Shropshire Wakes, or hey for Christmas, being the delightful sports 
of most countries, to the tune of Dargason." It begins thus ; 
" Come Robin, Ralph, and little Harry, 

And merry Thomas to our green ; 
Where we shall meet with Bridget and Sary, 

And the finest girls that e'er were seen. 
Then hey for Christmas a once year, 

"VMien we have cakes, with ale and beer, 
For at Christmas ' every day,' 

Young men and maids ' may dance away,' " &c. 

"» This tune is inserted in Jones' Musical and Poetical (and especially by a very different version, under the same 

Relics of tJie Welsh Bards, -p. 129, under the name of "The name, in Parry's Cambrian Harmon^/, published about 

melody of Cynwyd;" and some other curious coincidences fifty years ago), there is considerable variation, as maybe 

occur in the same work. At page 172, the tune called expected in tunes traditionally preserved for so long a 

"The Welcome of the Hostess" is evidently our *' Mitter time, but their identity admits of little question. In 

Rant." At page 176, the tune called " Flaunting two," vol. ii., at p. 25, " The Willow Hymn" is, *' By the osiers 

is the country dance of " The Hemp Dresser, or the Lon- so dank." At p. 44, " The first of August " is, " Come, 

don Gentlewoman." At page 129, " The Delight of the jolly Bacchus," with a little admixture of " In my cottage 

men of Dovey," appears to be an inferior copy of near a wood." At page 33, a tune called " The Britons," 

'* Green Sleeves." At page 174, is '* Hunting the Hare," which is in The Dancing Master of 1696, is claimed. At 

which we also claim. At page 162, " The Monks* March" p. 45, " Mopsy's Tune, the old way," is "The Barking 

(of which Jones says, " Probably the tune of the Monks Barber," and " Prestwich Bells" is "Talk no more of 

of Bangor, when they marched to Chester, about the year Whig or Tory," contained in many collections. At vol. iii., 

603,") is " General Monk's March," published by Play- p. 15, " The Heiress of Montgomery" is another version 

ford, and the quick part, "The Rummer;" and at page of "As do^vn in the meadows." At p. 16, "Captain 

142, the air called "White Locks" is evidently Lord Corbett " is " Of all comforts I miscarried ;" and at p. 49, 

Commissioner Whitelocke's coranto, an account of which, " If love's a sweet passion," is claimed." In addition 

with the tune, is contained in Sir J. Hawkins' History o/ to these, Mr. Jones has himself noticed a coincidence 

J^fKS^c, vol. iv. page 51, and in Burney'siffsioryo/JIfMsic, between the tune called "The King's Note," (vol. iii.) 

vol. iii. page 378. In several of these, particularly in the and " Pastyme with good Company." Such mistakes will 

last, ■which is identified by the second part of the tune always occur when an editor relies solely on tradition. 



FROM HENKY VII. TO MARY. 



65 



There are sixteen verses in the song. The tune is one of those which only end 
when the singer is exhausted; for although, strictly speaking, it consists of but 
eight bars (and in the seventh edition of The Dancing Master only eight bars are 
printed), yet, from never finishing on the key-note, it seems never to end. Many 
of these short eight-bar tunes terminate on the fifth of the key, but when longer 
melodies were used, such as sixteen bars, they generally closed with the key-note. 
There were, however, exceptions to the rule, especially among dance tunes, which 
required frequent repetition. 



Pastoral character. 



'A MERY Ballet of the Hatiiorne Tre.' 



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It was a maid of my coun-try, As slie came by a hawthorn tree, As 



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full of flow'rs as might be seen, She marvell'd to see the tree so green. At 

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last she ask 

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of this tree, How came this fresh-ness un - to thee, And 

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ev' - ry branch so fair and clean ? I 



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mar - vel that you grow so green. The 



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The tree made answer by and by, 
I have cause to grow triumphantly, 
The sweetest dew that ever be seen, 
Doth fall on me to keep me green. 

Yea, quoth the maid, but where you grow 
You stand at hand for every blow. 
Of every man for to be seen, 
I marvel that you grow so green. 



Though many one take flowers from me, 
And many a branch out of my tree ; 
I have such store they will not be seen, 
For more and more my twigs grow green. 

But how, an they chance to cut thee down, 
And carry thy branches into the town ? 
Then they will never more be seen 
To grow again so fresh and green. 



66 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Though that you do it is no boot, 
Although they cut me to the root, 
Next year again I will be seen 
To bud my branches fresh and green. 

And you, fair maid, can not do so. 
For 'when your beauty once does go,' 
Then will it never more be seen. 
As I with my branches can grow green. 



The Maid with that began to blush. 
And turn'd her from the hawthorn bush ; 
She thought herself so fair and clean, 
Her beauty still would ever grow green. 

* * * * 

But after this never I could hear 
Of this fair maiden any where. 
That ever she was in forest seen 
To talk again with the hawthorn green. 



The above will be found in Ritson's Ancient Songs, in Evans' Collection of Old 
Ballads (vol. i., p. 342, 1810), and in Peele's Works, vol. ii., p. 256, edited by 
Dyce. It is included in the last named work, because in the MS. the name of 
" G. Peele " is appended to the song, but by a comparatively modern hand. The 
Rev. Alexander Dyce does not believe Peele to have been the author, and Ritson, 
who copied from the same manuscript, does not mention his name. 



SHALL I GO WALK THE WOODS SO WILD ? 

This is mentioned in the Life of Sir Peter Carew as one of the Freemen's Songs, 
which he used to sing with Henry VHI. — (See page 52). It must have enjoyed 
an extensive and long-continued popularity, for there are three diiferent arrange- 
mfents of it in Queen Elizabeth's Vii'ginal Book, all by Byrde ; it is in Lady 
Neville's Virginal Book ; in Pammelia (1609) it is one of the three tunes that 
could be sung together ; and it is in The Dancing Master, from the first edition, 
in 1650, to that of 1690. In the edition of 1650, it is called Greenwood^ and in 
some of the later copies, Greenivood, or The Huntsman. 

There were probably different words to the tune, because in the Life of Sir 
Peter Carew it is called " As I walked the woods so wild;" in Lady Neville's 
Virginal Book, " TTiY/ ^/om walk the woods so wild ? " and in PamMze&, "Shall 
T go walk,'" &c. 



Moderate time. 




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Shall I go walk the woods so wild. Wandering, wand'ring here and there, As 




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FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 67 

JOHN DORY. 

This celebrated old song is inserted among the Freemen^ Songs of three voices 
in Deuteromelia, 1609. It is also to be found in Playford's Musical Companion 
1687, and for one voice in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy, vol. i. 
1698 and 1707. It is, however, much older than any of these books. Carew, 
in his Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p. 135, says, " The prowess of one Nicholas 
son to a widow near Foy, is descanted upon in an old three-man'' s song, namely 
how he fought bravely at sea, with one John Dory (a Genowey, as I conjecture) 
set forth by John, the French King, and after much blood shed on both sides, took 
and slew him," &c. Carew was born in 1555. The only King John of France 
died a prisoner in England, in 1364. In the play of Gf-ammer Gfurton's Needle 
there is a song, "I cannot eat but little meat," which was sung to the tune of 
John Dory. The play was printed in 1575, but the song appears to be older. 
(See page 72). Bishop Corbet thus mentions John Dory, with others, in his 
"Journey to Fraunce : " 

" But woe is me I the guard, those men of warre, 

Who but two weapons use, beef and the barre, 

Begun to gripe me, knowing not the truth, 

That I had sung John Dory iu my youth ; 

Or that I knew the day when I could chaunt. 

Chevy, and Arthur, or The Siege of Gaunt." 
Bishop Earle, in his " Character of a Poor Fiddler," says, "Hunger is the greatest 
pains he takes, except a broken head sometimes, and labouring John Dory.''^ In 
Fletcher's comedy Tlie Chances, Antonio, a humourous old man, receives a wound, 
which he will only suffer to be dressed on condition that the song of John Dory be 
sung the while, and he gives 10s. to the singers. It is again mentioned by 
Fletcher in The Knight of the Burning Pestle; by Brathwayte in Drunken 
JBarnahy's Journal ; in Vox Borealis, or the Northern Discoverie, 1641 ; in some 
verses on the Duke of Buckingham, 1628 : 

" Then Viscount Slego telleth a long storie 
Of the supplies, as if he sung John Dorie ;" 
and twice by Gayton, in his Pleasant Notes upon Don Quixote, 1654. 

A parody was made upon it by Sir John Mennis, on the occasion of Sir John 
Suckling's troop of horse, which he raised for Charles I., running away in the 
civil war, and it was much sung by the Parliamentarians at the time. In will be 
found in Wit Restored, 1658, entitled " Upon Sir John Suckling's most warlike 
preparation for the Scottish War," and begins — 

" Sir John got him an ambling nag." 
In the epilogue to a farce called the Empress of Morocco, 1674, intended to 
ridicule a tragedy of the same name by Elk. Settle, and Sir W. Davenant's 
alteration of Macbeth (which had been lately revived with the addition of music 
by Mathew Locke), " the most renowned and melodious song of John Dory was 
to be heard in the air, sung m parts by spirits, to raise the expectation and charm 
the aiidience with thoughts sublime and worthy of the heroic scene which follows." 
It is quoted in Folly in print, 1667 ; in Merry Drollery complete, 1670 ; and in 



68 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



many songs. Dryden refers to it, as one of the most hackneyed m his time, 
in one of his lampoons : 

" But Sunderland, Godolpliin, Lory, 
These will appear such chits in story, 
'Twill turn all politics to jest. 
To be repeated, like John Dory, 
When fiddlers sing at feasts." 
The above lines were also printed under the name of the " Earl of Rochester." 

The name of the fish called John Dory, corrupted from doree or dorn, is 
another proof of the great popularity of this song. 
Cheerfully. 






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And when John Dory to Paris was come, 

A little before the gate-a ; 
John Dory was fitted, the porter was witted, 

To let him in thereat-a. 

The first man that John Dory did meet, 
Was good King John of France-a : 

John Dory could well of his courtesie, 
But fell down in a trance-a. 

A pardon, a pardon, my liege and king. 

For my merry men and me-a : 
And all the churls in merr)' England 

I'll bring them bound to thee-a. 

And Nichol was then a Cornish man, 

A little beside Bohyde-a ; 
And he manned forth a good black bark, 

With fifty good oars on a side-a. 



Rim up, my boy, into the main top. 
And look what thou canst spy-a ; 

Who, ho ! who, ho ! a good ship I do see, 
I trow it be John Dory-a. 

Tliey hoist their sails, both top and top. 

The mizen and all was tried-a; 
And every man stood to his lot, 

Whatever should betide-a. 

The roaring cannons then were plied, 
And dub-a-dub went the drum-a ; 

The braying trumpets loud they cried, 
To courage both all and some-a. 

The grappling hooks were brought at length, 

The brown bill and the sword-a : 
John Dory at length, for all his strength. 
Was clapt fast under board-a. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



69 



SELLENGER'd ROUND, ob THE BEGINNING OF THE WOULD. 
Smoothly and in moderate time. 









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70 ENSLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

This tune, which Sir John Hawkins thought to be " the oldest country-dance 
tune now extant" (an opinion to which I do not subscribe), is to be found in 
Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books, in Music^s Ifanclmaicl, 
1678, &c. It is difficult to say from whom it derived its name. It might be from 
" Sir Thomas Sellynger," who was bm-ied in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
before the year 1475, as appears by a brass plate there ; or from Sir Antony 
St. Leger, whom Henry VIH. appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1540. 

In Bacchus'' Bountie (4to., 1593), we find this passage: "While thus they 
tippled, the fiddler he fiddled, and the pots danced for joy the old hop-about 
commonly called Sellcngar's Bound." In Middleton's Father Suhlurd's Tales 
(1604) : — "Do but imagine now what a sad Christmas we all kept in the country, 
without either carols, wassail bowls, dancing of Sellenger's Bound in moonshine 
nights about Maypoles, shoeing the mare, hoodman-blind, hot cockles, or any of our 
Christmas gambols, — no, not not so much as choosing king and queen on Twelfth 
Night ! " In Heywood's Fair Maid of the West, part ii. : — ■" They have so tired 
me with their moriscoes [morris dances], and I have so tickled them with our 
country dances, 8ellenger''s Bound and Tom Tiler. We have so fiddled it ! " 

A cui'ious reason for the second name to this tune is given in the comedy 
of Lingua, 1607. Anamnestes : " By the same token the first tune the planets 
played ; I remember Venus, the treble, ran sweet division upon Saturn, the base. 
The first tmie they played was Sellenger''s Bound, in memory whereof, ever since, 
it hath been called The Beginning of the World." On this, Common Sense asks : 
" How comes it we hear it not now ? and Memory, another of the characters, 
says : " Our ears are so. ivell acquainted ivith the sound, that we never mark it." 
In Shirley's Lady of Pleasure, Lady Bornwell says that, " to hear a fellow make 
iimself merry and his horse with whistling Sellenger^s Bound, and to observe with 
what solemnity they keep their wakes, moriscoes, and Whitsun-ales, are the only 
amusements of the country." 

It is mentioned as The Beginning of the World by Deloney in his history of 
Jack of Newbury, and the times to which he refers are those of Henry VIH. ; 
but, so great was its popularity, that it is mentioned three or four times by 
Heywood ; also by Ben Jonson, by Taylor the water-poet, by Fletcher, Shu-ley, 
Brome,Farquhar, Wycherley, Morley (1597), Clieveland (1677),Marmion (1641); 
by the author of The Beturnfrom Parnassus, and by many other writers. 

There is a wood-cut of a number of young men and women dancing Sellenger's 
Bound, with hands joined, round a Maypole, on the title page of a black letter 
garland, called "The new Crown Garland of princely pastime and mirth," printed 
by J. Back, on London Bridge. In the centre are two musicians, the one playing 
the fidiUe, the other the pipe, with the inscription, "Hey for Sellenger's Bound!" 
above them. 

As the dance was so extremely popular, I shall, in this instance, give the figure 
from the The Pancing Master of 1670, where it is described as a round dance 
" for as many as will." 

" Take hands, and go round twice : back again. All set and turn sides : that 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



71 



again. Lead all in a double forward and back : that again. Two singles and a 
double back, set and turn single : that again. Sides all: that agam. Arms all: 
that again. As before, as before." Country dances were formerly danced as 
often in circles as in parallel lines. 

The following songs were sung to the tune : — "The merry wooing of Robin and 
Joan, the West-comitry Lovers, to the tmie of the Beginning of the World, or 
Sellenger's Round." — Roxburgh Collection. "The Fair Maid of Islington, or the 
London Vintner over-reached," in the Bagford Collection. " Robin's Courtship," 
in Wit Restored, 1658. 

As a specimen of old harmony, I have added the arrangement of Sellenger's 
Round by Byi-d, from Queen Elizabeth's Vii'ginal Book. Having an instrument 
that would not sustain the tone (for the virginals, like the harpsichord, only 
twitted the wires with a quill) it is curious to see how he has filled up the harmony 
by an inner part, that seems intended to imitate the prancing of the hobby-horse. 
The hobby-horse was the usual attendant on May-day and May Games. 



In moderate time. 



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WITH THE OLD HARMONY BY BYRD. 



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72 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I CANNOT EAT BUT LITTLE MEAT. 

This song was sung in " a right pithy, pleasant, and merry comedy," called 
Crammer Grurtonh Needle, which was printed in 1575, but the Rev. Alex. Dyce 
has given a copy of double length from a manuscript in his possession, and 
" certainly of an earlier date than the play." It may be seen in his account of 
Skelton and his writings, vol. i., p. 7. I have selected four from the eight 
verses, as sufficiently long for singing. Warton calls it " the first drinking song of 
any merit in our language." In early dramas it was the custom to sing old songs, 
or to play old tunes, both at the commencement and at the end of the acts. For 
instance, in Summer'' s Last Will and Testament, which was performed in 1593, 
the direction to the actors in the Prologue is to begin the play with " a fit 
of mirth and an old song:" and at the end of the comedy, Ram Alley, "strike up 
music; let's have an old song." In Peele's Arraignment of Paris, Venus " singeth 
an old song, called The wooing of ColmanP In Marston's Antonio and Mellida, 
Feliche sings " the old ballad. And was not good king Solomon." To these in- 
stances many others might be added; indeed, in the very play {Crammer Crurton), 
at the end of the second act, Diccon says : — 

" In the mean time, fellows, pipe up your fiddles, I say take them 
And let your friends have such mirth as ye can make them." 

The tune is printed in Staiford Smith's Musica Antiqua, and in Ritson's English 
Songs. Ritson says : " Set, four parts in one, by Mr. Walker, before the year 
1600." And Smith, not knowing, I suppose, who Mr. Walker was, seems to have 
guessed Weelkes ; but it is the old tune of John Dory in common time. 
In moderate time, and well marked. 



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I can - not eat but lit - tie meat, My sto - mach is 



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good ; But sure I think that I can drink With him that wears a hood. 



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Though I go bare, take ye no care, 

' For I am never ' cold : 
I stuif my skin so full within 

Of jolly good ale and old. 
Back and side, go bare, go hare, 

Both foot and hand go cold : 
But belly, God send thee good ale enough, 

Whether it be new or old. 



I love no roast, but a nut-brown toast. 

And a crab laid in the fire, 
A little bread shall do me stead, 

Much bread I never desire. 
No frost nor snow, nor wind, I trow. 

Can hurt me, if it would ; 
I am so wrapp'd, so thoroughly lapp'd 

With jolly good ale and old. 

Back and side, &c. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 73 

I care right nought, I take no thought Now let them drink till they nod and wink, 

For clothes to keep me warm, Even as good fellows should do, 

Have I good drink I surely think They shall not miss to have the hliss 

' That none ' can do me harm. Good ale doth hring men to ; 

For truly then I fear no man, And all poor souls that scour hlack bowls, 

' Though never he ' so bold, Or have them lustily troled, 

When I am arm'd and thoroughly warni'd God save the lives of them and their wives, 

With jolly good ale and old. Whether they be young or old. 

Back and side, &c. Back and side, &c. 

HANSKIN, OR HALF HANNIKIN. 

In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book there is a tune called SansMn, and in all 
the early editions of The Dancing Master, viz., from 1650 to 1690, one called 
Half Hannikin. Hankin or Hannikin was the common name of a clown : 
'■' Thus for her love and loss poor Hankin dies ; 
His amorous soul down flies 
To th' bottom of the cellar, there to dwell : 
Susan, farewell, farewell ! " — Musarum Delicia, 1655. 
And Hanhin Booly was used as term of contempt. Nash, meaning to call his 
opponent a Welsh clown, calls him a " Gobin a Grace ap Hannikin," and says, 
" No vulgar respects have I, what Hoppenny Hoe and his fellow Hanhin Booby 
think of me." (Have with you to Saffron- Waldon, 1596.J 

We find Hankin Booby mentioned as a tune in the interlude of Thersytes, 
which was written in 1537 : 

" And we wyll have minstrelsy 
That shall pype Hankin baby." 
Skelton, in his Ware the Hauke, says : 

" With troll, cytrace, and trovy. These be my pystillers, [epistlers] 

They ranged, hankin bovy, These be my querysters [choristers] 

My churche all aboute. To help me to synge, 

This fawconer then gan showte. My bawkes to mattens rynge. 

These be my gospeUers, Skelton's Works, Ed. Dyce, vol. i., p. 159. 

By an extract from Sir H. Herbert's office-book of revels and plays performed at 
Whitehall at Christmas, 1622-3, quoted by Mr. Collier, in his Annals of the 
Stage, we find that on Sunday, 19th Jan., 1623, after the performance of Ben 
Jonson's masque, Time Vindicated, "The Prince did lead the measures with the 
French Ambassador's wife," and " the measures, braules, corrantos, and galliards, 
being ended, the masquers, with the ladies, did daunce two countrey dances, 
namely, The Soldier's Marche and Hiff Hamukin." I believe that by Hvff 
Hamukin, Half Hannikin is intended, the letters are so nearly alike in form, and 
might be so easily mistaken. In Brome's Jovial Crew, 16B2, — "Our father is so 
pensive that he makes us even sick of his sadness, that were wont to ' See my 
gossip's cock to-day,' mould cocklebread, daunce Clutterdepouch and Hannykin 
booby, bind barrels, or do anything before him, and he would laugh at us." 
The tune called Hanskin in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book is the same as 



S U^ it^t4^M< 



74 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" Jog on, the foot-path way," and will be found in this collection among the airs 
that are mentioned by Shakspeare. The following is Half Hannikin, from The 
Dancing Master. 






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MALT'S COME DOWN. 

This is one of the tunes in Queen Elizabeth's Vu'ginal Book, ^Yhere it is 
arranged by Byrd. The words are from Deuteromelia, 1609, but it appears that 
Ravenscroft, in arranging it as a round, has taken only half the tune. 



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There's ne-ver a maid in all this town, But well she knows that malt's comedown, 



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The greatest drunkards in the town 
Are very glad that malt's come down. 

Malt's come down, &c. 



rHOM HBNEY VII. TO MARY. 



75 



OF ALL THE BIRDS. 
In Beaumont and Fletcher's j^lay, The Knigld of the Burning Pestle, Old 
Merrythought sings many snatches of old songs, and among others — 
" Nose, nose, jolly red nose, 
And who gave thee this jolly red nose ? 
Cinnamon, ginger, nutmegs and cloves. 
And they gave me this jolly red nose ;" 
which are the four last lines of this song. It is one of the King Henry's Mkth 
or Freemen's Songs va Deuteromelia, 1609. 






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76 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



WHO'S THE FOOL NOW? 
This tune is iii Queen Elizabeth's Virgmal Book, and it is one of the Freemen's 
Songs in Deuteromelia, 1609. It was entered on the hooks of the Stationer's 
Company as a ballad in 1588, when Thomas Orwyn had a license to print it; and 
it is alluded to in Dekker's comedy, Old Fortunatiis, where Shadow says : " Only 
to make other idiots laugh, and wise men to cry ' WIio's the fool now .^ ' " which 
is the burden of every verse. It is thought to be a satire upon those who tell 
wonderful stories. 



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Martin said to his man, 



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Who's the fool now? Thou hast well drunken man, who's the fool now? 



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I saw the man in the moon ; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw the man in the moon ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw the man in the moon 
Clouting of St. Peter's shoon ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man — 

Who's the fool now? 

I saw a hare chase a hound ; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw a hare chase a hound ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a hare chase a hound, 
Twenty miles above the ground ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man — 

Who's the fool now ? 



I saw a goose ring a hog; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw a goose ring a hog ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a goose ring a hog. 
And a snail bite a dog ; 

Tho hast well drunken, man — 

Who's the fool now ? 

I saw a mouse catch a cat ; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw a mouse catch a cat ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a mouse catch a cat. 
And the cheese eat the rat ; 

Thou hast well drunken, man — 

Who's the fool now? 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



77 



WE BE SOLDIERS THREE. 

This is also one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs in Deutero- 
melia, 1609, and will be found as a song in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge 
Melancholy, vol. i., 1698 and 1707. 



We be sol - diers three, Par-dona moy, ie vous an vree 



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Here, good fellow, I drink to thee, And he that will not pledge me this, 

Pardona moy, je vous anpree; " Par dona moy,je vous an pree, 

To all good fellows, wherever they be, Pays for the shot whatever it is. 

With never a penny of money. With never a penny of money. 

Charge it again, boy, charge it again, 

Pardona moy,je vous anpree ; 
As long as there is any ink in thy pen. 

With never a penny of money. 



WE BE THREE POOR MARINERS. 

This is one of the King Henry's Mii-th or Freemen's Songs in Deuteromelia, 
1609, and is to be found as a dance tune in the Skene MS. (about 1630), called 
Brangill of Poictu, — i.e., Branle, or Braule of Poictu, 

Braules * were dances much in vogue with the upper classes during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centui'ies. Their being danced at Whitehall in 1623, has 
been mentioned at page 73 ; and Pepys speaks of them at the Court of Charles H. 
Branle de Poictu is explained by Morley (1597) as meaning the Double Branle, 
in contradistinction to the French Branle, or Branle- Simple. 

Another Branle de Poictu (quite a different tune) will be found in the Straloch 
Manuscript, for the name was given to any air used for the dance. It was so 



" *' These pardonucz-vioy's who stand so much on the 
new fonn." — Romeo and Juliet, act ii., sc. 4. Dr. John- 
son in a note says : " Pardonnez moi became the language 
of doubt or hesitation among men of the sword, when the 
point of Ixonour was grown so delicate that no other mode 
of contradiction would be endured." 

* Braules, which, Mr. M. Mason observes, seem to be 
what we now call cotillons, are described by Philips as 



"akind of dance in which several persons danced together 
in a ring, holding one another by the hand." In Marston's 
play of Tlie Malcontent there is a minute, hut perhaps 
not now very intelligible description of the figures. See 
Dodsley's Collection of old Plays, vol. iv. Braules are 
alluded to by Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Massinger, and 
others. 



78 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



usual in England, formerly, to make dances out of such song and ballad tunes as 
were of a sufiSciently cheerful character, that nearly every air in the first edition 
of The Dancing Master, 1650-51, can be jiroved to be that of a song or " ballet" 
of earlier date than the book. It has for that reason been so valuable an aid in 
the present collection. About 1690, tunes composed expressly for dancing were 
becoming more general, and in the editions of The Dancing Master from 1715 
to 1728, the song and the dance times are nearly equally divided. 




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We be three poor ma - ri-ners, New - ly come from the seas ; 



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spend our lives in jeo - par - dy, While o - tlicrs live at ease. Shall we go dance the 



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round, the round, the round? Shall we go dance the round, the round, the round ? And 



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he that is a bul - ly boy, Come pledge me on this ground, a ground, a ground, 
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We care not for those martial men 

That do our states disdain ; 
But we care for the merchantmen 

Who do our states maintain. 
To them we dance this round, around, around, 

To them we dance this round ; 
And he that is a bully [jolly] boy, 

Come pledge me on the ground, aground, .aground. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



79 



MY LITTLE PRETTY ONE. 
This ancient melody is also transcribed from a MSS. of the time of Henry the 
Eighth (No. 4900, Additional MS., Brit. Mus.). The original is, as usual, with- 
out bars, but with an accompaniment in tablature for the lute. In the same 
volume are songs by John Taverner, Shepherde, Heywood, &c. It has the same 
peculiarity as the dance tune at page 27, each part consisting of nine bars. A 
song called " My little pretty one " is in the Eoxburgh Collection of Eallads, 
" to a pleasant new tune," but the measui'e is different. 




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My lit - tie pvet - ty one, My pret - ty ho - ney one, 



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She is a joy - ly one, And gen - tie as . . . can be. 

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a tempo. 



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With a beck she comes a - non, With a wink she will ' 



be gone. 



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No doubt she is a - lone 



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ROBIN, LEND TO ME THY BOW. 
This song is still known in some parts of the country, and was written down for 
me by a friend, in Leicestershire, some years ago. In the " very mery and pithie 
commedie " called The longer thou livest the more fool thou art, there is a 
stage direction — " Here entreth Moros, counterfaiting a vaine gesture and foolish 
countenance, synging the foote [burden] of many songes, as fooles were wont." 
Among the burdens is the following : — 

" Robin, lende me thy bowe, tliy bowe, 
Robin, the bow, Rohin, lend to me thy how-a." 



80 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The play was entered at Stationers' Hall in 1568-9. " That it was a popular 
song in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign appears also from its being 
mentioned, amongst others, in a curious old musical piece (MS. Harl. 7578), 
containing the description and praises of the city of Durham, written about that 
time." It is to be found as one of the " pleasant roundelayes " in Pammelia, 
1609, and has likewise been printed by Kitson, in his Ancient Songs. The tune 
differs slightly from the copy in Pammelia, but I think for the better. 

Smoothly and slow. 






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Now Robin, lend to me thy bow, Sweet Ro- bin lend to me tby bow, For 



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I must now a hunt - ing w:th my la - dy go. With my sweet la - dy 



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And whither will thy Lady go ? 

Sweet Wilkin, tell it unto me ; 
And thou shalt have my hawke, my hound, and eke my bow, 

To wait on thy Lady. 

My Lady will to Uppingham,* 

To Uppingham forsooth will shee ; 
And I myself appointed for to be the man 

To wait on my Lady. 

Adieu, good Wilkin, all beshrewde, 

Thy hunting nothing pleaseth mee ; 
But yet beware thy babling hounds stray not abroad 

For ang'ring of thy Lady. 

My hounds shall be led in the line. 

So well I can assure it thee ; 
Unless by straine of view some pursue I may finde. 

To please my sweet Ladye. 

With that the Lady shee came in, 

-And will'd them all for to agree ; 
For honest hunting never was accounted sinne. 

Nor never shall for mee. 



» A market-town in Rutlandshire. 



PROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



81 



WHO LIVETH SO MERRY IN ALL THIS LAND ? 

This is also one of the King Henrif s Mirth or FreemerCs Songs, in Deufero- 
melia. In the first year of the Kegisters of the Stationers' Company (1557-58) 
there is an entry of a license to Mr. John Wallye and Mrs. Toye to print a 
"Ballette" called " Who lyve so mery and make such sporte, 

As thay that be of the poorest sorte ?" 
These lines will be found in the last verse of the song, and were probably printed 
at the head of it as the title. Ballets were songs of a cheerful character, which 
being " sung to a ditty may likemse be danced." So the " Merry Ballet of the 
Hawthorn Tree" (see page 64), was to be sung to the tune of Dargason, which is 
also mentioned as a dance tune. 

The following song will also be found in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, p. 252, 
and in Wii and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. i., 1698 and 1707. In 
Wit and Drollery, as well as in Deutermnelia, the third and fourth lines of each 
verse are marked to be sung in chorus. 

Moderate time. w^^^ 




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Who li-veth so meny in all this lan(i,AsdoththepoorwidowthatBelleththesand, And 

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e- ver she singeth as I can guess, Will you buy any sand, any 
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sand, Mistress. 



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The broom-man maketh his living most sweet, 
With carrying of brooms from street to street. 
Chorus. — Who would desire a pleasanter thing 

Than all the day long to do nothing but sing ? 

The chimnej'-sweeper all the long day, 
He singeth and sweepeth the soot away ; 
Ch. — Yet when he comes home, although he be weary, 
With his pretty, sweet wife he maketh full merry. 

The cobbler he sits cobbling till noon. 
And cobbles his shoes till they be done ; 
Ch. — Yet doth he not fear, and so doth say, 

For he knows that his work will soon decay. 

The merchantman he doth sail on the seas. 
And lie on the ship-board with little ease ; 
Ch. — For always he doubts that the rocks are near, — 
How can he be merry and make good cheer? 



82. ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

The husbandman all day goeth to plough, 
And when he comes home he serveth his sow ; 
Ch. — He moileth and toileth all the long year, — 
How can he be merry and make good cheer ? 

The serving-man waiteth from street to street. 
Either blowing his nails or beating his feet ; 
Ch. — Yet all that serves for, four angels" a year. 
Impossible 'tis that he make good cheer. 

Who liveth so merry and maketh such sport 
As those that be of the poorest sort ? 
C/j.— The poorest sort, wheresoever they be. 

They gather together by one, two, and three. 

And every man will spend his penny, ", 



>- his. 



What makes such a shot among a great many. 
TO-MOKROW THE FOX WILL COME TO TOWN, or TEENCHMORE. 

In The Dancing Master this tune is called Trenchmore. In Deuteromelia it is 
one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen^ s Songs, under the name of " To- 
morrow the fox will come to town." 

In a Morality, by William BuUeyn, called A Dialogue both pleasant and piety - 
full, wherein is a goodly regimen against the fever pestilence, &c., 1564, a minstrel 
is thus described: "There is one lately come into the hall, in a green Kendal coat, 
with yellow hose ; a beard of the same colour, only upon the upper lip ; a russet 
hat, with a great plume of strange feathers ; and a brave scarf about his neck ; 
in cut buskins. He is playing at the trea trippe with our host's son ; he playeth 
trick upon the gittern, daunces Trenchmore and Heie de Grie, and telleth news 
from Terra Florida." 

Taylor, the water-poet, in A Merry Wherry-ferry Voyage, says: 
" Heigh, to the time of Trenchmore I could write 
The valiant men of Cromer's sad affright ; " 

and in A Navy of Land Ships, 1627, " Nimble-heel' d mariners, like so many 
dancers, capering a morisco [morris dance], or Trenchmore of forty miles long, 
to the tune of ' Dusty, my dear,' ' Dirty, come thou to me,' ' Dun out of the mire,' 
or ' I wail in woe and plunge in pain : ' all these dances have no other music." 
Deloney, in his History of the gentle craft, 1598, says: "like one dancing the 
Trenchmore, he stamp'd up and down the yard, holding his hips in his hands." 

Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, says that mankind are at no 
period of their lives insensible to dancing. "Who can withstand it? be we young 
or old, though our teeth shake in our heads like Vii'ginal Jacks, or stand parallel 
asunder like the arches of a bridge, — there is no remedy: we must dance Trench- 
more over tables, chairs, and stools." The following amusing description is from 
Selden's Talle Talk: 

" The court of England ia much alter'd. At a solemn dancing, first you had the 
grave measures, then the corantoes and the galliards, and this kept up with ceremony ; 
and at length to Trenchmore and the Cushion Dance : then all the company dances, 

'The angel was a gold coin worth about ten shillings, so named from having the representation of an angel upon it. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



83 



lord and groom, lady and kitchen maid, no distinction. So in our court in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, gravity and state were kept up. In King James's time things were 
pretty well, but in King Charles's time, there has been nothing hut Trenchniore and 
the Cushion Dance, omnium gatherum, tolly polly, hoite come toite." 

Trenchmore is mentioned also in Stephen Gosson's Schoole of Abuse, 1579; in 
Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness, 1600; in Chapman's Wit of a 
Woman, 1604; in Barry's Ram Alley, 1611; in Beaumont and Fletcher's Island 
Princess ; in Weelkes' Ayres or Phantasticke Sprites, 1608 ; and in 1728 was 
still to be found in Tlie Dancing Master. In the comedy of The Rehearsal, 
1672, the earth, sun, and moon, are made to dance the Sey to the tune of 
Trenchmore. 

Several political songs were sung to it, one of which is in the collection of 
" Poems on AfFau's of State, from 1640 to 1704." In the Roxburghe Collection 
of Ballads is one called " The West-country Jigg, or a Trenchmore Galliard," 
" Four-and-twenty lasses went over Trenchmore Lee." 

The following is the song in Deuteromelia. 

Moderate time. 



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To - morrow the fox will come to town, Keep, keep, keep, keep; To-morrow the fox will 



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come to town, O keep you all well there. I must de - sire you neighbours all. To 



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hal-lo the fox out of the hall, And cry as loud as you can call. Whoop, whoop. 



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whoop, whoop, whoop. And cry as loud as you can call, O keep you all well there. 



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84 ENGfLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

He'll steal the cock out from his flock, He'll steal the duck out of the brook, 

Keep, keep, keep, keep, keep ; Keep, keep, &c. ; 

He'll steal the cock e'en from his flock, He'll steal the duck out of the brook, 

O keep you all well there. O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. I must desire you, &c. 

He'll steal the hen out of the pen. He'll steal the lamb e'en from his dam, 

Keep, keep, &c. ; Keep, keep, &c. ; 

He'll steal the hen out of the pen. He'll steal the lamb e'en from his dam, 

O keep you all well there. O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. I must desire you, &c. 

THE SHAKING OF THE SHEET, ob THE DANCE OF DEATH. 

This is frequently mentioned by writers in tlie sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, both as a country dance and as a ballad tune. In the recently- discovered 
play of Misogonus, produced about 1560," The Shaking of the Sheets, TJie Vicar 
of St. Fools, and The Catching of Quails, are mentioned as country dances.'^ 
There is a manuscript copy of the ballad in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 
No. 15,225), in which it is ascribed to Thomas Hill; and printed copies, in black 
letter, are to be found in the Roxburghe Collection (i., 499), and in that of 
Anthony ^ Wood, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (vol. 401., f. 60). In 
1568-9, it was entered at Stationers' Hall to John Awdelay (see Collier's 
Extracts, vol. i., p. 195). 

Dance after my pipe, which is the second title of the ballad, seems to have 
been a proverbial expression. In Ben Jonson's Every man out of his humour, 
Saviolina says: "Nay, I cannot stay to dance after your pipe.'''' In Yox Borealis, 
1641, — "I would teach them to sing another song, and make them dance after 
my pipe, ere I had done with them." And in Middleton's The "World Lost at 
Tennis, — "If I should dance after your j)ipe I should soon dance to the devil;" 
and so in many other instances. 

In The Meeting of Q-allants at an Ordinary, the host, describing a young man 
who died of the plague, in London, in 1603, says: "But this youngster daunced 
the shahing of one sheete within a few dales after " (Percy Soc. Reprint, p. 20) ; 
and in A West-country Jigg, or a Trenchnore Galliard, verse 5 : 
" The piper he struck up. 
And merrily he did play 
TJie Shahing of the Sheets, 
And eke The Irish Hay." 
The tune is also mentioned in Lilly's Pappe with a Hatchet, 1589 ; in Gosson's 
Schoole of Abuse, 1579; by Rowley, Middleton, Taylor the water-poet, Marston, 
Massmger, Heywood, Dekker, Shirley, &c., &c. 

There are two tunes under this name, the one in William Ballet's Lute Book, 
which is the same as printed by Sir John Hawkins in his History of Music 
(vol. 2, p. 934, 8vo. edit.) ; the other, and in all probability the more popular one, 
is contained in numerous publications,'^ from Tlie Dancing Master of 1650-51, to 
The Voccd Enchantress of 1783. 

• See Collier's History of Early Dramatic Poetry, v. 2, *= The tune of The Catchifig of Quails is also in The Ban- 

p. 474. cing Master. 

*» Sometimes it J8 called The Night Piece, or The Shaking 
of the Sheets. 



FEOM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



85 



Many ballads were sung to it, and among them, King Olfrey and the old Abbot, 
whicli is on the same story as King John and the Abbot of Canterbury; and Tlie 
Song of the Caps, in the Roxburghe Collection, -which is also, in an altered form, 
in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy. 

The following ballad is from a black-letter copy, in the Ashmolean Museum. 

THE DOLEFULL DANCE AND SONG OF DEATH : 

INTITHLED DANCE AFTER MY PIPE.— 10 A PIEASANT NEW TUNE. 

Moderate time. 



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Can you dance The shaking of the sheets, A dance that ev' - ry one must do ; Can you 



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trim it up with dain - ty sweets, And ev' - ry thing that 'longs there-to ? Make 



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rea - dy, then, yom' wind - ing sheet. And see how ye can be - stir your feet, For 



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Death is the man that all must meet, For Death is the man that all must meet. 



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Bring away the beggar and the king, 

And every man in his degree ; 
Bring away the old and youngest thing, 

Come all to death, and follow me ; 
The courtier with his lofty looks, 
The lawyer with his learned books, 
The banker with his baiting hooks. 



Merchants, have you made your mart in France, 

In Italy, and all about, 
Know you not that you and I must dance. 

Both our heels wrapt in a clout ; 
What mean you to make your houses gay, 
And I must take the tenant away, 
And dig for your sake the clods of clay ? 



86 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Think you on the solemn 'sizes past, 

How suddenly in Oxfordshire 
I came, and made the judges all aghast, 

And justices that did appear. 
And took both Bell and Barham away," 
And many a worthy man that day, 
And all their bodies brought to clay. 

Think you that I dare not come to schools, 
Where all the cunning clerks be most ; 

Take I not away both wise and fools, 
And am I not in every coast ? 

Assure yourselves no creature can 

Make Death afraid of any man. 

Or know my coming where or whan. 

Where be they that make their leases strong, 
And join about them land to land. 

Do you make account to live so long, 
To have the world come to your hand ? 

No, foolish nowle, for all thy pence, 

Full soon thy soul must needs go hence ; 

Then who shall toyl for thy defence ? 

And you that lean on your ladies' laps. 

And lay your heads upon their knee, 

' May think that you'll escape, perhaps, 

And need not come to dance with me.' 
But no ! fair lords and ladies all, 
I will make you come when I do call. 
And find you a pipe to dance withall. 



And you that are busy-headed fools. 

To brabble for a pelting straw. 
Know you not that I have ready tools 

To cut you from your crafty law ? 
And you that falsely buy and sell. 
And think you make your markets well, 
Must dance with Death wheresoe'eryou dwell. 

Pride must have a pretty sheet, I see. 

For properly she loves to dance ; 
Come away my wanton wench to me, 

As gallantly as your eye doth glance ; 
And all good fellows that flash and swash 
In reds and yellows of revell dash, 
I warrant you need not be so rash. 

For I can quickly cool you all, 

How hot or stout soever you be. 
Both high and low, both great and small, 

I nought do fear your high degree ; 
The ladies fair, the beldames old. 
The champion stout, the souldier bold, 
Must all with me to earthly mould. 

Therefore take time while it is lent, 

Prepare with me yourselves to dance ; 
Forget me not, your lives lament, 

I come oft-times by sudden chance. 
Be ready, therefore, — watch and pray, 
That when my minstrel pipe doth play. 
You may to heaven dance the way. 



WOLSEY'S WILD. 

This tune is called Wolsey^s Wild in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, but in 
William Ballet's Lute Book'' it is called Wilson'' s Wile, and in MusiclUs Delight 
on the Cithren, 1666, Wilson^s Wild. In the Bagford Collection of Ballads, 
Brit. Mus., there is one called " A proper newe sonet, declaring the Lamentation 
of Beccles, a town in Suffolk," &c., by T. D. (Thomas Deloney), to Wilson^s Tune, 
and dated 1586, but it does not appear, from the metre, to have been intended 
for this air. Another "proper new ballad" to Wilson'' s Neiv Tune is in the 



» Anthony t Wood observes: *'This solemn Assize, 
mentioned in the foregoing page, was liept in the Court- 
house in the Castle-yard at Oxon, 4 Jul., 1577. The Judges 
who were infected and dyed mth the danipe, were Sir 
Rob. Bell, Baron of the Exchequer, and Sir Nich. Bar- 
ham, Seijeant at Lawe." See Hist, et Antiq. Univ. Oxon. 
lib. i. sub an. 1577. This verse, therefore, cannot have 
been in the ballad entered to Awdelay, in 1568-9. 

^ This highly interesting manuscript, which is in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin (D. I. 21), contains a 
large number of the popular tunes of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. "Fortune my foe," "Peg a Ramsey," "Bonny 
sweet Robin," "Calleno, " "Lightie love Ladies," "Green 
Sleeves," " Weladay " (all mentioned by Shakspeare), 



besides " The Witches Dawnce," "The hunt is up," "The 
Shaking of the Shetes," "The Quadran Pavan," "aHom- 
pipe," " Robin Reddocke," "Barrow Foster's Dreame," 
" Dowland's LachrimEe," "Lusty Gallant," The Black- 
smith," "Rogero," " Turkeyloney," "Staynes Morris," 
"Sellenger's Rownde," " All flowers in brome," "Baloo," 
" Wigmore's Galliard," "Robiu Hood is to the greenwood 
gone," &c., &c.,are to be found in it. "Queen Mariees 
Dump" (in whose reign it was probably commenced) 
stands first in the book. The tunes are in lute tablature, 
a style of notation now obsolete, in which the letters of 
the alphabet up to K are used to designate the strings and 
frets of the instrument. 



FROM HBNKY VII. TO MARY. 



87 



Library of the Society of Antiquaries. It is on Ballard and Babington's con- 
spiracy, and was wi'itten just after their execution, in 1586. Wilson^s Delight, 
Arthur a Bradley, and Mall DixorCs Round, are mentioned as popular tunes in 
Braithwaite's Strappado for the Devil, 1615. 

The' song, "Quoth John to Joan," or " I cannot come every day to woo," is 
certainly as old as the time of Hem-y VIII., because the first verse is to be found 
elaborately set to music in a manuscript of that date, formerly in the possession 
of Stafford Smith (who printed the song in Musica Antiqua, vol. i., p. 32), and now 
in that of Dr. Rimbault. There are two copies of the words in vol. ii. of the 
Roxburghe Collection of Ballads, and it is in all the editions of Wit and Mirth, or 
Pills to purge Melancholy, from 1698 to 1719. In Wifs Cabinet, 1731, it is 
called " The Clown's Courtship, sung to the King at Windsor." 
Moderate time. 

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Quoth John to Joan, wilt thou have me? I prithee now, wilt? And I'se 

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marry with thee, My cow, my calf, my house,myrents, And allmylandsand tenements: O 



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say, my Joan, say my Joan, will not that do ? 



cannot come ev 



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day to woo. 



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I have a cheese upon the shelf, 
And I cannot eat it all myself ; 
I've three good marks that lie in a rag, 
In the nook of the chimney, instead of a bag. 
Then say, my Joan, &c. 



I've corn and hay in the barn hard by. 
And three fat hogs pent up in the sty ; 
I have a mare, and she is coal-black, 
I ride on her tail to save her back. 

Then say, my Joan, &c. 

To marry I would have thy consent. 

But, faith, I never could compliment ; 

I can say nought but " hoy, gee ho," 

Words that belong to the cart and the plough : 

Then say, my Joan, say, my Joan^ will that not do, 
I cannot come every day to woo. 



88 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAB MUSIC. 



THE MARRIAGE OF THE FROG AND THE MOUSE. 
In Wedderburn's Complaint of Scotland, 1549, one of the songs sung by the 
shepherds is Tlie frog cam to the myl dur [mill-door]. In 1580, a ballad of 
"A most strange wedding of the frog and the mouse" was licensed to Edward 
White, at Stationers' Hall : and in 1611, this song was printed with music, among 
the " Country Pastimes," in Melismata. It is the progenitor of several others ; 
one beginning — " There was a frog lived in a well, 

And a farce mouse in a mill ;" 
another, "A frog he would a- wooing go;" a third in Fills to purge Melan- 
choly, &c., &c. 

Moderate time. m^^^^^^^ ^^—^ 

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was a frog in the well, Hum - ble-dum, hum - ble - dum, 



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And the merry mouse in the mill, twee - die, tweedle, twi - no. 



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The frogge would a-wooing ride, 

Humble-dum, humble-dum ; 
Sword and buckler by his side, 

Tweedle, tweedle, twino. 
When upon his high horse set, 

Humble-dum, &c.. 
His boots they shone as black as jet, 

Tweedle, &c. 

When he came to the merry mill pin. 
Lady Mouse beene you within ? 
Then came out the dusty mouse : 
I am lady of this house ; 



Hast thou any mind of me ? 
I have e'en great mind of thee. 
Who shall this marriage make ? 
Our lord, which is the rat. 

What shall we have to our supper ? 
Three beans in a pound of butter. 
But, when supper they were at. 
The frog, the mouse, and e'en the rat. 

Then came in Gib, our cat, 

And caught the mouse e'en by the back. 

Then did they separate : 

The frog leapt on the floor so flat ; 



Then came in Dick, our drake. 
And drew the frog e'en to the lake ; 
The rat he ran up the wall, 
' And so the company parted all.' 

THE CRAMP. 

This is one of the three country dance tunes arranged to be sung together in 
Pammelia, and is frequently referred to as a ballad tune. 

In the Ashmolean library, in the same manuscript volume with Chevy Ohace 
(No. 48), is a ballad by Elderton, describing the articles sold in the market in 
time of Lent. The observance of Lent was compulsory in those days, and it was 
by no means palatable to all. In 1570, William Pickering had a license to print 



FROM HENRY VII. TO RIARY. 



89 



a ballad, entitled Lenton Stuff, which was, in all probability, the same. Elderton's 
ballad is called — " A new ballad, entitled Lenton Stxuff, 

For a little money ye may have enough;" 

to the tune of Tlie Cramp. 
" Lenton stuff is come to the town, 

The cleansing week comes quickly ; 
You know well enough you must kneel down, 

Come on, take ashes trickly ; 
That neither are good flesh nor fish, 
But dip with Judas in the dish. 
And keep a rout not worth a ryshe " [rush]. 

[Heigh ho ! the cramp-a.] 

It is not noticed by Ritson in his list of Elderton's ballads, Bibl. Poet. p. 195-8 ; 
bat Mr. Halliwell has printed it in the volume containing The Marriage of Wit 
and Wisdom, for the Shakespeare Society. The following is from Pammelia, 
Moderate time. _^___ j^ 



I 



fe^ 



i 



^^ 



m 



i^ 



^ 



i==^=f= 



^ 



^ 



b ft I ^ 



The cramp is in my purse full sore, No money will bide there-in, a. And 



^ 



^ 



F 



I'i'i^'rrr^^^ ^ 



if I had some salve therefore, O light- ly then would I sing. 



^ 



^ 



fe^^ 



P 



^ 



Hey ho ! the cramp, a. 



g 



k 



Hey 



ho! the cramp, a, 



^ 



1^^ 



t^ 



P 



W 



Hey 



ho ! the cramp, 



Hey ho! the cramp. 



^ 



90 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I HAVE HOUSE AND LAND IN KENT. 

This song, which is one of the " Country Pastimes," in Melismata, 1611, is on 
the same subject as Quoth John to Joan, page 87. The tune begins like The 
Three Ravens, but is in quicker time. In Melismata it is called A Wooing Song 
of a Yeoman of Kenfs son, and the words are given in the Kentish dialect. 
Moderate time. ^_^^^_ 



r#: 



^ 



^3E 



^: 



^ 



=F= 



ir— * ■ ■ p -J 

I have house and land in Kent, And if you'll love me, love me 



^vFf=i^ 



S 



% 



*=i 







^ — 7 ^ 

Two -pence half- penny is 



^ 



E=^ 



Chorus. 



m 



fyrnj j ^ 



woo. Yes, twopence half-penny is his rent, He cannot come ev - 'ry day to woo. 



to 



^ 



^^ 



Ich am my vather's eldest zonne, Ich have beene twise our Whitson lord. 

My mother eke doth love me well ; Ich have had ladies many vare ; 

For ich can bravely clout my shoone, And eke thou hast my heart in hold. 

And ich full well can ring a bell.^ And in my mind zeemes passing rare. 

Chorus. — For he can bravely clout his shoone, Chorus. — And eke thou hast his heart in hold, 

And he full well can ring a bell. And in his mind zeemes passing rare. 

My vather he gave me a hogge. 

My mouther she gave me a zow ; 
I have a godvather dwells there by, 
And he on me bestowed a plow. 
Chorus. — He has a godvather dwells there by. 
And he on him bestowed a plow. 

One time I gave thee a paper of pins, 

Anoder time a taudry lace ; 
And if thou wilt not grant me love. 
In truth ich die bevore thy vace. 
Chorus. — And if thou wilt not grant his love. 
In truth he'll die bevore thy face. 



= Bell-ringing was formerly a great amusement of the 
English, and the allusions to it are of frequent occurrence. 
Numerous payments to hell-ringerG are generally to be 



Ich will put on my best white slopp. 
And ich will wear my jellow hose, 
And on my head a good gray hat. 
And in't ich stick a lovely rose. 
Chorus. — And on his head a good gray hat. 
And i'nt he'll stick a lovely rose. 

Wherefore cease off, make no delay. 

And if you'll love me, love me now ; 
Or else ich zeek zome oder where. 
For I cannot come every day to woo. 
Chorus. — Or else he'll zeek zome oder where. 
For he cannot come every day to woo. 

found in Churchwardens' accounts of the 16th and 17th 
centuries. 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 91 



. LUSTY GALLANT. 



This tune, which was extremely populaf in . former times, is to be found in 
William Ballet's Lute Book. It resembles "Now foot it as I do, Tom, boy, Tom," 
which is one of three country dances, arranged to be sung together as a round, in 
Pammelia. 

Nicholas Breton mentions Old Lusty Grallant as a dance tune in his Works of 

a Young Wit, 1577: "by chance, 

Our banquet done, we had our music by, 
And then, you know, the youth must needs go dance, 
First galliards — then larousse, and heidegy — 
Old Lusty Gallant — All flowers of the broom; 
And then a hall, for dancers must have room ; " 
and Elderton, wi-ote, " a proper new balad in praise of my Ladie Marques, whose 
death is bewailed," to the tune of New Lusty Grallant. A copy of that ballad is 
in the possession of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury ; but I assume it to have 
been intended for another air, because there are seven lines in each stanza. The 
following is the first : — 

" Ladies, I thinke you marvell that 
I writ no mery report to you : 
And what is the cause I court it not 
So merye as I was wont to dooe ? 
Alas ! I let you ujideratand 
It is no newes for me to me to show 
The fairest flower of my garland." 
If sung to this tune, the last line of each stanza would require repetition. 

Nashe, in his Terrors of the Night, 1594, says, " After all they danced Lusty 
G-allant, and a drunken Danish levalto or two." 

There is a song beginning, " Fain would I have a pi-etie thing to give unto my 
ladie " (to the tune of Lusty G-allant) , in A HandefuU of Pleasant Lelites, and 
although that volume is not known to have been printed before 1584, it seems to 
have been entered at Stationers' Hall as early as 1565-6. Fain ivould I, &c., 
must have been written, and have attained popularity, either in or before the 
year 1566, because, in 1566-7, a moralization, called Fain woxdd I have a godly 
thing to sheio unto my lady, was entered, and in MSS. Ashmole"^ 48, fol. 120, is a 
baUad of Troilus and Oreseida, beginning — 

" When Troilus dwelt in Troy town, 
A man of noble fame-a " — 

to the tune of Fain would J find some pretty thing, &c., so that, from the popu- 
larity of the ballad, the tune had become known by its name also. 

I have not found any song called Lusty Gallant : perhaps it is referred to in 
Massinger's play, Tlie Picture, where Ferdinand says : 

» Mr. W. H. Black, in his Catalogue of the Ashmolean tains Chevy Chace). Mr. HalliweU has printed the ballad 
MSS., describes this volume as " written in the middle of of Troilus and Creseida, in the volume containing The 
the sixteenth century " — (it is the manuscript which con- Marriage of Wit and Wisdom, for the Shakespeare Society. 



92 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" is your Theorbo 

Turn'd to a distaff, Signior, and your voice. 
With which you chanted Room for a lusty Gallant, 
Timed to the note of Lachrymce ? "" 
The ballad of " A famous sea-fight between Captain Ward and the Rainbow" 
(in the Roxburghe Collection) " to the tune of Captain Ward," &c., begins, " Strike 
up, you lusty Gallants." 

In the G-orgeous Gallery of gallant Inventions, 1578, there is a " proper dittie," 
to the tune of Lusty Gallant; and Pepys mentions a song with the bui'den of 
" St. George for England," to the tune of List, lusty Gallants. 

Moderate time. 
)^ n ^ \ \ HI r *i * a II H 



Pc. J> I J. 



^ 



m 



Fain would I have a pret - ty thing To give un - to my La - dy. 



WWW' 



-&: 



W 



^ 



m 



^ -« . — r 

I name no thing, And mean no thing. But as pretty a thing as may he. 



w 



Twenty journeys would I make, 
And twenty days would hie me, 

To make adventure for her sake. 
To set some matter hy me. 



Some do long for pretty knacks, 
And some for strange devices ; 

God send me what my lady lacks, 
I care not what the price is. 



There are eight more stanzas, which will be found in Evans' Old Ballads, vol. 1, 
p. 123, edit. 1810, or in the reprint of A Handefidl of Pleasant Lelites. 

BY A BANK AS I LAY. 

In the Life of Sir Peter Carew, before quoted (page 52), "By the bank as 
I lay " is mentioned as one of the Freemen'' s Sotigs which Sir Peter used to sing 
with Henry Vm. ; and this is one of the JKing Henry's Mirth or Freemen^ s Songs 
in Deutermnelia. In Laneham's letter from Kenilworth, 1565, " By a bank as 
I lay" is included in the " bunch of ballads and songs, all ancient," which were 
then in the possession of Captain Cox, the Mason of Coventry. In Wager's in- 
terlude, TJie longer thou livest the more fool thou art, 1568, Moros sings the two 
following lines : — " By a bank as I lay, / lay, 

Musing on things paM, heigh ho ! " 
In Royal MSS. Append. 58, there is another song, of which the first line is the 



Lachrymw, a tune often referred to, composed by Dowland. 



FKOM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



93 



same, but tlie second differs ; and the music to it is not of the light and popuhar 
class called Freemen'' s Songs, but a studied composition. The words of the latter 
have been printed by Mr. Payne Collier, in his Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers' Company, vol. i., page 193. They are in the same metre, and 
therefore might also be simg to this tune. 

The last line of the song, as printed in Deuteromelia, is "And save noble James 
our king," because the book was printed in his reign. 

Moderate time. 



t^^t=^-^! ^^^hn ^n^^s 



^ 



5=^ 



1^ 



^ 



lay, Musing on a thing that was past and gone, heigh ho! 



By 



bank 



HE 



^ 



3:51 



^ 



t^»-iiS^ ^Tp i U-^ J^J-J iJTPJ 



f 



lonthof May, Os 



?^ 



^ 



I heard 



In themeny month of May, Osoniewhatbeforetheday,Methought 



at 



the last. 



S 



-—^ 

O the gentle nightingale, 
The lady and the mistress of all musick, 

She sits down ever in the dale ; 

Singing with her notes smale [small], 
And quavering them wonderfully thick. 



Oh, for joy, my spirits were quick, 
To hear the bird how merrily she could sing, 
And I said, good Lord, defend 
England, with thy most holy hand, 
And save noble ' Henry' our king. 



ROGEEO. 

This tune is to be found among Dowland's Manuscripts,'' in the public library, 
Cambridge ; in William Ballet's Lute Book, and in Dallis' Lute Book, both in 
the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The first entry in Mr. Payne Collier's Extracts from the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company, is to William Pickering, a "Ballett called Arise and wake" 
(1557). In the Rosburghe Collection of Ballads, there is one commencing, 
" Arise and awake," entitled — 

" A godly and Christian A. B.C., 
Shewing the duty of every degree," 
to the tune of Rogero. It may be the ballad referred to, although the copy in the 
Roxburghe Collection was printed at a later date. In the same year, 1557, there 
is an entry of " A Ballett of the A.B.C. of a Priest, called Hugh Stourmy," 
and another of " The aged man's A.B.C." 



" The references to these Manuscripts are, D. d. 2. II. 
— D. d. 3. 18.— D. d. 4. 2.3.— D. d. 9. 33.— D. d. 14. 24., 
&c. Some appear to be in the handwriting of Dowland, 



the celebrated lutenist of Elizabeth's reign. 
Rogero is in three or four of them. 



The tune of 



94 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Roger is mentioned as a dance tune in Stephen Gosson's School of Abuse, 
1579 ; in Heywood's A woman hilled tvith kindness (acted before 1604) ; and in 
Nashe's Have ivith you to Saffron- Walden, 1596 ; also by Dekker, in The Shoe- 
maker's Holiday, &c. 

Many ballads were sung to the tune of Rogero. In the first volume of the 
Roxburghe Collection, for instance, there are at least four.* Others in the 
Pepysian Collection; m The Croivn G-arland of Grolden Roses, 1612; in Deloney's 
Strange Histories,^ 1607 ; in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry ; and in Evans' 
Old Ballads. Arise and atvake is also referred to as a ballad tune. 

The following, which is entitled " The valiant courage and policy of the 
Kentishmen with long tails, whereby they kept their ancient laws and customs, 
which William the Conqueror sought to take from them" — to the tune ot Rogero,'" 
is from Strange Histories, &c., 1607. It was written by Deloney, " the ballading 
silk-weaver," who died in or before 1600. 
Boldly and marhed. 



^ 



s 



^^m 



^ 



i=* 



r 



When as the Duke of Nor - man -dy, With 



glist ring spear and 



et 



^ 



^ 



=5jcz: 



^ 



imMu^ 



rg p iJ ' i^ 



^ 



shield. 



Had en - ter'd in - to 



fair England, And foil'd his foes in field 



T 



m 



m 



=p 



And many cities he subdued, 

Fair London with the rest ; 
But Kent did still withstand his force, 

And did his laws detest. 

To Dover then he toolc his way, 

The castle down to fling, 
Which Arviragus builded there, 

The noble British king. 

a moving wood ; they enclosed him upon the sudden, and 
with a firm countenance, but words well tempered with 
modesty and respect, they demanded of him the use of 
their ancient liberties and laws : that in other matters 
they would yield obedience unto him : that mthout tliia 
they desired not to live. The king was content to strike 
sail to the storm, and to give them a vain satisfaction for 
the present; knowing right well that the general customs 
and laws of the residue of the realm would in short time 
overflow these particular places. So pledges being given 
on both sides, they conducted him to Rochester, and 
yielded up the county of Kent, and the castle of Dover 
into his power." 



On Christmas-day in solemn sort 
Then was he crowned here, 

By Albert archbishop of York, 
With many a noble peer. 

Which being done, he changed quite 

The customs of this land, 
And punisht such as daily sought 

His statutes to withstand : 

^ See folios 130, 258, 4S2, and 492. 

^ The Croivn Garland and Strange Histories have been 
reprinted by the Percy Society. 

" Evans, who prints this ballad from another copy (TAe 
Garland of Delight) extracts the following account of the 
event which gave rise to it, from The Lives of the three 
Norman Kings of England, by Sir John Hey ward, 4to, 1613, 
p. 97: "Further, by the counsel of Stigand, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and of Eglesine, Abbot of St. Augustine's 
(who at that time were the chief governors of Kent), as the 
King was riding towards Dover, at Swanscombe, two 
miles from Gravesend, the Kentishmen came towards him 
armed and bearing bougha in their hands, as if it had been 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 



95 



Whicli when the brave archbishop bold 

Of Canterbury knew, 
The abbot of Saint Augustines eke, 

With all their gallant crew, 

They set themselves in armour bright, 

These mischiefs to prevent. 
With all the yeomen brave and bold 

That were in fruitful Kent. 

At Canterbury did they meet 

Upon a certain day. 
With sword and spear, with bill and bow, 

And stopt the conqueror's way. 

Let us not live like bond-men poor 
To Frenchmen in their pride, 

But keep our ancient liberty, 
What chance so e'er betide, 

And rather die in bloody field. 
In manlike courage prest (ready), 

Than to endure the servile yoke. 
Which we so much detest. 

Thus did the Kentish commons cry 

Unto their leaders still. 
And so march'd forth in warlike sort. 

And stand at Swanscomb hill : 

Where in the woods they hid themselves. 

Under the shady green. 
Thereby to get them vantage good, 

Of all their foes unseen. 

And for the conqueror's coming there. 

They privily laid wait. 
And thereby suddenly appal'd 

His lofty high conceit ; 

For when they spied his approach, 

In place as they did stand. 
Then marched they, to hem him in, 

Each one a bough in hand, 

So that unto the conqueror's sight, 

Amazed as he stood. 
They seem'd to be a walking grove, 

Or else a moving wood. 



The shape of men he could not see, 
The boughs did hide them so : 

And now his heart for fear did quake. 
To see a forest go ; 

Before, behind, and on each side, 

As he did cast his eye, 
He spied those woods with sober pace 

Approach to him full nigh : 

But when the Kentish-men had thus 
Enclos'd the conqueror round. 

Most suddenly they drew their swords. 
And threw the boughs to ground ; 

Their banners they display 'd in sight. 
Their trumpets sound a charge, 

Their rattling drums strike up alarms. 
Their troops stretch out at large. 

The conqueror, and all his train, 

Were hereat sore aghast, 
And most in peril, when they thought 

All peril had been past. 

Unto the Kentish men he sent, 

The cause to understand. 
For what intent, and for what cause, 

They took this war in hand ; 

To whom they made this short reply. 

For liberty we fight. 
And to enjoy king Edward's laws, 

The which we hold our right. 

Then said the dreadful conqueror. 
You shall have what you will. 

Your ancient customs and your laws. 
So that you will be still : 

And each thing else that you will crave 

With reason, at my hand. 
So you will but acknowledge me 

Chief king of fair England. 

The Kentish men agreed thereon, 

And laid their arms aside. 
And by this means king Edward's laws 

In Kent do still abide ; 



And in no place in England else 

These customs do remain, 
Which they by manly policy 

Did of duke William gain. 

TURKEYLONEY. 
The figure of the dance called Turlceyloney is described with others in a manu- 
script in the Bodleian Library (MS. Rawl. Poet. 108), -which was written about 
1570. Stephen Gosson, in his Schoole of Abuse, containing a pleasant Invective 
against Poets, Pipers, Players, Jesters, &c,, 1579, alludes to the tune as one of 



96 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



the most popular in his day. He says, " Homer, with his music, cured the sick 
soldiers in the Grecians' camp, and purged every man's tent of the plague. 
Think you that those miracles could be wought with playing dances, dumps, 
pavans, galliards, fancies, or new strains ? They never came where this grew, 

nor knew what it meant Terpander neither piped Rogero, nor Turkeloney, 

when he ended the brabbles at Lacedemon, but, putting them in mind of Lycm"gus' 
laws, taught them to tread a better measure:" but, "if you enquire how many 
such poets and pipers we have in our age, I am persuaded that every one of them 
may creep through a ring, or dance the wild morris in a needle's eye. We have 
infinite poets and pipers, and such peevish cattle among us in England, that live 
by merry begging, maintained by alms, and privily encroach upon every man's 
purse, but if they in authority should call an account to see how many Chirons, 
Terpandri, and Homers are here, they might cast the sum without pen or 
counters, and sit down with Rachel to weep for her children, because they are not." 

Turheylony is also mentioned, as a dance tune, in Nashe's Have ivith you to 
Saffron- Walden, 1596; and the music will be found in William Ballet's Lute 
Book, described in a note at page 86. 

The words here coupled with the tune are taken from a manuscript in the 
possession of Mr. Payne Collier. Although the manuscript is of the reign of 
James I., the " ballett " Yf ever I marry, I will marry a mayde, was entered 
at Stationers' Hall as early as 1557-8. The name of the air to which it should 
be sung is neither given in the MS., nor in the entry at Stationers' Hall; but the 
words and music agree so well together, that it is very probable the ballet was 
written to this tune. 

In moderate time, and smoothly. 



i 



t=^ 



^ 



n/.r 3 1 rf^ ^ 



i^ 



*^ 



e - ver I inar-ry, I'll mar-ry a maid : To marry a widow I'm 



If 



b ft ' 



r- \ r- r 



p ^ j- i J.-n^:-^ ^ 



a - fraid ; For maids they are sim - pie, and never will grutcli, But 

(grudge) 



^^ w^ 



m 



n 



^ 



r ■ 

widows full oft, as they say, know too much, 



FROM HENRY VII. TO MARY. 97 

A maid is so sweet, and so gentle of kind, 

That a maid is the wife I will choose to my mind ; 

A widow is fro ward, and never will yield ; 

Or if such there be, you will meet them but seeld. [seldom] 

A maid ne'er complaineth, do what so you will ; 

But what you mean well, a widow takes ill : 

A widow will make you a drudge and a slave, 

And cost ne'er so much, she will ever go brave, [gaily dress'd] 

A maid is so modest, she seemeth a rose, 

When first it beginneth the bud to unclose ; 

But a widow full blowen, fiill often deceives, 

And the next wind that bloweth shakes down all her leaves. 

That widows be lovely I never gainsay. 
But too well all their beauty they know to display ; 
But a maid hath so great hidden beauty in store, 
She can spare to a widow, yet never be poor. 

Then, if ever I marry, give me a fresh maid, 

If to maiTy with any I be not afraid ; 

But to marry with any it asketh much care. 

And some bachelors hold they are best as they are. 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



REIGN O'F ELIZABETH. 



During the long reign of Elizabeth, music seems to have been in universal 
cultivation, as well as in universal esteem. Not only was it a necessary qualifica- 
tion for ladies and gentlemen, but even the city of London advertised the musical 
abilities of boys educated in Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, as a mode of 
recommending them as servants, apprentices, or husbandmen." In Deloney's 
History of the gentle Craft, 1598, one who tried to pass for a shoemaker was 
detected as an imposter, because he could neither " sing, sound the trumpet, play 
upon the flute, nor reckon up his tools in rhyme." Tinkers sang catches; milk- 
maids sang ballads ; carters whistled ; each trade, and even the beggars, had 
their special songs ; the base-viol hung in the di-awing room for the amusement of 
waiting visitors ; and the lute, cittern, and virginals, for the amusement of wait- 
ing customers, were the necessary furniture of the barber's shop. They had 
music at dinner; music at supper; music at weddings; music at funerals; music 
at night; music at dawn; music at work; and music at play. 

He who felt not, in some degree, its soothing influences, was viewed as a 
morose, unsocial being, whose converse ought to be shmmed, and regarded with 
suspicion and distrust. 

" The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ; 
The motions of his spirit are as dull as night, 
And his affections dark as Erebus : 
Let no such man be trusted." 

Merchant of Venice, act v., so. 1. 
" Preposterous ass ! that never read so far 
To know the cause why music was ordain'd ! 
Was it not to refresh the mind of man 
After his studies, or his usual pain ? " 

Tlie Taming of the Shrew, act ii., sc. 3. 

» "That the preachers be moved at the sermons at the Golden Tunne;" reprinted in The British Bibliographer. 
Crosse" [St. Paul's Cross] "and other convenient times, Edward VI. granted the charters of incorporation for 
and that all other good notorious meanes be used, to re- Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, a few days before his 
quire both citizens, artificers, and other, and also all death. Bridewell is a foundation of a mixed and sin- 
farmers and other for husbandry, and gentlemen and other gular nature, partaking of the hospital, prison, and work- 
for their kitchens and other services, to take servants and house. Youths were sent to the Hospital as apprentices 
children both out of Bridewell and Christ's Hospital at to manufacturers, who resided there ; and on leaving, re- 
their pleasures, . . . with further declaration that many ceived a donation of 10^., and their freedom of the city, 
of them be of toward qualities in readyng, wryting, gram- Pepys, in his Diary, 5th October, 16G4, says, "To new 
mer, and musike." This Is the 66th and last of the Bridewell, and there I did with great pleasure see the 
"Orders appointed to be executed in the cittie of London, many pretty works, and the little children employed, 
for setting rogCuJes and idle persons to worke, and for every one to do something, which was a very fine sight, 
releefe of the poore." "At London, printed by Hugh and worthy encouragement." 
singleton, dwelling in Smith Fielde, at the signe of the 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 99 

Steevens, in a note upon the above passage in The Merchant of Venice, quotes the 
authority of Lord Chesterfield against what he terms this "capricious sentiment" 
of Shakespeare, and adds that Peacham requires of his gentleman only to be able 
" to sing his part sure, and at first sight, and withall to play the same on a viol, 
or lute." But this sentiment, so far from being peculiar to Shakespeare, may be 
said to have been the prevailiag one of Europe. Nor was Peacham an exception, 
for, although he says, " I dare not pass so rash a censure of these " (who love not 
music) " as Pindar doth ; or the Italian, having fitted a proverb to the same effect, 
Whom Grocl loves not, that man loves not music-''' he adds, " but I am verily per- 
suaded that they are by nature very ill disposed, and of such a brutish stupidity 
that scarce any thing else that is good and savoureth of virtue is to be found 
in them." '^ Tusser, in his " Points of Huswifry united to the comfort of 
Husbandry," 1570, recommends the country huswife to select servants that sing 
at their work, as being usually the most pains-taking, and the best. He says : 
" Such servants are oftenest painfull and good, 
That sing in their labour, as birds in the wood ;" 
and old Merrythought says, "Never trust a tailor that does not sing at 
his work, for his mind is of nothing but filching." — (Dyce''s Beaumont and 
Fletcher, vol. ii., p. 171.) 

Byrd, in his Psalmes, Sonnets, and Songs, &c., 1588, gives the following eight 
reasons why every one should learn to sing : — 

1st. — "It is a knowledge easily taught, and quickly learned, where there is a good 
master and an apt scholar." 

2nd. — " The exercise of singing is delightful to nature, and good to preserve the 
health of man." 

3rd. — " It doth strengthen all parts of the breast, and doth open the pipes." 

4tb. — "It is a singular good remedy for a stutting and stammering in the speech." 

6th. — "It is the best means to procure a perfect pronunciation, and to make a good 
orator." 

6th. — " It is the only way to know where nature hath bestowed a good voice ; . . . 
and in many that excellent gift is lost, because they want art to express nature." 

7th. — " There is not any music of instruments wliatsoever, comparable to that which 
is made of the voices of men; where the voices are good, and the same well sorted 
and ordered." 

8th. — " The better the voice is, the m^eter it is to honour and serve God therewith ; 
and the voice of man is chiefly to be emisloyed to that end." 
" Since singing is so good a thing, 
I wish all men would learn to sing." 

Morley, in his Introduction to Pratical Mustek, 1597, written in dialogue, 
introduces the pupil thus : " But supper being ended, and music books, 
according to custom, being brought to the table, the mistress of the house pre- 
sented me with a part, earnestly requesting me to sing ; but when, after many 
excuses, I protested unfeignedly that I could not, every one began to wonder ; yea, 

^ The Corapleat Gentleman; fashioning him absolute in mind or bodie, tliat maybe required in a noble gentleman, 
the most necessary and commendable qualities, concerning By Henry Peacliam, Master of Arts, &c., 1622. 



100 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

some whispered to others, demanding how I was brought up, so that upon shame 
of mine ignorance, I go now to seek out mine old friend, Master Gnorimus, to 
make myself his scholar." 

Laneham, to whom we are indebted for the description of the pageants at Kenil- 
worth in 1575, thus describes his own evening amusements. " Sometimes I foot 
it with dancing ; now with my gittern, and else with my cittern, then at the 
virginals (ye know nothing comes amiss to me) : then carol I up a song withal ; 
that by and by they come flocking about me like bees to honey ; and ever they 
cry, ' Another, good Laneham, another.' " He who thus speaks of his playing 
upon three instruments and singing, had been promoted from a situation in the 
royal stables, through the favour of the Earl of Leicester, to the duty of keeping 
eaves-droppers from the council-chamber door. 

Dekker, in 27*6 Gulfs Horn-hooh, tells us that the usual routine of a young 
gentlewoman's education was " to read and write ; to play upon the virginals, 
lute, and cittern ; and to read prick-song (i.e., music written or pricked down) at 
first sight." Whenever a lady was highly commended by a writer of that age, 
her skill in music was sure to be included ; as — 

" Her own tongue speaks all tongues, and her own hand 
Can teach all strings to speak in their best grace." 

Heytvood's A Woman kill'd with kindness. 
" Observe," says Lazarillo, who is instructing the ladies how to render them- 
selves most attractive, "it shall be your first and finest praise to sing the note of 
every new fashion at first sight. — (Middleton's Blurt, Master OonstaMe, 1602.) 
Gosson, in his Schoole of Abuse, 1579, alluding to the custom of serenading, 
recommends young ladies to be careful not to "flee to inchaunting," and says, "if 
assaulted with music in the night, close up your eyes, stop your ears, tie up your 
tongues; when they speak, answer them not; when they halloo, stoop not ; when 
they sigh, laugh at them; when they sue, scorn them." He admits that "these are 
hard lessons," but advises them " nevertheless to drink up the potion, though it 
like not [please not] your taste." In those days, however, the " serenate, which 
the starv'd lover sings to his i3roud fair," was not quite so customary in England 
as the Morning song or Hunfs-vp ; such as — 

" Fain would I wake you, sweet, but fear 
I should invite you to *orse cheer ; . . . 
I'd wish my life no better play, 
Your dream by night, your thought by day : 
Wake, gently wake, 
Part softly from your dreams ! 
The Morning Jiies 
To your fair eyes, 
To guide her special beams." 
As to the custom of having a base-viol (or viol da gamba) hanging up in draw- 
ing rooms for visitors to play on, one quotation from Ben Jonson may sufiice: 
" In making love to her, never fear to be out, for ... a base viol shall hang o' the 
wall, of purpose, shall put you in presently. — {Gifford's Edit. vol. ii., p. 162.) 



EEISN OP ELIZABETH. 101 

If more to the same purport be required, many similar allusions will be found in 
the same volume. (See pages 125, 126, 127, and 472, and Gifford's Notes.) 

The base-viol was also played upon by ladies (at least during the following 
reign), although thought by some "an unmannerly instrimient for a woman." 
The mode in which some ladies passed their time is described in the following 
lines, and perhaps, even in the present day, instances not wholly milike might be 
found. " This is all that women do, 

Sit and answer them that woo ; 

Deck themselves in new attive, 

To entangle fresh desire ; 

After dinner sing and play, 

Or dancing, pass the time away." 
" England," says a French writer of the seventeenth century, " is the paradise of 
women, as Spain and Italy are their purgatory." ^ 

The musical instruments principally in use in barbers' shops, during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were the cittern, the gittern, the lute, and 
the virginals. Of these the cittern was the most common, perhaps because most 
easily played. It was in shape somewhat like the English guitar of the last 
century, but had only four double strings of wire, i. e., two to each note.*" These 
were tuned to the notes g, b, d, and e of the present treble staff, or to correspond- 
ing intervals ; for no rules are given concerning the pitch of these instruments, 
unless they were to be used in concert. The instructions for tuning are generally 
to draw up the treble string as high as possible, without breaking it, and to tune 
the others from that. A particular feature of the cittern was the carved head, 
which is frequently alluded to by the old writers.'^ Playford in his "Musick's 
Delight on the Githren restored and refined to a more easie and pleasant manner of 
playing than formerly," 1666, speaks of having revived the instrument, and re- 
stored it to what it was in the reign of Queen Mary, and his tuning agrees with 
that in Anthony Holborne's Qittharn Schoole, 1597, and in Thomas Robinson's Wew 
Citharen Lessons, 1609. The peculiarity of the cittern, or cithren, was that the 
thii'd string was tuned lower than the fourth, so that if the first or highest string 
were tuned to e, the third would be the g below, and the fourth the intermediate b. 
The cittern appears to have been an instrument of English invention.* 

Of the gittern or ghitterne, I can say but little, not having seen any instruc- 
tion-book for the instrument. Ritson says it differed chiefly from the cittern 

■^ Description of England by Jorevin de Rocheford. the great astronomer, Galileo Galilei), I assume to mean 

Paris, 1672. Cittern, because the word Liuto, for Lute, was in common 

^ Sir John Hawkins, in his History of Music, vol. ii., use. He says, " Fu la Cetera usata prima tra gli Inglesi 

p. 602, 8vo., copies the Cistrum from Mersenne, as the che da altre nazioni, nella quale Isola si lavoravano gii 

Cittern, but it has six strings, and therefore more closely in eccellenza ; quantunque hoggi le pitl riputate da loro 

resembles the English guitar. siano quelle che si lavorano in Brescia; con tutto questo 

= In Love's Labour Lost, act v., sc. 2, Boyet compares S adoperata ed apprezzata da nobili, e fu cosi detta dagli 

Holofernes' countenance to that of a cittern head. In autori di essa, per forse resuscitate I'antica Cithara ; ma 

Forde's Lovers' Melancholy, act ii., sc. 1, "Barbers shall la diiferenza che sia tra la nostra e quella, si 6 possuto 

wear thee on their citterns;" and in Fletcher's Love's benissimoconoscere da quello che se n' ^ di sopra detto." — 

Cxtre, "You cittern head! you ill-countenanced cur!" Dialogo di Vinccnzo Galilei, nobile Fiorentino, fol. 1581, 

&c.. Sic p. 147. 

* The word Cetera, as employed by Galilei (father of 






I 



102 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

in being strung with gut instead of wire ; and, from the various allusions to it, 
I have no doubt of his correctness. Perhaps, also, it was somewhat less in size. 
In the catalogue of musical instruments left in the charge of Philip van Wilder, 
at the death of Henry VHI., we find " four Gitterons, which are called Spanish 
vialles." As Galilei says, in 1581, that " Viols are little used in Spain, and that 
they do not make them,"" I assume Spanish viol to mean the guitarra, or guitar. 
The gittern is ranked with string instruments in the following extract from the 
old play of Lingua, written in this reign : — 

" 'Tis true the finding of a dead horse-liead 

"VS'as the first invention of string instruments, 

Whence rose the Oitterne, Viol, and the Lide ; 

Though others think the Lute was first devis'd 

In imitation of a tortoise badi, 

Whose sinews, parched by Apollo's beams, 

Echo'd about the concave of the shell : ' 

And seeing the shortest and smallest gave shrillest sound, 

They found out Frets, whose sweet diversity 

(Well touched by the skilful learned fingers) 

Raiseth so strange a multitude of Chords ; 

Which, their opinion, many do confirm, 

Because Testudo signifies a Lute." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v., p. 198. 

Coles, in his Dictionary, describes gittern as a smcdl sort of cittern, and Playford 
printed OUhren and Grittern Lessons, ivith plain and easie Instructions for Beginners 
thereooi, together in one book, in 1659. Ritson may have gained his information 
from this book, as he mentions it in the second edition of his Ancient Songs, but 
I have not succeeded in finding a copy. 

The lute (derived from the Anglo-Saxon Hlud, or Lud, i. e., sounded), was 
once the most popular instrument in Europe, although now rarely to be seen, 
except represented in old pictures. It has been superseded by the guitar, but 
for what reason it is difficult to say, unless from the greater convenience of the 
bent sides of the guitar for holding the instrument, when touching the higher notes 
of the finger-board. The tone of the lute is decidedly superior to the guitar, being 
larger, and having a convex back, somewhat like the vertical section of a gourd, or 
more nearly resembling that of a pear. As it was used chiefly for accompanying 
the voice, there were only eight frets, or divisions of the finger-board, and these 
frets (so called from fretting, or stopping the strings) were made by tying 
pieces of cord, dipped in glue, tightly round the neck of the lute, at inter- 
vals of a semitone. It had virtually six strings, because, although the num- 
ber was eleven or twelve, five, at least, were doubled, the first, or treble, being 
sometimes a single string.'' The head, in which the pegs to turn the strings were 

" " La viola da garaba, e da braccio, nella Spagna non lutes of various sizes, from the mandura, or mandore, 

se ne fanno, e poco vi si usano." — Bialogo delta Mimca, to the theorbo and arch-lute; some with less, and others 

fol, 1581., p. 147. with more strings. 

^ I speak only of the usual English hite. There were 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 103 

inserted, receded almost at a right angle. The most usual mode of tuning it was 
as follows : assuming c in the third space of the treble clef to be the pitch of the 
first string (i.e., cc in the scale given at page 14), the base, or sixth string would 
be ; the tenor, or fifth, F; the counter-tenor, or fourth, b flat ; the great 
mean, or third, d ; the small mean, or second, g ; and the minikin, or treble, cc* 

Lute strings'" were a usual present to ladies as new-year's gifts. From 
Nichols' Progresses we learn that queen Elizabeth received a box of lute-strings, 
as a new-year's gift, from Innocent Corry, and at the same time, a box of lute- 
strings and a glass of sweet water from Ambrose Lupo. When young men 
in want of money went to usurers, it was their common practice to lend it 
in the shape of goods which could only be re-sold at a great loss ; and lute-strings 
were then as commonly the medium employed as bad wine is now. In Lodge's 
Looking Glasse for London and Miglande, 1594, the usurer being very urgent 
for the repayment of his loan, is thus answered, " I pray you, Sir, consider that 
my loss was great by the commodity I took up; you know. Sir, I borrowed of you 
forty pounds, whereof I had ten pounds in money, and thirty pounds in lute- 
strings, which, when I came to sell again, I could get but five pounds for them, so 
had I, Sir, but fifteen pounds for my forty." So in Dekker's A Nighfs Con- 
juring, the spendthrift, speaking of his father, says, " He cozen'd young gentle- 
men of their land, only for me, had acres mortgaged to him by wiseacres for three 
hundred pounds, paid in hobby-horses, dogs, bells, and lute-strings, which, if they 
had been sold by the di'um, or at an out-rop (auction), with the cry of ' No man 
better ?' would never have yielded £50." Nash alludes twice to the custom. In 
Will Summer'' s Last Will and Testament, he says, " I know one that ran in debt, 
in the space of four or five years, above fourteen thousand pounds in lute-strings 
and grey paper;" and in CJirisfs Tears over Jerusalem, 1593; " Li the first in- 
stance, spendthrifts and prodigals obtain what they desire, but at the second time 
of their coming, it is doubtful to say whether they shall have money or no : the world 
grows hard, and we are all mortal : let them make him any assurance before a 
judge, and they shall have some hundi-ed pounds (per consequence) in silks and 
velvets. The third time, if they come, they have baser commodities. The fourth 
time, lute-strings and grey paper ; and then, I pray you pardon me, I am not for 
you : pay me what you owe me, and you shall have anything." (Dodsley, v. 9, 
p. 22.) 

The virginals (probably so called because chiefly played upon by young girls) , 
resembled in shape the " square" pianoforte of the present day, as the harpsichord 
did the "grand." The sound ofthe pianoforte is produced by a hammer striking 
the strings, but when the keys of the virginals or harpsichord were pressed, the 
"jacks," (slender pieces of wood, armed at the upper ends with quills) were 

» The notes which these letters represent will be seen House duties printed in 1545, the iiuport duty on "lute- 
by referring to the scale at p. 14-. strings called Mynikins" was 22d. the gross, but as no 

^ Mace, in his Musick's Monument, 1678, speaking of other lute-strings are named, I assume that only the 

lute-strings, says, " Chuse your trebles, seconds, and smallest were then occasionally imported. Minikin is 

thirds, and some of your small octaves, especially the one of the many words, derived from music or musical 

sixth, out of your Minikins; the fourth and fifth, and instruments, which have puzzled the commentators on 

most of your octaves, of Venice Catlins ; your Pistoys or the old dramatists. The first string of a violin was also 

Lyons only for the great bases." In the list of Custom- called a minikin. 



104 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

raised to the strings, and acted as plectra, by impinging, or twitching them. 
These yacfe were the constant subject of simile and pun; for instance, in a play 
of Dekker's, where Matheo complains that his wife is never at home, Orlando says, 
"No, for she's like a pan- of virginals, always with jacfa at her tail." — (Dodsley's 
Old Plays, vol. iii., p. 398). And in Middleton's Father Suhhurd's Tales, de- 
sci'ibing Charity as frozen, he says, "Her teeth chattered in her head, and leaped 
up and down like virginal jacks." 

One branch of the barber's occupation in former days was to di'aw teeth, to bind 
up wounds, and to let blood. The parti-colovu-ed pole, which was exhibited at the 
doorway, painted after the fashion of a bandage, was his sign, and the teeth 
he had drawn were suspended at the windows, tied upon lute strings. The lute, 
the cittern, and the gittern hung from the walls, and the virginals stood in the 
corner of his shop. " If idle," says the author of The Trimming of Tliomas 
Nashe, " barbers pass their time in life-delighting musique," (1597). The 
barber in Lyly's Midas, (1592), says to his apprentice, " Thou knowest I have 
taught thee the knacking of the hands," like the tuning of a cittern," and 
Truewit, in Ben Jonson's Silent Woman, wishes the barber " may draw his own 
teeth, and add them to the lute-string." In the same play, Morose, who had 
married the barber's daughter, thinking her faithless, exclaims " That cursed 
barber ! I have married his cittern, that is common to all men." One of the 
commentators not understanding this, altered it to " I have married his cistern^'' 
&c, Dekker also speaks of " a barber's cittern for every serving-man to play 
upon." 

One of the Merrie- conceited jests of Greorge Peek is the stealing of a barber's 
lute, and in Lord Fcdkland's Wedding Night, we read " He has travelled 
and speaks languages, as a barber's boy plays o'th' gittern." Ben Jonson says,*" 
" I can compare him to nothing more happily than a barber's virginals ; for every 
man may play upon him," and in The Staple of News, " My barber Tom, one 
Christmas, got into a Masque at court, by his wit and the good means of his 
cittern, holding up thus for one of the music." To the latter passage Gifford adds 
another in a note. " For you know, says Tom Brown, that a cittern is as natural 
to a barber, as milk to a calf, or dancing bears to a bagpiper." 

As to the music they played, we may assume it to have been, generally, 
the common tunes of the day, and such as would be familiar to all. Morley, in 
his Introduction to Music, tells us that the tune called the Quadrant Pavan, was 
called Q-regory Walker, "because it walketh 'mongst barbers and fiddlers more 
common than any other," and says in derision, " Nay, you sing you know not 
what ; it should seem you came lately from a barber's shop, where you had 
Gregory Walker, or a Coranto, played in the new proportions by them lately found 
out." Notwithstanding this, we find the Quadran Pavan (so called, I suppose, 
because it was a pavan for four to dance) was one of the tunes arranged for 
queen Elizabeth in her Virginal Book; and Morley, himself, arranged it for 

* The knacking of the hands was a peculiar crack witli barber was expected to make while shaving a customer, 
the fingers, by knocking them together, which every ^ Every mnn in his hvmour. Act iii., sc. 2. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 105 

several instruments in his Consort Lessons. I have alluded to the custom of 
introducing old songs into plays, and playing old tunes at the beginning and end 
of the acts, at p. 72. Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and Lady Neville's, 
contain little else than old tunes, arranged with variations, or as then more 
usually termed, with " division." It is often difficult to extract the air accurately 
from these arrangements, if there be no other copy as a guide. Occasionally 
a mere skeleton of the tune is given, sometimes it is " in prolation," i. e., with 
every note drawn out to two, four, or eight times its proper duration, sometimes 
the melody is in the base, at others it is to be found in an inner part. 

The rage for popular tunes abroad had shewn itself in the Masses set to 
music by the greatest composers. Baini, in his Life of Palestrina, gives, what 
he terms, a shori list (" breve elenco") of some of them. It contains the 
names of eighty secular tunes upon which Masses had been composed, and sung 
even in the Pope's chapel. The tunes have principally French names, some 
are of lascivious songs, others of dance tunes. He names fifty different authors 
who composed them, and intimates that there is a much larger number than he 
has cited in the library of the Vatican. * Even our island was not quite irre- 
proachable on this point. Shakespeare speaks of Puritans singing psalms to 
hornpipes, and the Presbyterians sang their Divine Hymns to the tunes of 
popular songs, the titles of some of which the editor of Sacred Minstrelsy (vol. i., 
p. 7) " would not allow to sully his pages." Generally, however, the passion 
for melody expended itself in singing old tunes about the country, in the streets, 
and at the ends of plays, in playing them in barbers' shops, or at home, when 
arranged for chamber use with all the art and embellishment our musicians could 
devise. The scholastic music of that age, great as it was, was so entirely devoted 
to harmony, and that harmony so constructed upon old scales, that scarcely any- 
thing like tune could be found in it — I mean such tune as the uncultivated ear 
could carry away. Many would then, no doubt, say with Imperia, "I cannot abide 
these dull and lumpish tunes ; the musician stands longer a pricking them than 
I would do to hear them : no, no, give me your light ones." — (Middleton's Blurt, 
blaster Oonstahle.) No line of demarcation could be more complete than that 
between the music of the great composers of the time, and, what may be termed, 
the music of the people. Perhaps the only instance of a tune by a well-known 
musician of that age having been afterwards used as a ballad tune, is that of The 
Frog Cralliard, composed by Dowland. Musicians held ballads in contempt, and 
the great poets rarely wrote in ballad metre. 

Dr. Drake, in his Shakespeare and his Times, gives a list of two hundred and 
thirty- three British poets'' (forty major, and one hundred and ninety-three 
minor), who were contemporaneous with Shakespeare, and even that list, large as 
it is, might be greatly extended from miscellanies, and from ballads. Some idea 
of the number of ballads that were printed in the early part of the reign of 

"* *' Memorie storico-critiche della vita, e delle Opere di is already said (and, 'as I thinlc, truly said) it is not 

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina." — Roma, 2 vols, 4to,, rhyming and versing that maketh poesy: one may be a 

1828. Vol. i., p. 136, et seq. This evil was checked by a poet without versing, and a versifier without poetry." — 

decree of the Council of Trent. Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesy. 

** The word " Poet " is here too generally applied. " It 



106 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Elizabeth may be formed from the fact that seven hundred and ninety-six ballads, 
left for entry at Stationers' Hall, remained in the cupboard of the council chamber 
of the company at the end of the year 1560, to be transferred to the new 
Wardens, and only forty-four books.^ As to the latter part of her reign, see 
Bishop Hall, 1597. 

" Some drunken rhymer thinks his time well spent 

If he can live to see his name in print ; 

Who, when he once is fleshed to the press, 

And sees his handsell have such fair success, 

Simg to the rvJieel, and sung unto the pail,*' 

He sends forth thraves" of ballads to the sale." 
And to the same purport, in Martin Mar-sixim, 1592 : " I lothe to speak it, 
every red-nosed rhymester is an author ; every drunken man's dream is a book ; 
and he, whose talent of little wit is hardly worth a farthing, yet layeth about him 
so outrageously as if all Helicon had run through his pen : in a word, scarce a cat 
can look out of a gutter, but out starts a halfpenny chronicler, and presently a 
proper new ballet of a strange sight is indited." 

Henry Chettle, in his pamphlet entitled Kind Sarfs Dream, 1592, speaks of 
idle youths singing and selling ballads in every corner of cities and market towns, 
and especially at fairs, markets, and such like public meetings. Contrasting that 
time with the simplicity of former days, he says, "What hath there not, contrary 
to order, been printed ? Now ballads are abusively chanted in every street ; and 
from London this evil has overspread Essex and the adjoining counties. There is 
many a tradesman of a worshipful trade, yet no stationer, who after a little bring- 
ing up apprentices to singing brokery, takes into his shop some fresh men, and 
trusts his servants of two months' standing with a dozen groatsworth of ballads. 
In which, if they prove thrifty, he makes them pretty chapmen, able to spread 
more pamphlets by the state forbidden, than all the booksellers in London." 
He particularly mentions the sons of one Barnes, most frequenting Bishop's 
Stortford, the one with a squeaking treble, the other with an ale-blown base, as 
bragging that they earned twenty shillings a day ; whilst others, horse and man, 
the man with many a hard meal, and the horse pinched for want of provender, 
have together hardly taken ten shillings in a week. 

In a pamphlet intended to ridicule the follies of the times, printed in 1591, the 
writer says, that if men that are studious would " read that which is good, a poor 
man may be able" — not to obtain bread the cheaper, but as the most desirable of 
all results, he would be able " to buy three ballets for a halfpenny."'^ 
" And tell prose writers, stories are so stale, 
That penny ballads make a better sale." 

PasquilVs Mad?iess, 1600. 
The words of the ballads were written by such men as Elderton, " with his ale- 
crammed nose," and Thomas Deloney, " the balloting silk-weaver of Norwich." 

■^ See Collier's Extracts from the Ret/islers of the Sta- ^ " Thrave " signifies a number of sheaves of corn set 

tioners* Company, vol. i., p. 28. up together ; metaphorically, an indefinite number of any- 

^ " Sung to the wheel," i.e., to the spinning wheel; and thing. — Nares' Glossary. 

" sung to the pail," sung by milk-maids, of whose love of ■* FearefuU and lamentable effects of two ctanyerous Comets 

ballads furtlier proofs will be adduced. that shall appeare, &c., 4to, l.')91. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 107 

The former is thus described in a MS. of the time of James I., in the pos- 
session of Mr. Payne Collier : — 

" Will. Elderton's red nose is famous everywhere, 
And many a ballet shows it cost him very dear ; 
In ale, and toast, and spice, he spent good store of coin, 
You need not ask him twice to take a cup of wine. 
But though his nose was red, his hand was very white. 
In work it never sped, nor took in it delight ; 
No marvel therefore 'tis, that white should be his hand. 
That ballets writ a score, as you well understand." 
Nashe, in Have ivith you to Saffron Walden, says of Deloney, " He hath rhyme 
enough for all miracles, and wit to make a Garland of Good Will, &c., but 
whereas his muse, from the first peeping forth, hath stood at livery at an ale-house 
wisp, never exceeding a penny a quart, day or night — and this dear year, 
together with the silencing of his looms, scarce that — he is constrained to betake 
himself to carded ale" (i. e., ale mixed with small beer), "whence it proceedeth 
that since Candlemas, or his jigg of John for the king, not one merry ditty will 
come from him ; nothing but The Thunderlolt against swearers, Repent, England, 
repent, and the Strange Judgments of God." 

In 1581, Thomas Lovell, a zealous puritan, (one who objected to the word 
Christmas, as savoui*ing too much of popery, and calls it Ghxistide), published 
" A Dialogue between Custom and Verity, concerning the use and abuse of 
dauncinge and minstralsye." From this, now rare book, Mr. Payne Collier has 
printed various extracts. The object was to put down dancing and minstrelsy ; 
Custom defends and excuses them, and Verity, who is always allowed to have the 
best of the argument, attacks and abuses them. It shows, however, that the old 
race of minstrels was not quite extinct. Verity says : — 
" But this- do minstrels clean forget : 
Some godly songs they have. 
Some wicked ballads and unmeet, 
* As companies do crave. 

For filthies they have filthy songs ; 

For ' some' lascivious rhymes ; 
For honest, good ; for sober, grave 

Songs ; so they watch their times. 
Among the lovers of the truth, 

Ditties of truth they sing ; 
Among the papists, such as of 

Their godless legends spring 

T/ie minstrels do, with instrutnents, 

With songs, or else with jest, 
3faintain themseloos : but, as they use, [act] 
Of these naught is the best." 

Collier's Extracts Reg. Stat. Comp., vol. ii., pp. 144, 145. 
Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, 1602, speaking of Tregarrick, then the 



108 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

residence of Mr. Buller, tlie sheriff, says, "It was sometime the Wideslade's 
inheritance, until the father's rebellion forfeited it," and the " son then led 
a walking life with his harp, to gentlemen's houses, where-through, and by his 
other active qualities, he was entitled Sir Tristram ; neither wanted he (as some 
say) a ' helle Isound^ the more aptly to resemble his pattern." 

So in the "Pleasant, plain, and pithy pathway, leading to a virtuous and honest 
life" (about 1550), 

" Very lusty I was, and pleasant withall. 
To sing, dance, and play at the ball .... 
And besides all this, I could then finely play 
On the harp much better than now far away, 
By which my minstrelsy and my fair speech and sport, 
All the maids in the parish to me did resort." 
As minstrelsy declined, the harp became the common resource of the blind, 
and towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth, harpers were proverbially blind : — 
" If thou'lt not have her look'd on by thy guests, 
Bid none but harpers henceforth to thy feasts." 

Guilpin's Sldaletheia, 1598. 
There are many ballads about blind harpers, and many tricks were played upon 
them, such as a rogue engaging a harper to perform at a tavern, and stealing the 
plate " while the unseeing harper plays on." As to the other street and tavern 
musicians, Gosson tells us, in his Short Apologie of the Schoole of Aluse, 1586, 
that " London is so full of unprofitable pipers and fiddlers, that a man can no 
sooner enter a tavern, than two or three cast (i.e., companies) of them, hang at 
his heels, to give him a dance before he departs," but they sang ballads and 
catches as well as played dances. They also played at dinner, 

" Not a dish removed 
But to the music, nor a drop of wine 
Mixt with the water, without harmony." 
" Thou need no more send for a fidler to a feast (says Lyly), than a beggar to 
a fair." 

Part-Singing, and especially the singing Eounds, or Roundelays, and Catches, 
was general throughout England dm-ing the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
In the Moralities and the earliest plays, when part-music was sung instead of old 
ballads, it was generally in Canon, for although neither Round, Catch, nor Canon 
be specified, we find some direction from the one to the other to sing after him.'' 
Thus, in the old Morality called JVew Oustome (Dodsley, vol. i.) , Avarice says : — 
" But, Sirs, because we have tarried so long, 
If you be good fellows, let us depart with a song." 
To which Cruelty answers : — 

" I am pleased, and therefore let every man 
Follow after in order as well as he can." 

• Catch, Round or Roundelay, and Canon in unison, are, other, tfiere results a harmony of as many parts as there 

in music, nearly the same thing. In all, the harmony is to are singers. The Oatoh differs only in that the words of 

be sung by several persons; and is so contrived, that, one part are made to answer, or cflVcA the other ; as, "Ah! 

though each sings precisely the same notes as his fellows, liow, Sophia," sung like " a house o' tire," " Buraey's 

yet, by beginning at stated periods of time from each History," like " burn his history," &c. 



REIGN OP ELIZABETH. 109 

And in John Heywood's The Four I" s, one of our eai-liest plays, the Apothecary, 
having first asked the Pedler whether he can sing at sight, says, " Who that lyste 
sing after me." In neither case are the words of the Round given. 

Tinkers, tailors, blacksmiths, servants, clowns, and others, are so constantly 
mentioned as singing music in parts, and by so many writers, as to leave no doubt 
of the ability of at least many among them to do so. 

Perhaps the form of Catch, or Round, was more generally in favour, because, 
as each would sing the same notes, there would be but one part to remember, and 
the tune would guide those who learnt by ear. 

We find Roundelays generally termed " merry," and cheerfulness was the 
common attribute of country songs. 

In Peele's Arraignment of Paris, 1584 : — 

" Some Rounds, or merry Roundelays, — we sing no other songs ; 
Your melancholic notes not to our country mirth ielongs." 
And in his King Hclward I., the Friar says : — 

" And let our lips and voices meet in a merry country song." 
In Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale, when Autolycus says that the song is a 
merry one, and that " there's scarce a maid westward but she sings it," Mopsa 
answers, " We can both sing it : if thou wilt bear a part, thou shalt hear — 'tis 
in three parts." 

Tradesmen and artificers had evidently not retrograded in their love of music 
since the time of Chaucer, whose admirable descriptions have been before quoted, 
(p. 33, et seq.) Occleve, a somewhat later poet, has also remarked the different 
efiect produced by the labour of the hand and of the head. He says : — 
" These artificers see I, day by day, 
In the hottest of all their business, 
Talken and sing, and make game and play, 
And forth their labour passeth with gladness ; 
But we labour in travailous stillness ; 
We stoop and stare upon the sheep-skin, 
And keep most our song and our words in." 

From the numerous allusions to their singing in parts, I have selected the 
following. Peele, in his Old Wiveh Tale, 1595, says, " This smith leads a life as 
merry as a king. Sirrah Frolic, I am sure you are not without some Round or 
other ; no doubt but Clunch (the smith) can bear his part ;" which he accordingly 
does. In Damon and Pithias, 1571, Grimme the collier sings " a bussing base," 
and Jack and Will, two of his feUows, " quiddell upon it," that is, they sing the 
tune and words of the song whilst he buzzes the burden or under-song. Li Ben 
Jonson's Silent Woman, we find, " We got this cold sitting up late and singing 
Catches with cloth-ivorkers." In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Sir Toby says, 
" Shall we rouse the night-owl in a Catch that will di-aw three souls out of one 
weaver ? " and, in the same play, Malvolio says, " Do you make an ale-house of 
my lady's house that ye squeak out your cozier'' s Catches, without any mitigation 
or remorse of voice ? " Dr. Johnson says cozier means a tailor, from " coudre," 



110 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

to sew; but Nares quotes four authorities to prove it to mean a cobbler. In 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb we find — 

"Where were the Watch the while? Good soher gentlemen, 
They were, like careful members of the city, 
Drawing in diligent ale, and singing Catches." 
In A Declaration of egregious Impostures, 1604, by Samuel Harsnet (afterwards 
Archbishop of York), he speaks of " the master setter of Catches, or Rounds, 
used to be sung by tinkers as they sit by the fire, with a pot of good ale between 
their legs." 

Sometimes the names of these Catches are given, as, for instance, " Three blue 
beans in a blue bladder, rattle, bladder, rattle," mentioned in Peele's Old Wive^s 
Tale, in Ben Jonson's Bartholomeio Fair, and in Dekker's Old Fortunatus; or 
" Whoop, Barnaby," which is also frequently named. But whoever will read the 
words of those in Pammelia, Deuteromelia, Hilton's Catch that catch can, or Play- 
ford's Musical Com23anion,ml\ not doubt that many of the Catches were intended for 
the ale-house and its frequenters ; but not so generally, the Bounds or Bounde- 
lays. Singing in parts was, by no means, confined to the meridian of London ; 
Carew, in his Survey of Cornivall, 1602, says the same of Cornishmen : " Pastimes 
to delight the mind, the Cornishmen have guary miracles [miracle plays] and 
three-men^ s songs, cunningly contrived for the ditty, and pleasantly for the note." 

Catches seem to have increased in use towards the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, for, although I cannot cite an instance of one composed by a 
celebrated musician of Elizabeth's reign, in that of Charles II. such cases were 
abundant. 

Some of the dances in favour in the reign of Elizabeth will be mentioned as 
the tunes occur ; the Queen herself danced galliards in her sixty-ninth year, and, 
when given up by her physiciaiis in her last illness, refusing to take medicine, she 
sent for her baud to play to her ; upon which Beaumont, the French Ambassador, 
remarks, in the despatch to his court, that he believed " she meant to die as 
cheerfully as she had Uved." Her singing and playing upon the lute and 
virginals have been so often mentioned, that I will not fm-ther allude to them 
here. 



ALL IN A GAEDEN GEEEN. 

By the Registers of the Stationers' Company we find that in 1565 William 
Pickering had a license to print '' A Ballett intituled All in a garden grene, 
between two lovers;" and in 1568-9, William GriiEth had a similar license. In 
1584, "an excellent song of an outcast lover," beginning " My fancie did I fire 
in faithful form and frame," to the tune of All in a garden grene, appeared in 
A Handeful of Pleasant Delites. 

In the rare tract called " Westward for smelts, or the Waterman's fare of mad 
merry Western Wenches," quarto, 1603, the boatman, finding his fare sleeping, 
sprinkles a little cool water on them with his oar, and, to "keep them from melan- 
choly sleep," promises " to strain the best voice he has, and not to cloy their ears 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



Ill 



with an old fiddler' s song, as Riding to Rumford, or All in a garden green, but to 
give them a new one of a serving man and his mistress, which neither fiddler nor 
ballad-singer had ever polluted with their unsavoury breath." 

In the British Museum is a copy of " Psalmes, or Songs of Sion, turned into 
the language, and set to the tunes of a strange land, by W[illiam] SQatyer], 
intended for Christmas Carols, and fitted to divers of the most noted and common, 
but solemne tunes, every where in this land familiarly used and knowne." 1642. 
Upon this copy, a former possessor has written the names of some of the times to 
which the author designed them to be sung. One of these is All in a garden grene. 

The tune is in William Ballet's Lute Book, from which this copy is taken, and 
in The Dancing Masters of 1651, 1670, 1686, 1690, &c. The first part of the 
air is the same as another in The Dancing Master, called Gathering of Peascods. 
(See Index.) 

The words are contained in a manuscript volume, in the possession of Mr. 
Payne Collier. 

/Moderate time. 



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a g^''- den green Two lov - ers sat at ease, As 



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They long had lov'd y - fere, And no , ' than tru - ly, 

(together) ° 



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In that time of the year Com - eth 'twixt May an 



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112 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Quoth he, " Most lovely maid, No sooner night is not. 
My troth shall aye endure; But he returns alway, 

And be not thou afraid, And shines as bright and hot 
But rest thee still secure. As on this gladsome day. 

That I will love thee long He is no older now 

As life in me shall last ; Than when he first was born ; 

Now I am strong and young, Age cannot make him bow, 
And when my youth is past. He laughs old Time to scorn. 

When I am gray and old, My love shall be the same, 
And then must stoop to age. It never shall decay, 

I'll love thee twenty-fold, But shine without all blame. 
My troth I here engage." Though body turn to clay." 

She heard with joy the youth. She listed to his song. 

When he thus far had gone ; And heard it with a smile. 

She trusted in his truth. And, innocent as young. 

And, loving, he went on : She dreamed not of guile. 

" Yonder thou seest the sun No guile he meant, I ween. 

Shine in the sky so bright. For he was true as steel, 

And when this day is done, As was thereafter seen 

And Cometh the dark night, When she made him her weal. 

Full soon both two were wed. 

And these most faithful lovers 
May serve at board at bed, 

Example to all others. 

ROW WELL, YE MARINERS. 

From the Registers of the Stationers' Company, we find that in 1565-6, 
William Pickering had a license to print a ballet entitled, Row well, ye mariners, 
and in the following year, " Row well, ye mariners, moralized." In 1566-7, 
John Allde had a license to print " Stand fast, ye mariners," which was, in all 
probability, another moralization ; and in the following year, two others; the one, 
"Row well, ye mariners, moralized, with the story of Jonas," the other, "Row 
well, Christ's mariners." In 1567-8, Alexander Lacy took a license to print 
" Row well, God's mariners," and in 1569-70, John Sampson to print " Row 
well, ye mariners, for those that look big." These numerous entries sufficiently 
prove the popularity of the original, and I regret the not having succeeded in 
finding a copy of any of these ballads. 

Three others, to the tune of Row tvell, ye mariners, have been reprinted by 
Mr. Payne Collier, in his Old Ballads, for the Percy Society. The first (dated 
1570) — " A lamentation from Rome, how the Pope doth bewail 

That the rebels in England cannot prevail." 
The second, " The end and confession of John Felton, who sufired in Paules 
Churcheyarde, in London, the 8th August [1570], for high treason." Felton 
placed the Bull of Pope Pius V., excommunicating Elizabeth, on the gate of the 
palace of the Bishop of London, and was hmig on a gallows set up expressly 
before that spot. The third, " A warning to London by the fall of Antwerp." 



KEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



113 



In A Handefull of Pleasant Delites, 1584, there is " A proper sonet, -wherein 
the lover dolefully sheweth his grief to his love and requireth pity," which is 
also, to the tune of How well, ye mariners. 

The tune is printed in Thomas Robinson's Schoole of Musick, fol., 1603, and 
in every edition of The Dancing Master that I have seen, from the first, dated 
1651, to the eighteenth, 1725. 

Not having the original -vvords, a few verses from the " Lamentation from 
Rome," above mentioned, are given as a specimen of the merry political ballad of 
those days. It is the Song of a fly buzzing about the Pope's nose. The Pope and 
his court are supposed to be greatly disconcerted at the news of the defeat of the 
rebels in Northumberland. 



Moderate time and smoothly. 



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Fa-byn Fly, At Rome I was this year, And in the Pope his nose did lie ; 



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But there I could not long a-bide, He blew me out of ev' - ry side. 
For first when he had heard the news That re - bels did their prince mis - use, . 



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»Row 

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well. 



well. Row well, ye ma - ri - ners. 



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Then 
He 



he - with - joy,-Did sport him-self with many a toy : 
then - so - stout, -That from his nose he blew me out. 



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* I have added the old burden over the music, feeling no doubt of its having been sung to this part of the tune. 



114 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAB MUSIC. 



But as he was asleep, 

Into the same again I got ; 
I crept therein so deep, 

That I had almost burnt my coat. 
New news to him was brought that night, 
The rebels they were put to flight ; 
But, Loid, how then the Pope took on. 
And called for a Mary-bone. 

Up-ho !-make-haste, 

My lovers all be like to waste ; 

Rise-Cardinal,-up-Priest, 

Saint Peter he doth what he list. 

So then they fell to mess ; 

The friars on their beads did pray ; 
The Pope began to bless. 

At last he wist not what to say. 
It chanced so the next day morn, 
A post came blowing of his horn. 
Saying, Northumberland is take ; 
But then the Pope began to quake. 

He-then-rubb'd-his-nose, 

With pilgrim-salve he 'noint his hose ; 

Run-here,-run-there, 

His nails, for anger, 'gan to pare. 



When he perceived well 

The news was true to him was brought, 
Upon his knees he fell, 

And then Saint Peter he besought 
That he would stand his friend in this, 
To help to aid those servants his, 
And he would do as much for him — 
But Peter sent him to Saint Sim. 

So-then-he-snulTd, 

The friars all about he cuffd, 

He-roar'd,-he-cried ; 

The priests they durst not once abide. 

The Cardinals then begin 

To stay, and take him in their arms. 
He spurn 'd them on the shin. 

Away they trudg'd, for fear of harms. 
So then the Pope was left alone ; 
Good Lord ! how he did make his moan ! 
The stools against the walls he threw. 
And me, out of his nose he blew. 

I-hopp'd,-I-skipp'd, 

From place to place, about I whipp'd ; 

He-sware,-he-tare, 

Till from his crown he puU'd the hair. 



LORD WILLOUGHBY. 

This tune is refeiTcd to under the names of Lord Willoughby; Lord Wil- 
lougliby's March, and Lord Willoughby's Welcome Home. In Queen's Elizabeth's 
Virginal Book, it is called Rowland. 

In Lady Neville's Virginal Book (MS., 1591), and in Robinson's School of 
Music, 1603, it is called "Lord Willobie's Welcome Home:" the ballad of The 
Carman's Whistle was to be sung to the tune of The Carman's Whistle, or to 
Lord Willoughby's March; and that of "Lord Willoughby — being a true relation 
of a famous and bloody battel fought in Flanders, &c., against the Spaniards ; 
where the English obtained a notable victory, to the glory and renown of oiu- 
nation" — was to the tune of "Lord Willoughby, ^c." A copy of the last will 
be found in the Bagford Collection of Ballads, British Museum. 

Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, one of the bravest and most 
skilful soldiers of this reign, had distinguished himself in the Low Countries in 
1586, and in the following year, on the recall of the Earl of Leicester, was 
made commander of the English forces. The tune, with which his name was 
associated, was as popular in the Netherlands as in England, and continued so, in 
both countries, long after his death, which occurred in 1601. It was printed at 
Haerlem, with other English tunes, in 1626, in Neder-landtsche Gedenck-clanck, 
under the name of Soet Rohhert, and Soet, soet Mobbertchen [Sweet Robert, and 
Sweet, sweet little Robert], which it probably derived from some other ballad 
sung to the tune. 

As the ballad of "Brave Lord Willoughby" is printed in Percy's Reliques of 
Ancient Poetry, a few verses, only, are subjoined. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



115 



In Marching time. 



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The 



fifteenth day of 



ly, With glist'-ring sword and 



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A fa -mous fight in Flan - ders AVas fought-en in the 



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vest in the bat - tie Was brave Lord Wil- lough - by. 



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Stand to it, noble pikeraen, 

And look you round about ; 
And shoot you right, you bowmen, 

And we will keep them out : 
You musquet and caliver men, 

Do you prove true to me, 
I'le be the foremost man in fight, 

Says brave Lord Willoughbey. 

The sharp steel-pointed arrows, 

And bullets thick did fly. 
Then did our valiant soldiers 

Charge on most furiously ; 
Which made the Spaniards waver, 

They thought it best to flee, 
They fear'd the stout behaviour 

Of brave Lord Willoughbey. 



Then quoth the Spanish general. 

Come let us march away, 
I fear we shall be spoiled all 

If here we longer stay ; 
For yonder comes Lord Willoughbey 

With courage fierce and fell, 
He will not give one inch of way 

For all the devils in hell. 

And then the fearful enemy 

Was quickly put to flight, 
Our men pursued couragiously. 

And caught their forces quite ; 
But at last they gave a shout. 

Which ecchoed through the sky, 
God, and St. George for England! 

The conquerors did cry. 



116 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



To the souldiers that were maimed, 

And wounded in the fray, 
The queen allowed a pension 

Of fifteen pence a day ; 
And from all costs and charges 

She quit and set them free : 
And this she did all for the sake 

Of brave Lord Willoughhey. 



Then courage, nohle Englishmen, 

And never be dismaid ; 
If that we he but one to ten 

We will not be afraid 
To fight with foraign enemies. 

And set our nation free. 
And thus I end the bloody bout 

Of brave Lord Willoughhey. 



ALL FLOWERS OF THE BEOOM. 

This is mentioned as a dance tune by Nicholas Breton, in a passage already 
quoted from his Works of a young Wit, 1577 (ante p. 91) ; and by Nashe, in the 
following, from his Have with you to Saffron- Walden, 1596 : — 

" Or doo as Dick Harvey did, that having preacht and beat downs three pulpits in 
inveighing against dauncing, one Sunday evening, vrhen his wench or friskin was foot- 
ing it aloft on the greene, with foote out and foote in, and as busie as might be at 
Rogero, Basilino, Turkelony, All the flowers of the broom, Pepper is black, Greene 
Sleeves, Peggie Ramsey,'^ he came sneaking behind a tree, and lookt on ; and though 
hee was loth to be seene to countenance the sport, having laid God's word against it so 
dreadfully ; yet to shew his good will to it in heart, hee sent her eighteen pence in 
hugger-mugger {i.e., in secret), to pay the fiddlers." 

The time is contained in William Ballet's Lute Book, under the name of 
Allfloures in hroome. 



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» All the tunes here mentioned will be found in this Collection, except Basilino. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 117 

I AM THE DUKE OF NORFOLK, or PAUL'S STEEPLE. 

This tune is frequently mentioned under both names. In Playford's Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1695, it is called Paul's Steeple. In his Divisimi Violin, 
1685, at page 2, it is called TJie Duke of Norfolk, or Paul's Steeple ; and at 
page 18, PauT's Steeple, or the Duke of Norfolk. 

The steeple of the old Cathedral of St. Paul was proverbial for height. In the 
Vnlgaria, printed by Wynkin de Worde, in 1530, we read : " Poule's Steple is a 
mighty great thing, and so hye that unneth [hardly] a man may discerne 
the wether cocke, — the top is unneth perceived." So in Lodge's Wounds of 
Civil War, a clown talks of the PauVs Steeple of honour, as the highest point 
that can be attaiaed. The steeple was set on fire by lightning, and burnt 
down on the 4th June, 1561 ; and within seven days, a ballad of " The true 
report of the bui-ning of the steeple and church of Paul's, in London," was 
entered, and afterwards printed by William Seres, " at the west-ende of Pawles 
church, at "the sygne of the Hedghogge." In 1564, a ballad was entered for 
" the encouraging all kind of men to the re-edifying and building Paul's steeple 
again ;" but the spu-e was never re-constructed. Mr. Payne Collier has printed 
a ballad, written on the occasion of the fire, in his Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers^ Company, vol. i., p. 40; and it seems to have been intended for the 
tune. The first verse is as follows : — 

" Lament each one the blazing fire, 
That down from heaven came, 
And burnt S. Powles bis lofty spire 
With lightning's furious flame. 
Lament, I say, 
Both night and day, 
Sith London's sins did cause the same." 
In 1562-3, John Cherlewood had a license for printing another, called " When 
young Paul's steeple, old Paul's steeple's child." 

:■ ' In Fletcher's comedy. Monsieur Thomas, act iii., sc. 3, a fiddler, being questioned 
as to what ballads he is best versed in, replies : 

" Under your mastership's correction, I can sing 
The Duke of Norfolk; or the merry ballad 
Of Diverus and Lazarus; The Rose of England; 
In Crete, when Dedimus Jirst began; 
Jonas, his crying out against Coventry ; 
Maudlin, the merchant's daughter ; 
The Devil and ye dainty dames ; 
The- landing of the Spaniards at Bow s 
With the bloody battle at Mile-End." » 

a Of the ballads mentioned above, Diverus and Lazarus perhaps, Deloney's ballad of Fair Rosamond, reprinted in 
seems to bean intentionalcorruptionof2>(re5a«rfiasaraj. Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry. In Crete is often re- 
The Rose of England may be — ferred to as a ballad tune ; for instance, My mind to vie a 
" The rose, the rose, the English rose, kingdom is, was to be sung to the tune of In Crete, accord- 
It is the fairest flower that blows ; " ing to a black-letter copy in the Pepysian Collection, 
a copy of which is in Mr. Payne Collier's Manuscript ; or, Maudlin, the merchant's daughter, \^ The merchanVs daughter 



118 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

In the Pepysian Collection, vol. i., 146, and Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 180, 
is a black-letter ballad, called "ALanthorne for Landlords" to the tune of 
Tlie Duke of Norfolk, the initial lines of which are — 

" With sobbing grief my heart will break 
Asunder in my breast, &c." 
In 27*6 Loyal Garland, 1686, and in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 188 (or 
Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. ^12), Q-od speed the plough, and bless the corn-mow, 
&c., to the tune oi I am the Bidte of Norfolk, beginning — 

" My noble friends, give ear, 
If mirth you love to hear, 

I'll tell yoTi as fast as I can, 
A story very true : 
Then mark what doth ensue, 
Concerning a husbandman." 
This ballad-dialogue, between a husbandman and a serving-man, has been orally 
preserved in various parts of the country. One version will be foimd in Mr. Davies 
Gilbert's Christmas Carols; a second in Mr. J. H. Dixon's Ancient Poems and 
Songs of the Peasantry (printed for the Percy Society) ; and a third in " Old 
English Songs, as now sung by the Peasantry of the Weald of Surrey and Sussex," 
&c., ; " harmonized for the Collector" [the Rev. Mr. Broadwood] " in 1843, by 
G. A. Dusart." 

In the Collection of Poems on Affairs of State, vol. iii., 70, is "A new ballad 
to an old tune, called I am the Duke of Norfolk.'''' It is a satire on Charles EC., 
and begins thus : — " I am a senseless thing, with a hey, with a hey ; 
Men call me a king, with a ho ; 
To my luxury and ease. 
They brought me o'er the seas. 
With a hey nonny, nonny, nonny no." 
In Shadwell's Epsom Wells, 1673, act iii., sc. 1, we find, " Could I not play 
I am the Duke of Norfolk, Grreen Sleeves, and the fourth Psahn, upon the 
virginals ? " and in Wycherley's Gf-entleman Dancing Master, Ger. says, " Sing 
him Arthur of Bradley, or I am the Duke of Norfolk." 

A curious custom still remains in parts of Suffolk, at the harvest suppers, to 
sing the song "I am the Duke of Norfolk" (here printed with the music); one 
of the company being crowned with an inverted pillow or cushion, and another 
presenting to him a jug of ale, kneeling, as represented in the vignette of the 
Horkey. [See Suffolk Garland, 1818, p. 402.] The editor of the Suffolk 
Garland says, that " this custom has most probably some allusion to the homage 
formerly paid to the Lords of Norfolk, the possessors of immense domains in the 
county." To " serve the Duke of Norfolk," seems to have been equivalent to 
making merry, as in the following speech of Mine host, at the end of the play of 
The merry Devil of Mlmonton, 1617 : — 

of Bristow [Bristol], to the tun^ of The maiden's joy. (See Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 501). The landing of the 

Roxburghe Collection, vol i., 232, or Collier's Roxburghe Spaniards, S:c. (probably on some mock-fight of the train 

Ballads, p. 104). Ye dainty dames, are the first words of bands, who exercised at Mile-end) seems to be referred to 

A warning for maidens, to the tune of The ladies' fall. (See in The Knight of the Burning Pestle, act ii., sc. 2. 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 119 

" Why, Sir George, send for Spendle's noise ^ presently ; 
Ha ! ere 't be niglit, Til serve the good Duke of Norfolk." 
To -which Sir John rejoins : — 

" Grass and hay I mine host, let's live till we die, 
And be merry ; and there's an end." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v., 271. 
Dr. Letherland, in a note -which Steevens has printed on King Henry FV., 
Part I., act ii., sc. 4 (-where Falstaff says, "This chair shall be my state, this 
dagger my sceptre, and this cushion my crown"), observes that the country people 
in Warwickshire also use a cushion for a crown, at their harvest home diversions ; 
and in the play of King Ed-ward IV., Part II., 1619, is the following passage : — 
" Then comes a slave, one of those drunken sots. 
In -with a tavern reck'ning for a supplication, 
Disguised with a cushion on his head." 
In the Suffolk custom, he who is cro-wned with the pillow, is to take the ale, to 
raise it to his lips, and to drink it off without spilling it, or allowing the cushion 
to fall ; but there was, also, another drinking custom connected with this tune. 
In the first volume of Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, 1698 and 
1707, and the third volume, 1719, is a song called Bacchus' Health, " to be sung 
by all the company together, with directions to be observed." They are as 
follows : " First man stands up, with a glass in his hand, and sings — 
Here's a health to jolly Bacchus, {sung three tiines) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 
For he doth make us merry, (three times) 
I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 
*• Come sit ye down together, {three times) 
(At this star all bow to each other and sit down.) 
I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 
And bringf more liquor hither {three times) 
(At tliis dagger all the company beckon to the drawer.) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 
It goes into the ■* cranium, {three times) 
(At this star the first man drinks his glass, while the others eing and point at him.) 
I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 
And f thou'rt a boon companion {three times) 
(At this dagger all sit down, each clapping the next man on the shoulder.) 
I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 
Every line of the above is to be sung three times, except I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. Then 
the second man takes his glass and sings ; and so round. 

About 1728, after the success of Tlie Beggars' Opera, a great number of other 
ballad operas were printed. In the Cobblers' Opera, and some others, this tune is 
called I am the Biike of Norfolk ; but in The Jovial Grew, The Livery Make, and 
The Lover his own Rival, it is called There ivas a bonny blade. It acquired that 
name from the following song, which is still occasionally to be heard, and which 
is also in Pills to purge Melancholy, from 1698 to 1719 : — 

'^ Spindle's noise, i.e.. Spindle's band, or company of musicians. 



120 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



There was a bonny blade, 

Had married a country maid, 
And safely conducted her home, home, home ; 

She was neat in every part, 

And she pleas'd him to the heart, 
But ah! and alas! she was dumb, dumb, dumb. 

She was bright as the day, 

And brisk as the May, 
And as round and as plump as a plum, 

But still the silly swain 

Could do nothing but complain 
Because that his wife she was dumb. 

She could brew, she could bake. 

She could sew, and she could make. 
She could sweep the house with a broom ; 

She could wash, and she could wring. 

And do any kind of thing. 
But ah ! and alas ! she was dumb. 

To the doctor then he went. 

For to give himself content. 
And to cure his wife of the mum : 
"Oh! it is the easiest part 

That belongs unto my art 
For to make a woman speak that is dumb." 

From the last line of the verses of this song, the tune also became known as 



To the doctor he did her bring. 

And he cut her chattering string. 
And at liberty he set her tongue ; 

Her tongue began to walk. 

And she began to talk 
As though she never had been dumb. 

Her faculty she tries. 

And she fills the house with noise. 
And she rattled in his ears like a drum ; 

She bred a deal of strife, 

Made him weary of his life — 
He'd give any thing again she was dumb. 

To the doctor then he goes. 
And thus he vents his woes : 
■' Oh ! doctor, you've me undone; 
For my wife she's turn'd a scold, 
And her tongue can never hold, 
I'd give any kind of thing she was dmnb." 

" When I did undertake 

To make thy wife to speak. 
It was a thing easily done, 

But 'tis past the art of man. 

Let him do whate'er he can. 
For to make a scolding wife hold her tongue.' 



" Alack ! and alas ! she was dumb,' 
Rather slow. 



or " Dumb, dumb, dumb.' 



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am the Duke of Nor - folk. 



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shall I be at - tend - ed, or no, no, no? Good Duke be not of -fended, And 



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REIGN OP ELIZABETH. 



121 



PEPPER IS BLACK. 

This tune is to be found in Tlie Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. It is 
mentioned as a dance tmie by Nashe in Save ivith you to Saffron- Walden, 1596. 
(See ante p. 116.) A copy of the following ballad by Elderton is in the collection 
of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbary : " Prepare ye to the plough, to the tune 
of Pepper is black." 

" The Queen holds the plough, to continue good seed, 
Trusty subjects, be ready to help if she need." 
Moderate time 

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Look up, my lords, and mark my words, And hear what I shall sing ye; And 



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Parnaso hill, not all the skill Can bring about that I found out. 

Of nymphs, or muses fgigned, By Christ himself ordained, &c. 

There are twelve stanzas, each of eight lines, subscribed W. Elderton. Printed 

by Wm. How, for Richard Johnes. 

WALSINGHAM. 
This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's, and Lady Neville's, Virginal Books (with 
thirty variations by Dr, John Bull) ; in Anthony Holborne's Cittharn ScJioole, 
1597 ; in Barley's Ifew Boohe of Tablatitre, 1596, &c. It is called " Walsingham," 
'■'■Have with you to Walsingham" and '■^ As I went to Walsingham." 

It belongs, in all probability, to an earlier reign, as the Priory of Walsingham, 
in Norfolk, which was founded dui-ing the Episcopate of William, Bishop of 
Norwich (1146 to 1174), was dissolved in 1538. 

Pilgrimages to this once famous shrine commenced in or before the reign of 
Henry HI., who was there in 1241. Edward I. was at Walsingham in 1280, and 
again in 1296 ; and Edward H. in 1315. The author of The Vision of Piers 
Ploughman, says — 

" Heremytes on a hepe, with hooked staves, 
Wenten to Walsyngham, and her [their] wenches after." 

A curious reason why pilgrims should have both singers and pipers to accompany 
them, will be found in note a, at page 34. 

Henry VH., having kept his Christmas of 1486-7, at Norwich, " from thence 
went in manner of pilgrimage to Walsingham, where he visited Our Lady's Clnu'ch, 
famous for miracles ; and made his prayers and vows for help and deliverance." 



122 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

And in the following summer, after the battle of Stoke, " he sent his banner to 
be offered to Our Lady of Walsingham, where before he made his vows." 

" Erasmus has given a very exact and humorous description of the superstitions 
practised there in his time. See his account of the Virgo Parathalassia, in his 
colloquy, intitled Peregrinatio Religionis ergo. He tells us, the rich offerings in 
silver, gold, and precious stones, that were shewn him, were incredible ; there being 
scarce a person of any note in England, but what some time or other paid a visit, 
or sent a present, to Our Lady of Walsingham. At the dissolution of the monas- 
teries in 1538, this splendid image, mth another from Ipswich, was carried to 
Chelsea, and there burnt in the presence of commissioners ; who, we trust, did not 
burn the jewels and the finery." — Percy's Heliques. 

The tune is frequently mentioned by winters of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Li act v. of Fletcher's Tlie Honest Man's Forticne, one of the servants 
says, "I'll renounce my five mark a year, and all the hidden art I have in carving, 
to teach young birds to whistle Walsingham.'" A verse of "As you came from 
Walsingham," is quoted in Tlie Knight of the Burning Pestle, and in Sans Beer- 
pot, his invisible Comedy, 4to,, 1618. 

In The weakest goes to the wall, 1600, the scene being laid in Burgundy, the 
following lines are given : — 

" King Richard's gone to Walsingham, to the Holy Land, 
To kill Turk and Saracen, that the truth do withstand ; 
Christ his cross be his good speed, Christ his foes to quell, 
Send him help in time of need, and to come home well." 
In the Bodleian Library is a small quarto volume, apparently in the hand-writing 
of Philip, Eaid of Arundel (eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk, who suffered in 
Elizabeth's time), containing A lament for Walsingham. It is in the ballad style, 
and the two last stanzas are as follows : — 

" Weep, weep, O W^alsingham I Sin is where Our Lady sat, 

Whose days are nights ; Heaven turned is to hell ; 

Blessings turn'd to blasphemies — Satan sits where Our Lord did sway : 

Holy deeds to despites. Walsingham, Oh, farewell I " 

In Nashe's Save with you to Saffron- Walden, 1596, sign. L, "As I went to 
Walsingham " is quoted, which is the first line of the ballad in the Pepysian 
Collection, vol. i., p. 226, and a verse of which is here printed to the music. 

One of the Psahnes and Songs of Sion, turned into the language, and set to the 
tunes of a strange land, 1642, is to the tune of Walsingham; and Osborne, in his 
Traditional Memoirs on the Reigns of Mizabeth and James, 1653, speaking of the 
Earl of Salisbury, says : — 

" Many a hornpipe he tuned to his PhiUis, 
And sweetly sung Walsingham to's Amaryllis." 
In Don Quixote, translated by J. Phillips, 1687, p. 278, he says, " An infinite 
number of little birds, with painted wings of various colours, hopping from branch 
to branch, all naturally singing Walsingham, and whistling John, come kiss 
me now.'' 

Two of the ballads are reprinted in Percy's Eeliques of Ancient Poetry; the 
one beginning, "Gentle herdsman, tell to me ;" the other, " As ye came from the 



REIGN OP ELIZABETH. 



123 



Holy Land." The last mU. also be found in Deloney's Garland of Qoodwill, 
reprinted by the Percy Society. 



Shw and plaintive. 



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This ballad is on one of the affairs of gallantry that so frequently arose out of 

pilgrimages. 

PACKINGTON'S, ok PAGGINGTON'S POUND. 

This tune is to be found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in A Neio Book 
of Tablakire, 1596 ; in the Collection of English Songs, printed at Amsterdam, in 
1634 ; ia Select Aijres, 1659 ; in A Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, 1685 ; 
in Playford's Pleasant Musical Companion, Part H., 1687 ; ia Tlie Beggars' 
Opera, 1728 ; in The Musical Miscellany, vol. v. ; and in many other collections. 

It probably took its name from Sir John Packington, commonly called " lusty 
Packington," the same who wagered that he would swim from the Bridge at 
Westminster, i.e., Whitehall Stairs, to that at Greenwich, for the sum of 3,000?. 
" But the good Queen, who had particular tenderness for handsome fellows, would 
not permit Sir John to run the hazard of the trial." His portrait is stUl pre- 
served at Westwood, the ancient seat of the family. 

In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book it is called Packington's Pound ; by Ben 
Jonson, Paggington's Pound; and, in a MS. now in Dr. Rimbault's possession, 
A Fancy of Sir John Paging ton. 

Some copies, viz., that in the Virginal Book, and in the Amsterdam Collection, 
have the following difference in the melody of the first four bars : — 



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and it is probably the more correct reading, as the other closely resembles the 
commencement of " Robin Hood, Robin Hood, said Little John." 

The song in Ben Jonson's comedy of Bartholomew Pair, commencing, " My 
masters and friends, and good people, draw near," was written to this air, and is 
thus introduced : — 

Night. To the tune of Paggington's Pound, Sir ? 

Cokes. (Sings) Fa, la la la, la la la, fa la la, la ! Nay, I'll put thee in tune and all ! 
Mine own country dance ! Pray thee begin." — Act 3. 



124 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The songs written to the tune are too many for enumeration. Besides those 
in the various Collections of Ballads iu the British Museum, in D'Urfey's Fills, 
and in the Pill to purge State Melancholy, 1716, — in one Collection alone, viz., 
TJie Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, there are no fewer than thirteen. The 
following are curious : — 

No. 1. A popular Beggars' Song, by which the tune is often named, com- 
mencing: — "From hunger and cold who liveth more free? 

Or who is so richly cloathed as we." — Select Ayres, 1659. 
No. 2. " Blanket Fair, or the History of Temple Street. Being a relation of 
the merry pranks plaid on the river Thames during the great Frost." 
" Come, listen awhile, though the weather be cold." 
No. 3. " The North Country Mayor," dated 1697, from a manuscript volume 
of Songs by WUmot, Earl of Kochester, and others, in the Harleian Library : — 
" I sing of no heretic Turk, or of Tartar, 
But of a suffering Mayor who may pass for a Martyr ; 
For a story so tragick was never yet told 
By Fox or by Stowe, those authors so old ; 
How a vile Lansprasado 
Did a Mayor bastinado. 
And played him a trick worse than any Strappado : 
Mayor, Mayor, better ne'er have transub'd, [turn'd Papist] 
Than thus to be toBs'd in a blanket and drubb'd," &c. 
The following song, in praise of milk, is from Playford's Musical Companion, 
Part n., 1687 :— 

Moderate time and smoothly. 



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Inpraiseof a dai-ry I pur-posetosing,Butallthingsinorder;firstGodsavetheKing! 



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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 125 

The first of fair dairy-maids, if you'll believe, 
Was Adam's own wife, our great-grandmother Eve, 

Who oft milk'd a cow. 

As well she knew how ; 

Though butter was not then so cheap as 'tis now, 
She hoarded no butter nor cheese on her shelves, 
For butter and cheese in those days made themselves. 

In that age or time there was no horrid money, 
Yet the children of Israel had both milk and honey : 

No queen you could see. 

Of the highest degree, 

But would milk the brown cow with the meanest she ; 
Their lambs gave them clothing, their cows gave them meat. 
And in plenty and peace all their joys were compleat. 

Amongst the rare virtues that milk does produce, 
For a thousand of dainties it's daily in use ; 

Now a pudding I'll tell thee. 

Ere it goes in the belly. 

Must have from good milk both the cream and the jelly : 
For a dainty fine pudding, without cream or milk, 
Is a citizen's wife without satin or silk. 

In the virtues of milk there is more to be muster'd, 
The charming delights both of cheese-cake and custard. 

For at Tottenham Court, 

You can have no sport, 

Unless you give custards and cheese-cake too for't ; 
And what's the jack-pudding that makes us to laugh. 
Unless he hath got a great custard to quaif ? 

Both pancake and fritter of milk have good store. 

But a Devonshire whitepot' must needs have much more ; 

No state you can think. 

Though you study and wink. 

From the lusty sack-posset' to poor posset drink. 
But milk's the ingredient, though sack's ne'er the worse. 
For 'tis sack makes the man, though 'tis milk makes the nurse. 

Elderton's ballad, called " News from Northumberland," a copy of which is in 
the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, was probably written to this tune. 
- 

THE STAINES MORRIS TUNE. 

This tune is taken from the first edition of Tlie Dancing Master. It is also in 
William Ballet's Lute Book (time of Elizabeth) ; and was printed as late as about 
1760, in a Collection of Country Dances, by Wright. 

The Maypole Song, in Admon and Diana, seems so exactly fitted to the air, 
that, having no guide as to the one intended, I have, on conjecture, printed it 
with this tune. 

» Devonshire white-pot, or hasty-pudding, consisting of A pint ; then fetch, from India's fertile coast, 
flour and milk hoiled together. Nutmeg, the glory of this British toast." 

'■ The following is a receipt for sack-posset : — Dryden's LSisceliany PoemSf vol. v., p. 138. 

"From fair Barhadoes, on the western main, 
Fetch sugar, half a pound ; fetch sack, from Spain, 



126 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

/ Boldly and rather quick. 



/ JLtUbLLIjt/ Ultlti I UVIlCt t/UtVIt, j _ 



Come, ye young men, come a - long, With your mu - sic, dance, and song. 



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Bring your lass - es 



in your hands. For 'tis that which love commands. 



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Then to the Maypole come a - way, 



For it is now a 



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It is the choice time of the year. 
For the violets now appear ; 
Now the rose receives its hirth, 
And pretty primrose decks the eartli. 

Then to the May-pole come away. 

For it is now a holiday. 

Here each batchelor may chuse 
One that will not faith abuse ; 
Nor repay with coy disdain 
Love that should be loved again. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 



And when you well reckoned have 
What kisses you your sweethearts gave. 
Take them all again, and more. 
It will never make them poor. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 

When you thus have spent the time 

Till the day be past its prime, 

To your beds repair at night. 

And dream there of your day's delight. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 



This is in every ei 
the name of The She 
the latter title in s( 
Knight and Shephero 
being usually printec 
face to Gul. Neubrig 

Fom- lines are qu( 
called down his men 
" He set her on a mi 



THE SHEPHERD'S DAUGHTER. 

iition of The Dancing Master, except the first, either under 
pherd's Daughter, or Parson and Dorothy. It is also under 
jveral of the ballad operas. Percy says the ballad of The 
Vs Daughter, " was popular in the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
1 with her picture before it, as Hearne informs us in his pre- 
. ITist. Oxon., vol. i., 70. 

rted in Fletcher's comedy The Pilgrim, act iv., sc. 2: "He 
•y men all," &c. ; and in The Knight of the Burning Pestle : 
Jk- white steed," &c. 



• In William Ballet's Lute Book, the third note of the melody is E ; in the 2nd edition of The Dancing Master, B. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



127 



Copies of the ballad will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 30 ; 
and in the Douce Collection, with the burden or chorus, " Sing, trang, dildo dee," 
at the end of each verse, which is not given by Percy. The two last bars are 
here added for the burden. In some copies the foiu* first bars are repeated. 

Rather slow. ^~. ^-v , — . , — ^ 



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The ballad will be found in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, series 3, booh i. 



THE FROG GALLIARD, or NOW, O NOW ! 

This is the only tune, composed by a well-known musician of the age, that 
I have found employed as a ballad tune. 

In Dowland's First Book of Songes, 1597, it is adapted to the words, " Now, 
now, I needs must part " (to be sung by one voice with the lute, or by four 
without accompaniment) ; but in his Lute Manuscripts it is called The Prog 
Galliard, and seems to have been commonly known by that name. 

In Morley's Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611, it is called The Prog Galliard ; 
in Thomas Robinson's Weiv Citharen Lessons, 1609, Tlie Prog ; and in the Skene 
Manuscript, Proggis Gcdziard. 

In Nederlandtsche Q-edencli-Clanch, printed at Haerlem in 1626, it is called 
Nou, nou [for Now, now] ; but all the ballads I have seen, that were written 
'to it, give the name as Tlie Prog Galliard. 

In Anthony Munday's Banquet of daintie Conceits, 1588, there is a song to the 
tune of Dowland's Galliard, but it could not be sung to this air. 

It seems probable that Noiv, noiv, was originally a dance tune, and the 
composer finding that others wrote songs to his galliards, afterwards so adapted 
it likewise. 

The latest Dutch copy that I have obsei'ved is in Dr. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke 
Rymen, priiited at Amsterdam in 1647. 

Dowland is celebrated in the following sonnet, which, from having appeared in 
The Passionate Pilgrim, has been attributed to Shakespeare, but was published 
previously in a Collection of Poems by Richard Barnfield. 



128 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

" To his friend, Master JR. L., in praise of Music amd Poetry." 
" If music and sweet poetry agree, 

As they must needs, (the sister and the brother,) 
Then must the love he great 'twixt thee and me. 

Because thou lov'st the one, and I the other. 
Dowland to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch 

Upon the lute doth ravish human sense ; 
Spenser to me, whose deep conceit is such, 
As, passing all conceit, needs no defence ; 
Thou lov'st to hear the sweet melodious sound 

That Phoebus' lute, the queen of music, makes, 
And I, in deep delight am chiefly drown'd, 

When as himself to singing he betakes ; 
One God is good to both, as poets feign, 
One knight loves both, and both in thee remain ! " 
Anthony Wood says of Dowland, that " he was the rarest musician that the 
age did behold." In Ifo Wit, no Help, like a Woman^s, a comedy by Thomas 
Middleton (1657), the servant tells his master bad news; and is thus answered : 
" Thou plaiest Dowland's Lachrimce to thy master." 

In Peacham's Garden of Heroical Devices, are the following verses, portraying 
Dowland's forlorn condition in the latter part of his life : — 
" Here Philomel in silence sits alone 

In depth of winter, on the bared briar, 
Whereon the rose had once her beauty shown. 
Which lords and ladies did so much desire 1 
But fruitless now, in winter's frost and snow. 
It doth despis'd and unregarded grow. 

So since (old friend) thy years have made thee white, 
And thou for others hast consum'd thy spring. 

How few regard thee, whom thou didst delight, 
And far and near came once to hear thee sing ! 

Ungrateful times, and worthless age of ours, 

That lets us pine when it hath cropt our flowers." 

The device which precedes these stanzas, is a nightingale sitting on a bare 
brier, in the midst of a wintry storm. 

The following ballads were sung to the tune under the title of The Frog 
G-alliard: — "The true love's-knot untyed: being the right path to advise princely 
vu-gins how to behave themselves, by the example of the renouned Princess, the 
Lady Arabella, and the second son to the Lord Seymore, late Earl of Hertford;" 
commencing — " As I to Ireland did pass, 

I saw a ship at anchor lay. 
Another ship likewise there was, 

Which from fair England took her way. 
This ship that sail'd from fair England, 

Unknown unto our gracious King, 
The Lord Chief Justice did command, 

That they to London should her bring," &c. 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



129 



A copy in the British Museum Collection, and printed by Evans in Old Ballads, 
1810, vol. iii., 184. 
Also, " The Shepherd's Delight," commencing — 

" On yonder hill there stands a flower, 
Fair befall those dainty sweets ; 
And by that flower there stands a bower, 
Where all the heavenly muses meet," &c. 

A copy in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 388, and Evans, vo]. i., 388. 

Slowly and smootlily. 



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Now, O now I needs must part, Part - ing though I ab - sent mourn, 
While I live I needs must love, Love lives not when life is gone ; 



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Ab-sencecan no joy im-part, Joy once fled can ne'er re -turn. 

Now, at last, des - pair doth prove. Love di - vi - ded, lov - eth none. 



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Dear, when I from thee am gone, 
Gone are all my joys at once ! 

I loved thee, and thee alone, 
In whose love I joyed once. 

While I live I needs must love, 
Love lives not when life is gone : 



Now, at last, despair doth prove 
Love divided loveth none. 

And although your sight I leave, 
Sight wherein my joys do lie. 

Till that death do sense bereave, 
Never shall affection die. 

K 



130 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



PAUL'S WHARF. 

This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and in The Dancing Master, 
from 1650 to 1665. 

Paul's Wharf was, and still is, one of the public places for taking water, near 
to St. Paul's Cathedi-al. In " The Prices of Fares and Passages to be paide to 
"Watermen," printed by John Cawood, (n.d.,) is the following: "Item, that no 
Whyry manne, with a pare of ores, take for his fare from Pawles Wharfe, Queen 
hithe, Parishe Garden, or the blacke Fryers to Westminster, or White hall, or 
lyke distance to and fro, above iijd 
Gracefully. i^ 



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TRIP AND GO. 

This was one of the favorite Morris-dances of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and frequently alluded to by ivriters of those times. 

Nashe, in his Introductory Epistle to the surreptitious edition of Sidney's 
Astrophel and Stella, 4to., 1591, says, "Indeede, to say the truth, my stile is 
somewhat heavie gated, and cannot daunce Trip and goe so lively, with ' Oh my 
love, ah my love, all my love gone,' as other shepheards that have beene Fooles in 
the morris, time out of minde." He introduces it more at length, and with a 
description of the Morris-dance, in the play of Summer'' s last Will and Testament, 
1600: 

" Veu goes in andfetcheth out the Hobby-horse and the Morris-dance, mho 

dance about. 

Ver. — "About, about I lively, put your horse to it; rein him harder; jerk him with 
your wand. Sit fast, sit fast, man ! Fool, hold up your ladle " there." 

Will Summer. — " brave Hall ! " well said, butcher ! Now for the credit of 
Worcestershire. The finest set of Morris-dancers that is between this and Streatbani. 
Marry, methinks there is one of them danceth like a clothier's horse, with a wool-pack 



■ The ladle is still used by the sweeps on May-day. 

^ The tract of " Old Meg of Herefordshire for a Mayd 
Marian, and Hereford towne for a Morris-dance," 4to, 
1609, is dedicated to old Sail, a celebrated Taborer of 
Herefordshire; and the author says, — "The People of 
Herefordshire are beholding to thee ; thou givest the men 
light hearts by thy pipe, and the women light heeles by 
thy tabor. O wonderful piper ! O admirable tabor-man!" 



. . . . " The wood of this olde Hall's tabor should 
have beene made a paile to carie water in at the beginning 
of King Edward the Sixt's reigne ; but Hall (being wise, 
because hee was even then reasonably well strucken in 
years) saved it from going to the water, and converted it 
in these days to a tahor." For more about old Hall and 
his pipe and tabor, see page 1 34. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



131 



upon liis back. You, fi-iend, with the hobby-horse, go not too fast, for fear of wearing 
out my lord's tile-stones with your hob-nails." 

Ver. — " So, so, so ; trot the ring twice over, and away." 
After this, three clowns and three maids enter, dancing, and singing the song 
which is here printed with the music. 

Trip and go seems to have become a proverbial expression. In Gosson's Schoole 
of Abuse, 1579 : " Trip and go, for I dare not tarry." In The tioo angrie Women 
of Ahington, 1599 : " Nay, then, trip and go." In Ben Jonson's Case is altered,: 
"0 delicate trip and go." And in Shakespeare's Lovers Labour Lost: " Trip 
and go, my sweet." 

The tune is taken from MusicKs Delight on the Cithren, 1666. It resembles 
another tune, called The Boatman. (See Index.) 
Moderate time mid trippingly. 



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Trip and go, heave and ho, Up and down, to and fro; From the town 



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to the grove, Two and two let us rove, A may - ing, a phiy - ing ; Love hath no gain- 



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The Morris-dance was sometimes performed by itself, but was much more 
frequently joined to processions and pageants, especially to those appointed for 
the celebration of May-day, and the games of Robin Hood. The festival, in- 
stituted in honour of Robin Hood, was usually solemnized on the first and 
succeeding days of May, and owes its original establishment to the cultivation 
and improvement of the manly exercise of archery, which was not, in former 
times, practised merely for the sake of amusement. 

" I find," says Stow, " that in the month of May, the citizens of London, of all 
estates, lightly in every parish, or sometimes two or three parishes joining 
together, had thek several Mayings, and did fetch in May-poles, with divers 
warlike sheivs, with good archers, Morris-dancers, and other devices for pastime all 



132 MORRIS-DANCE AND MAY-DAY. 

the day long : and towards the evenmg they had stage-plays and bonfires in the 
streets. . . .These great Mayings and May-games, made by the governors and 
masters of this city, with the triumphant setting up of the great shaft (a principal 
Maypole in Cornhill, before the parish church of St. Andrew, which, from the pole 
being higher than the steeple itself, was, and still is, called St. Andrew Under- 
shaft) , by means of an insurrection of youths against aliens on May-day, 1517," the 
ninth of Henry the Eighth, have not been so freely used as afore." — Survey of 
London, 1598, p. 72. 

The celebration of May-day may be traced as far back as Chaucer, " who, in 
the conclusion of his Court of Love, has described the Feast of May, when — " 
" Forth go'th all the court, both most and least, 

To fetch the floures fresh, and braunch and bloom — 

And namely hawthorn brought, both page and groom ; 

And they rejoicen in their great delight ; 

Eke each at other throw the floures bright, 

The primerose, the violete, and the gold, 

With freshe garlants party blue and wliite." 

Henry the Eighth appears to have been particularly attached to the exercise of 
archery, and the observance of May. " Some short time after his coronation," 
says Hall, " he came to Westminster, with the queen, and all their train : and on 
a time being there, his grace, the Earls of Essex, Wiltshire, and other noblemen, 
to the number of twelve, came suddenly in a morning into the queen's chamber, 
all appareled in short coats of Kentish Kendal, with hoods on theu* heads, and 
hosen of the same, every one of them his bow and arrows, and a sword and 
buckler, like outlaws or Robin Hood's men ; whereof the queen, the ladies, and 
all other there, were abashed, as well for the strange sight, as also for their 
sudden coming : and, after certain dances and pastime made, they departed." — 
Sen. VIII., fo. 6, b. The same author gives a curious account of Henry and 
Queen Catherine gouig a Maying. - 

Bourne, in his Antiquitates Vidgares, says, " On the Calends, or first day of 
May, commonly called May-day, the juvenile part of both sexes were wont to rise 
a little before midnight and walk to some neighbouring wood, accompanied with 
music, and the blowing of horns, where they brake down branches from the trees, 
and adorn them with nosegays and crowns of flowers. When this is done, they 
return with their booty homewards, about the rising of the sun, and make their 
doors and windows to triumph in the flowery spoil. The after part of the day is 
chiefly spent in dancing round a tall pole, they call a May-pole ; which being 
placed in a convenient part of the village, stands there, as it were consecrated 
to the goddess of flowers, Avithout the least violence offered it in the whole circle 
of the year." Borlase, in his Natwal History of Cormvall, tells us, " An ancient 
custom, still retained by the Cornish, is that of decking their doors and porches, 
on the first of May, with green sycamore and hawthorn boughs, and of planting 
trees, or rather stumps of trees, before their houses : and on May-eve, they from 

» The " story of 111 May-day, in the time of Henry the the subject of an old ballad in Johnson's Crown Garland 
Eight, and why it is 60 called; and how Queen Catherine of Golden Roses, and has been reprinted in Evans' Old 
begged the lives of two thousand London apprentices," is Ballads, vol. iii. p. 76, edition of 1810. 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 133 

towns make excursions into the country, and having cut down a tall elm, brought 
it into town, fitted a straight and taper pole to the end of it, and painted the 
same, erect it in the most public places, and on holidays and festivals adorn it 
with ilower garlands, or insigns and streamers." 

Philip Stubbes, the puritan, who declaims as vehemently against May-games as 
against dancing, minstrelsy, and other sports and amusements, thus describes 
" the order of their May-games " in this reign. " Against May, Whitsimtide, or 
some other time of the year, every parish, town, and village, assemble themselves 
together, both men, women, and chilch-en ; and either all together, or dividing 
themselves into companies, they go, some to the woods and groves, some to the 
hills and mountains, some to one place, some to another, aud in the morning they 
return, bringing with them birch, boughs, and branches of trees, to deck their 
assemblies withal. . . . But their chiefest jewel they bring from thence is their 
May-pole, which they bring home with great veneration, as thus: they have 
twenty or forty yoke of oxen, every ox having a sweet nosegay of flowers tied to 
the tip of his horns ; and these oxen di-aw home this May-pole, (this stinking 
idol rather), which is covered all over with flowers and herbs, boimd round 
about with strings, from the top to the bottom, and sometime painted with 
variable colours, with two or three hundred men, women, and children, follow- 
ing it with great devotion. Aud thus, being reared up, with handkerchiefs 
and flags streaming on the top, they strew the ground about, bind green boughs 
about it, set up summer halls, bowers, and arbours, hard by it ; and then fall 
they to banquet and feast, to leap and dance about it, as the heathen people 
did at the dedication of their idols, whereof this is a perfect pattern, or rather 
the thing itself." — (Anatomie of Abuses, reprint of 1585 edit., p. 171.) 

Browne, also, has given a similar description of the May-day rites, in his 
Britannia^ s Pastorals, book ii., song 4 : — 

" As I have seen the Lady of the May 

Sit ill an arbour, .... 

Built by a May-pole, where the jocund swains 

Dance with the maidens to the bagpipe's strains. 

When envious night commands them to be gone, 

Call for the merry youngsters one by one, 

And, for their well jierformance, ' she ' disposes 

To this a garland interwove with roses ; 

To that a carved hook, or well-wrought scrip ; 

Gracing another with her cherry lip : 

To one her garter ; to another, then, 

A handkerchief, cast o'er and o'er again ; 

And none returneth empty, that hath spent 

His pains to fill their rural merriment." 

The Morris-dance, when performed on May-day, and not connected with the 
Games of Robin Hood, usually consisted of the Lady of the May, the fool or jester, 
a piper, and two, fom*, or more, morris-dancers. But, on other occasions, the hobby- 
horse, and sometimes a dragon, with Robin Hood, Maid Marian, Friar Tuck, Little 
John, and other characters supposed to have been the companions of that famous 



134 MOEBIS-DANCE AND MAY-DAY. 

outlaw, were added to the dance. Maid Marian was sometimes represented by a 
smooth-faced youth, di'essed in a female garb; Friar Tuck, Robin Hood's chaplain, 
by a man of portly form, in the habit of a Franciscan friar ; the hobby-horse was a 
paste-board resemblance of the head and tail of a horse, on a wicker frame, and 
attached to the body of a man, whose feet being concealed by a foot-cloth hanging 
to the ground, he was to imitate the ambling, the prancing, and the curveting of 
the horse; the dragon (constructed of the same materials) was made to hiss, yell, 
and shake his wings, and was frequently attacked by the man on the hobby-horse, 
who then personated St. George. 

The garments of the Morris-dancers were adorned with bells, which were not 
placed there merely for the sake of ornament, but were sounded as they danced. 
These, which were worn round the elbows and knees, were of unequal sizes, 
and differently denominated ; as the fore bell, the second bell, the treble, the mean 
or countertenor, the tenor, the great bell or base, and sometimes double bells were 
worn.^ The principal dancer in the Morris was more superbly habited than his 
companions ; as appears from a passage in The blind Beggar of Bethnall Cfreen 
(dramatised from the ballad of the same name), by John Day, 1659 : " He wants 
no clothes, for he hath a cloak laid on with gold lace, and an embroidered jerkin; 
and thus he is marching hither like the foreman of a morris." 

In The Voiv-breaker, or JFair Maid of Clifton, by William Sampson, 1636, 
we find, " Have I not practised my reins, my careers, my prankers, my ambles, 
my false trots, my smooth ambles, and Canterbury paces — and shall the mayor 
put me, besides the hobby-horse? I have borrowed the fore-horse bells, his 
plumes, and braveries ; nay, I have had the mane new shorn and frizzled. Am 
I not going to buy ribbons and toys of sweet Ursula for the Marian — and shall 
I not play the hobby-horse ? Provide thou the di'agon, and let me alone for the 
hobby-horse." And afterwards : " Alas, sh- ! I come only to borrow a few 
ribbands, bracelets, ear-rings, wire-tiers, and silk girdles, and handkerchers, for a 
Morris and a show before the queen ; I come to furnish the hobby-horse." 

There is a curious account of twelve persons of the average age of a hundred 
years, dancing the Morris, in an old book, called " Old Meg of Herefordshire for 
a Mayd Marian, and Hereford towne for a Morris-dance; or twelve Morris-dancers 
in Herefordshire of 1200 years old,"*' quarto, 1609. It is dedicated to the re- 
nowned old Hall, taborer of Herefordshire, and to " his most invincible weather- 
beaten nut-brown tabor, which hath made bachelors and lasses dance round 
about the May-pole, three-score summers, one after another in order, and is not 
yet worm-eaten." Hall, who had then " stood, like an oak, in all storms, for 
ninety-seven winters," is recommended to " imitate that Bohemian Zisca, who at 
his death gave his soldiers a strict command to flay his skin off, and cover a drum 
with it, that alive and dead he might sound like a terror m the ears of his enemies : 
so thou, sweet Hereford Hall, bequeath in thy last will, thy vellum-spotted skin 

• For the bells of the Morris, see Ford's play, TAe fTiVcA eight persons in Herefordshire, whose ages, computed 

of Edmonton, act 2, sc. 1. Weber is mistaken as to together, amounted to 800 years; probably the same as 

"mean" meaning tenor. mentioned by Lord Bacon, as happening " a few years 

*• Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, vol.2, p. 208, 1813, since in the county of Hereford." See History, Noturat 

gives an account of a May-game, or Morris-dance, by itnd Experimental, of Life and DeatJt , 1638. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



135 



to cover tabors ; at the sound of which to set all the shires a dancing. . . . The 
court of kings is for stately measures; the city for light heels and nimble footing ; 
western men for gambols ; Middlesex men for tricks above ground ; Essex men 
for the S^ey ; Lancashire for Sornpipes ; Worcestershire for bagpipes ; but Here- 
fordshire for a Morris-dance, puts down not only all Kent, but very near (if one 
had line enough to measure it) three quarters of Chi-istendom. Never had Saint 
Sepulchre's a truer ring of bells ; never did any silk-weaver keep braver time ; 
never could Beverley Fair give money to a more sound taborer ; nor ever had 
Robin Hood a more deft Maid Marian." 

Full particulars of the Morris-dance and May-games may be found by referring 
to Strutt's Sports and Pastimes; to Ritson's Robin Hood ; to an account of a 
painted window, appended to part of Henry IV., in Steevens' Shakespeare, the 
XV. vol. edition ; to Gifford's Ben Jonson, vol. i., pages 50, 51, 62, vol. iv.,p. 405, 
and vol. vii., p. 397 ; to The British Bibliographer, vol. iv., p. 326 ; Brand's 
Popular Antiquities; Deuce's Illustrations of Shakespeare; and Dr. Drake's 
Shakespeare and his Times, vol. i., &c., &c. 

BARLEY-BREAK. 
From Lady Neville's Virginal Book, which was transcribed in 1591. 

Stately. 



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136 ENSLISII SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Gifford has given the following description of the sport called Barley-break, in 
a note upon Massinger's Virgin Martyr, act v., so. 1 : — " Barley-break was 
played by six people "■ (three of each sex) , who were coupled by lot. A piece of 
ground was then chosen and divided into three compartments, of which the middle 
one was called Hell. It was the object of the couple condemned to this division, 
to catch the others, who advanced from the two extremities ; in which case a 
change of situation took place, and hell was filled by the couple who were excluded 
by pre-occupation, from the other places : in this ' catching,' however, there was 
some diiSculty, as, by the regulations of the game, the middle couple were not 
to separate before they had succeeded, while the others might break hands when- 
ever they found themselves hard pressed. When all had been taken in turn, the 
last couple was said to he in hell, and the game ended." In this description, 
Gifford does not in any way allude to it as a dance, but Littleton explains Chorus 
circularis, barley-break, when they dance, taking their hands round. See Payne 
Collier's note on Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. iii., p. 316. Strutt, in his Sports and 
Pastimes, quotes only two lines from Sidney, which he takes from Johnson's 
Dictionary : — " By neighbours prais'd, she went abroad thereby, 

At barley-brake her sweet swift feet to try." 
In the Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 344, is a ballad called " The Praise of our 
Country Barley-brake, or — 

Cupid's advisement for young men to take 
Up this loving old sport, called Barley-brake." 
" To the tune of When this old cap ivas neiv." It commences thus : — 
" Both young men, maids, and lads. 
Of what state or degree, 
Whether south, east, or west. 

Or of the north country ; 
I wish you all good health, 

That in this summer weather 
Your sweet-hearts and yourselves 
Play at barley-break together." &c. 
Allusions to Barley-hreak occur repeatedly in our old writers. Mr. M. Mason 
quotes a description of the pastime with allegorical personages, from Sir John 
Suckling : — " Love, Keason, Hate, did once bespeak 

Three mates to play at Barley-break ; 
Love Folly took, and Reason Fancy ; 
And Hate consorts with Pride; so dance they," &c. 

WATKIN'S ALE. 
The tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, where it is arranged by Byrd. 
Ward, in his Lives of the Gresham Professors, states that it is also contained in 
one of the MSS. formerly belonging to Dr. John Bull. A copy of the original 
ballad is in the collection of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury. Watkhi's Ale is 
referred to in a letter prefixed -to Anthony Munday's translation of Gerileon in 

" Rather, perhaps, by not less than six people. break." — The Guardian, act i,, sc. I. 
" Heyday ! there are a legion of young cupids at Barli- 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH, 



137 



England, part ii., 1592, and in Henry Chettle's pamphlet, Kind-harfs Dreame, 
printed in the same year. The ballad is entitled : 

" A ditty delightful of Mother Watkin's ale 
A warning well weighed, though counted a tale." 
Moderate time. 
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And, as she walk'd, she sigh'dandsaid, I am a - fraid to die a maid. 



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When that be-heard a lad What talk this maiden had, There-of he was full glad, 
To say, fair maid, I pray, Whither go you to play ? Good sir, then did she say, 

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is the seventh : — 

Thrice scarcely changed hath the moon. 
Since first this pretty trick was done ; 
Which being heard of one by chance. 
He made thereof a coimtry dance. 
And as I heard the tale, 
He called it Watkin's Ale, 
Which never will be stale 
I do believe ; 



This dance is now in prime, 
And chiefly us'd this time. 
And lately put in rhime : 
Let no man grieve. 
To hear this merry jesting tale, 
The which is called Watkin's Ale : 
It is not long since it was made. 
The finest flower will soonest fade. 



THE CARMAN'S WHISTLE. 
This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books (arranged 
by Byrd) , as well as in several others of later date. The ballad is mentioned in a 
letter, bearing the signature of T. N., addressed to his good friend A[nthony] 
M[unday], prefixed to the latter's translation of Grerileon of Migland, part ii., 
quarto, 1592 ; and by Henry Chettle in his Kind-harfs Dreame, printed in the 
same year. 



138 ENSLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

The Carmen of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries appear to have been 
singularly famous for theii- musical abilities ; but especially for whistling their 
tunes. Falstaff's description of Justice Shallow is, that " he came ever in the 
rear-ward of the fashion," and " sang the tunes he heard the carmen whistle, 
and sware they were his Fancies, or his Good-nights."^ — {Henry IV., Part ii., 
act 3.) In Ben Jonson's Bartliolomew Fair, Waspe says, " I dare not let him 
walk alone, for fear of learning vile tunes, which he will sing at supper, and in 
the sermon times ! If he meet but a carman in the street, and I find him not 
talk to keep him off on him, he will whistle him all his tunes over at night, in his 
sleep." — (Act i., sc. 1.) In the tract called "The World runnes on Wheeles," ^ 
by Taylor, the Water-poet, he says, " If the carman's horse be melancholy or 
dull with hard and heavy labour, then will he, like a kind piper, whistle him a 
fit of mirth to any tune, from above Eela to below Gammoth ; "= of which gene- 
rosity and courtesy your coachman is altogether ignorant, for he never whistles, 
but all his music is to rap out an oath." And again he says, " The word carmen, 
as I find it in the [Latin] dictionary, doth signify a verse, or a song; and betwixt 
carmen and carman, there is some good correspondence, for versing, singing, and 
whistling, are all three musical." Bui-ton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says, 
" A carman's whistle, or a boy singing some ballad early in the street, many 
times alters, revives, recreates a restless patient that cannot sleep ; " and again, 
" As carmen, boys, and prentices, when a new song is published with us, go sing- 
ing that new tune still in the streets." Hemy Chefctle, in his Kind-harfs 
Breame, says, " It would be thought the carman, that was wont to whistle to his 
beasts a comfortable note, might as well continue his old course, whereby his 
somrd served for a musical harmony in God's ear, as now to follow profane 
jigging vanity." In Tlie Pleasant Historie of the two angrie Women of Abington, 
quarto, 1599, Mall Barnes asks, " But are ye cunning in the carman's lash, and 
can ye whistle well ? " In The Hog hath lost its Pearl, Haddit, the poet, tells the 
player shortly to expect " a notable piece of matter ; such a jig, whose tune, with 
the natural whistle of a carman, shall be more ravishing to the ears of shop- 
keepers than a whole concert of barbers at midnight." — {Bodslef s Old Plays, 
vol. vi.) So in Lyly's Midas, " A carter with his whistle and his whip, in true 
ears, moves as much as Phoebus with his fiery chariot and winged horses." In 
Heywood's A Woman hilVd with Kindness, although all others are sad, the stage 
direction is, " Exeunt, except Wendall and Jenkin ; the carters whistling." And 
Playford, in his Introduction to the skill of Music, 1679, says, " Nay, the poor 
labourmg beasts at plough and cart are cheered by the sound of music, though it 
be but their master's whistle." 

« Good-nights are "Last dying speeches" made into crab-shell, brought out of China, and some imagined it 

ballads. See Essex's last Good-night. to be one of the Pagan temples, in -which the cannibals 

*> Taylor's tract was written against coaches, which in- adored the devil." He argues that the cart-horse is a 

jured his trade as a waterman. He says, "In the year more learned beast than a coach-horse, "for scarce any 

15G4, one William Boonen, a Dutchman, brought first the coach-horse in the world doth know any letter in the book ; 

use of coaches hither, and the said Boonen was Queen when as every cart-horse doth know the letter G most 

Elizabeth's coachman, for indeed a coach was a strange understandingly." 

monster in those days, and the sight of them put both « Gamut, then the lowest note of the scale, as Eela was 

horse and man into amazement. Some said it was a great the highest. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



139 



The following ballads were sung to the tune : — "The Comber's Whistle, or The 
Sport of the Spring," commencing — 

"All in a pleasant morning;" 
a copy in Pepys' Collection, vol. iii., 291, and Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 67. 
"All is ours and our husbands', or the Country Hostesses' Vindication ; " a copy 
in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 8. 

" The Courteous Carman and the Amorous Maid: or the Carman's Whistle," * 
&c., " To the tune of The Oarmanh Whistle; or Lord Willoughhy's March." 

Gracefully. 




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So comely was her countenance, 

And ' winning was her air,' 
As though the goddess Venus 

Herself she had been there ; 
And many a smirking smile she gave 

Amongst the leaves so green. 
Although she was perceived, 

She thought she was not seen. 



At length she chang'd her countenance. 

And sung a mournful song, 
Lamenting her misfortune 

She staid a maid so long ; 
Sure young men are hard-hearted. 

And know not what they do. 
Or else they want for compliments 

Fair maidens for to woo. 



" There are twelve stanzas in the ballad, of which live Collection, fol. 33, and one in Mr. Payne Collier's Collec- 
Lre here omitted. A black-letter copy in the Douce tion. 



140 



ENGLISH SONa AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Why should young virgins pine away 

And lose their chiefest prime ; 
And all for want of sweet-hearts, 

To cheer us up in time ? 
The young man heard her ditty, 

And could no longer stay, 
But straight imto the damosel 

With speed he did away. 
When he had played unto her 

One merry note or two, 
Then was she so rejoiced. 

She knew not what to do : 
O God-a-mercy, carman. 

Thou art a lively lad ; 
Thou hast as rare a whistle 

As ever carman had. 



Now, if my mother chide me 

For staying here so long ; 
What if she doth, I care not, 

For this shall be my song : 
' Pray, mother, be contented, 

Break not my heart in twain ; 
Although I have been ill a-while, 

I now am well again.' 

Now fare thee well, brave carman, 

I wish thee well to fare. 
For thou didst use me kindly, 

As I can well declare ; 
Let other maids say what they will. 

The truth of all is so. 
The bonny carman's whistle 

Shall for my money go. 



The following is the old arrangement of the tune of The QarmarHs Wldstle, 
by Byrd, taken from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 
Gracefully. 






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GO FROM MY WINDOW. 
This tune is arranged both by Morley and by John Munday, in Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book ; it is in A new Book of Tabhture, 1596 ; in Morley's First 
Boohe of Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611 ; and in Robinson's Schoole of Musick, 
1603. In Tlie Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1686, it appears imder the title of 
" The new Exchange, or Durham Stable ; " but the tune is there altered into 



% time, to fit it for dancing. 



On the 4th March, 1587-8, John Wolfe had a license to print a ballad called 
" Goe from the windowe." Nash, in his controversial tracts with Harvey, 1599, 
mentions a song, " Go from my garden, go." In Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Knight of the Burning Pestle, Old Merrythought sings — 



BEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



141 



Slowly and smoot/di/. 



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Go from my window, love, go ; Go from my window, my dear ; The 



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Begone, begone, my juggy, my puggy. 
Begone, my love, my dear ; 
The weather is warm, 
'Twill do thee no harm : 
Thou canst not be lodged here." 
Li Fletcher's Monsieur Tlwmas, we find — 

" Come up to my window, love, come, come, come. 
Come to my window, my dear ; 
The wind nor the rain 
Shall trouble thee again : 
But thou slialt be lodged here." 
It is again quoted by Fletcher in The Womanh Prize, or the Tamer tamed, act i., 
sc. 3 ; by Middleton in Blurt, Master Constable ; and by Otway in The Soldier'' s 
Fortune. 

It is one of the ballads that were parodied in " Ane compendious booke of 
Godly and Spirituall Songs . . with sundrie of other ballates, chainged out of 
prophaine Songes, for avoiding of Sinne and Harlotrie ; " printed in Etlinburgh 
in 1590 and 1621. There are twenty-two stanzas in the Godly Song, the following 
are the two first : — '' Quho [who] is at my windo, who, who ? 
Goe from my windo ; goe, goe. 
Quha calles there, so like ane strangere ? 
Go from my windo, goe. 

Lord, I am here, ane wratched mortall, 
That for thy mercie dois crie and call 
Unto Thee, my Lord celestiall ; 
See who is at my windo, who ? " 
At the end of Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece, a song is printed beginning — 
" Begone, begone, my Willie, my Billie, 
Begone, begone, my deere ; 
The weather is warme, 'twill doe thee no harms. 
Thou canst not be lodged here." 
which is also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 1661, p. 25. 



142 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



In Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707, vol. ii., 44, or 1719, vol. iv., 44, is another 
version of that song, beginning, " Arise, arise, my juggy, my puggy ; " but in 
both editions it is printed to the tune of " Good morrow, 'tis St. Valentine's day," 
and not to the original music. 

I received the following traditional version of " Go from my window " from a 
very kind friend of former days, the late R. M. Bacon, of Norwich." The tune is 
very like that of Ophelia's Song, "And how should I your true love know ; " the 
first and last strains being the same in both. The words promise an improvement 
of the original, and it is to be regretted that my informant had only heard 
the first stanza, which is here printed to the music. 

Rather slow. 



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ind is in the west, And the cuckoo's in his nest, And you can't have a lodging here. 



DULCINA. 

This tune is referred to under the names of " Dulcina;" " As at noon Dulcina 
rested ; " '' From Oberon in fairy-land ; " and " Robin Goodfellow," 

The ballad of " The merry pranks of .Robin Goodfellow " (attributed to Ben 
Jonson) commences with the line, "From Oberon in fairy-land;" and in the old 
black-letter copies, is directed to be sung to the tune of Dulcina. The ballad of 
" As at noon Dulcina rested," is said, upon the authority of Cayley and Ellis, to 
have been written by Sir Walter Raleigh. Both are printed in Percy's Reliques 
of Ancient Poetnj^ series iii., book 2. 

The Milk-Tfoman in Walton's Angler^ says, " Wliat song was it, I pray 
you? Was it, "Come, shepherds, deck your heads," or "As at -noon Dulcina 
rested," &c. 



a Mr. Bacon was for many years the well known editor, 
as well as principal proprietor, of The Norwich Mercury, 
and editor of The Quarterly Musical Review. His memory 
was so stored with traditional songs, learnt in boyhood, 
that, having accepted a challenge at the tea-table to sing 
a song upon any subject a lady would mention, I have 
heard him sing verse after verse iipon tea-spoons, and 
other such themes, proposed as the most unlikely for 



songs to have been written upon. He had Jeamt a number 
of sea songs, principally from one old sailor, and some 
were so descriptive, that it was almost thrilling to hear 
them sung by him. Seventeen years ago, these ap- 
peared to me too irregular and declamatory to be reduced 
to rhythm, but I have since greatly regretted the loss of 
an opportunity that can never recur. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



143 



The following ballads were also sung to the tune : — 

" The downfall of dancing ; or the overthrow of three fiddlers and three bag- 
pipers," &c., " to the tune of Robin Goodfelloiv. Copies in the Douce and Pepys 
Collections. 

" A delicate new ditty, composed upon the posie of a ring, being, ' I fancy none 
but thee alone : ' sent as a new year's gift by a lover to his sweet-heart. To the 
tune oi Dulcina." Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 80. 

"The desperate damsel's tragedy, or the faithless young man;" beginning, 
" Li the gallant month of June. " 

" A pleasant new song, betwixt a sailor and his love. To the tune of Dulcina;''^ 
beginning, " What doth ail my love so sadly." In the Bagford and Roxburghe 
Collections, where several more will be found. 

A Cavalier's drinking-song, by Matt. Arundel, to the tune of Robin Gfood- 
fellow, commencing, " Some say drmking does disguise men," is printed in Tixall 
Poetry, quarto, 1813. The last verse dates this after the Restoration. 

Dulcina was also one of the tunes to the " Psalms and Songs of Sion ; turned 
into the language and set to the tunes of a strange land," 1642. 

Cheerfully. _ Tune of Dulcina. 



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144 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



WHO LIST TO LEAD A SOLDIER'S LIFE. 
This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1725, called " A soldier's 
life," or " Who list to lead a soldier's life." There were, evidently, two tunes 
under the same name (one of which I have not discovered), because some of the 
ballads could not be sung to this air. In Peele's Udivard I., 1593, we find, 
" Enter a harper and sing, to the tune of Wlw list to lead a soldier's life, the 
following : — " Go to, go to, you Britons all, 

And play the men both great and small," &c. ; 
and in Deloney's Strange Sistories, 1607 — 

" When Isabell, fair England's queen, 
In woeful wars had victorious been," &c ; 
neither of which could be sung to this air, but " A Song of an English Knight, 
that married the Royal Princess, Lady Mary, sister to Henry VIII., which Knight 
was afterwards made Duke of Suffolk ; " beginning — 

"Eighth Henry ruling in this land, 
He had a sister fair ;" 
and "A Song of the Life and Death of King Richard III., who, after many 
murders by him committed, &c., was slain at the battle of Bosworth, by 
Henry VII., King of England;" beginning — 

" In England once there reigned a king, 
A tyrant fierce and fell," " . 
as well as several others, are exactly fitted to the tune. 

Ophelia's Song, " Good morrow, 'tis St. Valentine's day," and the traditional 
air to " Lord Thomas and Fair Ellinor," are only different versions of this. 

Li the Pepys Collection, vol i., is a black-letter ballad of " The joyful peace 
concluded between the King of Denmark and the King of Sweden, by the means of 
our most worthy sovereign James," &c., to the tune of "Who list to lead a 
soldier's life;" dated 1613. 

In The Miseries of inf arced Marriage (Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v.), the song, 
" Who list to have a lubberly load," was, perhaps, a parody on " Who list to lead 
a soldier's life," the words of which I have not been successful in finding. 
Gracefully. ^--i*1 ^-.*^ 



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a These two ballads have been reprinted by Evans in the names of the tunes to which they were to be sung, not 
Old Ballads, vol. iii., 30 and 84(1810); but he has omitted only in these, but in numberless other instances. 



KBIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



145 



LOED THOMAS AND FAIR ELLINOK. 

This traditional version of tlie tune of Lord Thomas and Fair MUnor is taken 
from Sandys' Collection of Christmas Carols. It is, evidently, the air of Who 
list to lead a soldiers life ? adapted for words of a somewhat diiferent measure. 
(See the opposite page.) 

At p. 17 of Ritson's Observations on the Minstrels, in enumerating the prob,able 
" causes of the rapid decline of the minstrel profession, since the time of Eliza- 
beth," he says, " It is conceived that a few individuals, resembling the character, 
might have been lately, and may possibly be still found, in some of the least 
polished or less frequented parts of the kingdom. It is not long since the public 
papers announced the death of a person of this description, somewhere in Derby- 
shii-e ; and another was within these two years to be seen in the streets of London ; 
he played on an instrument of the rudest construction, which he, properly enough, 
called a hum-strum, and chanted (amongst others) the old ballad of Lord Thomas 
and Fair MUnor, which, by the way, has every appearance of being originally a 
minstrel song." 

The ballad will be found in book i., series 3, of Percy's Beliques of Ancient 
Poetry, and it is one of those still kept in print in Seven Dials. The black-letter 
copies direct it to be sung " to a pleasant new tune." See Douce Collection, i. 121. 
Gracefully. 




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a bold fo - res - ter, And a chaser of the king's 



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deer, Fair El-li-nor was a fine woman, And Lord Thomas he loved her dear. 



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THE FRIAR AND THE NUN. 

In Henry Chettle's Kind-harfs Dreame, 1592, two lines are quoted from the 
ballad of " The Friar and the Nun." The tune is in Tlie Dancing Master, from 
1650 to 1725; in MusicKs Delight on the Cithren, 1666; in Fills to purge 
Melancholy ; and in many of the ballad-operas, such as The Beggars' Opera, Tlie 
Devil to pay, The Jovial Qrew, &c. Henry Carey wrote a song to the tune in his 
Honest Yorhshireman, 1735, and there are three, or more, in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly. In vol. ii. of some editions, and vol. iv. of others, the title and tune of 
" The Friar and the Nun " are printed by mistake with the song of " Fly, merry 
news," which has no reference to them. The ballad of The London Prentice was 



146 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC, 



occasionally sung to it, and in some of the ballad-operas the tune bears that v;ame. 
In The Plot, 1735, it is called " The merry songster." The composer of the 
modern song, " Jump, Jim Crow," is under some obligations to this air. 
Henry Carey's song is called " The old one outwitted," and begins — 
" There was a certain usurer, 
He had a pretty niece," &c. 
In Tlie Beggars^ Opera, the name of " All in a misty morning " is given to 
the tune, from the first line of a song called Tlie Wiltshire Wedding, which will 
be found in Pills to purge Melanclwly, iv. 148, or ii. 148. There are fifteen 
verses, of which the following nine suflice to tell the story. 
Quick. 



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All in a mis-ty morn-ing, Cloudy was the weather, I meeting with an 



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w d'ye do, and how d'ye do, and how d'ye do a- gain. 



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The rustic was a thresher, 

And on his way he hied, 
And with a leather hottle 

Fast buckled by his side ; 
And witli a cap of woollen, 

Which covered cheek and chin ; 
AVith how d'ye do ? and how d'ye do? 

And how d'ye do ? again. 

I went a little further, 

And there I met a maid 
Was going then a milking, 

A milking, sir, she said ; 
Then I began to compliment, 

And she began to sing : 
With how d'ye do? Src. 



This maid, her name was Dolly, 

Cloth'd in a gown of gray, 
I, being somewhat jolly. 

Persuaded her to stay : 
Then straight I fell to courting her. 

In hopes her love to win. 
With how d'ye do? &c. 

I told her I would married be, 
And she should be my bride. 

And long we should not tarry, 
With twenty things beside : 
" I'll plough and sow, and reap and mow, 
Whilst thou shalt sit and spin," 

With how d'ye do? &c. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



147 



/^ly. 



" Kind sir, I Iiave a mother, 

Besides, a father, still. 
And so, before all other. 

You must ask their good will ; 
For if I be un dutiful 

To them, it is a sin ;" 
With how d'ye do? &c. 

Now, there we left the milking-pail, 
And to her mother went, 

And when we were come thither, 
I asked her consent ; 

I dofF'd my hat, and made a leg, 
When I found her within ; 

With how d'ye do ? &c. 



Her dad came home full weary, 
(Alas ! he could not choose ;) 

Her mother being merry. 
She told him all the news. 

Then he was mighty jovial too, 
His son did soon begin 

With how d'ye do? &c. 

The parents being willing. 

All parties were agreed, 
Her portion, thirty shilling; 

We married were with speed. 
Then Will, the piper, he did play. 

Whilst others dance and sing ; 
With how d'ye do? and how d'ye do? 

And how d'ye do? again. 



JOHN, COME KISS ME NOW. 

This favorite old tune will be found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in 
Plajford's Introduction ; in Apollo's Banquet for the Treble Violin ; and in the 
I'irst part of the Division Violin, containing a collection of Divisions upon several 
excellent grounds, printed by Walsh; as well as Playford's Division Violin (1685.) 
In Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. iii., 1707., and vol. v., 1719, it is adapted to a 
song called Stoto, the Ih'iar. It is mentioned in Heywood's A Woman kill'd ivith 
Kindness, 1600 : 

Jack Slime. — " I come to dance, not to quarrel : come, what shall it be? Rogero? 

Jenliin. — " Mogero, no ; we will dance The Beginning of the World. 

Sisly. — " I love no dance so well as John, come hiss vie now" 

In ''Tis merry when Grossips meet, 1609 : 

Widow. — " No musique in the evening did we lacke ; 

Such dauncing, coussen, you would hardly thinke it; 

Whole pottles of the daintiest burned sack, 

' Twould do a wench good at the heart to drinke it. 

Such store of tickling galliards, I do vow ; 

Not an old dance, but John, come hisse me now. 

In a song in Westminster Drollery, 1671 and 1674, beginning, " My name is 
honest Harry:" "The fidlera shall attend us, 

And first play, John, come hisse me; 

And when that we have danc'd a round, 

They shall play, Hit or misse me." " 
Jn Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621: "Yea, many times this love will 
make old men and women, that have more toes than teeth, dance John, come kiss 
me now." It is also mentioned in The Scourge of Folly, 8vo. (n.d.) ; in Brath- 
wayte's Shepherd'' s Tides, 1623; in Tom Tiler and his Wife, 1661 ; and in Henry 
Bold's Songs and Poems, 1685. 



■ Hit or miss is a tune in Tke Dancinfj Master of 1650, 
and later editions. It is referred to by Wniitlock, in his 
Zoolamia, or present Manners of t/ie Eiiglisli, 12nio., 1(>54, 



wliere he speaks of one "wliose i)ractice in physic is 
"nothing more than the country dance called Hit or 
nrissc." 



148 



ENGLISH SONGf AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



//«/ 



'' In former times 't liatli been upbraided thus, 
That barber's music was most barbarous ; 
For that the cittern was confin'd unto 
' The Ladies' Fall,' or ' John, come kiss me now,' 

' Green Sleeves and Pudding Pyes,' ' The P 's Delight,' 

'Winning of Bulloigne,' ' Essex's last Good-night,' &c." 
From lines " On a Barber who became a great Master of Musick." The ground 
of John, come kiss me now, was a popular theme for fancies and divisions (now 
called fantasias and variations) for the virginals, lute, and viols. In the 
Vu-ginal Book, only the first part of the tune is taken, and it is doubtful if it 
then had any second part ; the copy we have given is from Playford's and Walsh's 
Division Violin. It is one of the songs parodied in Andro Hart's Compendium 
of Godly Songs, before mentioned, on the strength of which the tmie has been 
claimed as Scotch, although it has no Scotch character, nor has hitherto been 
found in any old Scotch copy. Not only are all the other tunes to the songs in the 
Compendium, of which any traces are left, English, but what little secular music 
was printed ui Scotland until the eighteenth century, was entirely English or 
foreign. The following are the first, second, and twenty-first stanzas of the 
"Godly Song":— 



John, come kisse me now ; 

John, come kisse me now, 
Johne, come kisse me by and by, 

And make no more adow. 

The Lord thy God I am, 

That John dois thee call ; 
/ Rather slow and stately. 



John represents man. 
By grace celestiall. 

My prophites call, my preachers cry, 
John, come kisse me now ; 

John, come kisse me by and by. 
And make no more adow. 



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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



149 



ALL YOU THAT LOVE GOOD FELLOWS, oe THE LONDON PRENTICE. 
The tunes called Nancie in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book; Uduward 
Wouwels, in Bellerophon (Amsterdam, 1622, p. 115); Sir Eduward NomveVs 
Delight, in Friesclie Lust-hof, 1634 ; and Tlie London Prentice, in Pills to purge 
Melancholy (vi., 342), and in The Devil to pay, 1731, are the same: but the two 
last contain only sixteen bars, while all the former consist of twenty-four. 
The following is the version called Sir Hdivard Noel's Delight. 
In marching time. 



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The ballad of " The honour of a London Prentice : being an account of his 
matchless manhood, and brave adventures done m Turkey, and by what means he 
married the king's daughter," is evidently a production of the reign of Elizabeth. 
The apprentice maintams her to be " the phoenix of the world," " the pearl of 
princely majesty," &c., against "a score of Tm-kish Knights," whom he over- 
throws at tUt. 

The ballad is printed in Ritson's JEnglish Songs (among the Ancient Ballads), 
and in Evans' Old Ballads, vol. iii., 178. Copies will also be found in the Bagford 
Roxbui'ghe (iii. 747), and other Collections. It was "to be sung to the tune 
of All you that love good fellows ; " under which name the air is most frequently 
mentioned. 



150 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Bishop Earle, in his Micosmogi-aphy, 1628, in giving the character of a Pot- 
poet, says, " He is a man now much employed in commendations of our navy, and 
a bitter inveigher against the Spaniard. His frequentest works go out in single 
sheets, and are chanted from market to market to a vile tune, and a worse throat; 
whilst the poor country wench melts, like her butter, to hear them. And these 
are the stories of some men of Tyburn, or A strange monster out of Germany." 
One of these ballads of " strange monsters out of Germany " will be found in the 
Bagford and in the Pepys Collection (ii. 66), " to the tune of All you that love 
good fellows.^'' It is entitled "Pride's fall: or a warning for. all English women 
by the example of a strange monster born late in Germany, by a merchant's 
proud wife of Geneva." The ballad, evidently a production of the reign of 
James I.,^ is perhaps the one alluded to by Bishop Earle. 

There are other ballads about London apprentices; one of "The honors achieved 
in Fraunce and Spayne by four prentises of London," was entered to John 
Danter, in 1592. " Well, my dear countrymen, Wliat-cVye-lacks" (as apprentices 
were frequently called, from theii" usual mode of inviting custom), "I'll have you 
chronicled, and all to be praised, and sung in sonnets, and bawled in new brave 
ballads, that all tongues shall troul you in scectda seculorum." — Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Philaster. 

One of the ballads to the tune of " the worthy London prentice " relates 
to a very old superstition, and will recall to us the "Out, damned spot!" in 
Macbeth. It is entitled the " True relation of Susan Higges, dwelling in Ris- 
borow, a towne in Buckinghamshire, and how she lived twenty years by robbing 
on the high wayes, yet unsuspected of all that knew her ; till at last coming to 
Messeldon, and there robbing and murdering a woman, which woman knew her, 
and standing by her while she gave three groanes, she spat three drops of Hood in 
her face, ivhich never could be ivasht out, by which she was knowne, and executed 
for the aforesaid murder, at the assises in Lent at Brickhill." A copy is in the 
Roxburghe Collection, i. 424; also in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 203 (1810). 

I have not found any song or ballad commencing " All you that love good 
fellows," although so frequently quoted as a tune ; but there are several "All you 
that are," and "All you that be good fellows," which, from similarity of metre, 
I assume to be intended for the same air. 

In a chap-book called " The arraigning and indicting of Sir John Barleycoi-n, 
knight ; newly composed by a well-wisher to Sir John, and all that love him," are 
two songs, "All you that are good fellows," and "All you that be good fellows," 
" to the tune of Sir John Barleycorn, or Jach of all trades.'''' Lowndes speaks of 
this tract as printed for T. Passenger in 1675, and of the author as Thomas 
Robins ; but there are Aldermary and Bow Chui-ch-yard editions of later date. 

Another "All you that are good fellows" is here printed to the shorter copy of 
the tune. It is from a little black-letter volume (in Wood's library, Ashmolean 
Museum) entitled " Good and true, fresh and new Christmas Carols," &c., 
printed by E. P. for Francis Coles, dwelling in the Old Bailey, 1642. It is one 

' See FairboU's Satirical Songs and Poems an Costume, p. 107 ; printed for the Percy Society. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



161 



of the merry Christmas carols, and to be sung to the tune of " All you that 
are good fellow?." 

In marching time. 



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This is a time of joyfulness. 

And merry time of year. 
When as the rich with plenty stor'd 

Do make the poor good cheer. 
Plum-porridge, roast beef, and minc'd pies, 

Stand smoking on the board ; 
With other brave varieties, 

Our master doth afford. 

Our mistress and her cleanly maids 

Have neatly play'd the cooks ; 
Methinks these dishes eagerly 

At my sharp stomach looks. 
As though they were afraid 

To see me draw my blade ; 
But I revenged on them will be. 

Until my stomach's stay'd. 



Come fill us of the strongest. 

Small drink is out of date ; 
Methinks I shall fare like a prince. 

And sit in gallant state : 
This is no miser's feast, 

Although that things be dear ; 
God grant the founder of this feast 

Each Christmas keep good cheer. 

This day for Christ we celebrate, 

Who was bom at this time ; 
For which all Christians should rejoice. 

And I do sing in rhyme. 
When you have given thanks. 

Unto your dainties fall, 
Heav'n bless my master and my dame, 

Lord bless me, and you all. 



152 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



THE BRITISH GEENADIERS. 
The correct date of this fine old melody appears altogether uncertain, as it 
is to be found in different forms at different periods; but it is here placed in juxta- 
position to Sir Ediuard JVoel's Delight, and All yon that love good fellows, or 
The London Prentice, because evidently derived from the same source. The 
commencement of the air is also rather like Prince Ruperfs March, and the end 
resembles Old King Cole, with the difference of being major instead of minor. 
Next to the National Anthems, there is not any tune of a more spirit-stirring 
character, nor is any one more truly characteristic of English national ^ music. 
This version of the tune is as played by the band of the Grenadier Guards. The 
words are from a copy about a hundi-ed years old, with the music. 
March. 




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tow row, row, row, row. 



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Those heroes of antiquity ne'er saw a cannon hall, 
Or knew the force of powder to slay their foes withal;' 
But our brave boys do know it, and banish all their fears, 
Sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, for the British Grenadiers. 

Chorus. — But our brave boys, &c. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 153 

Whene'er we are comniaiided to storm the palisades, 
Our leaders march with fusees, and we with hand grenades. 
We throw them from the glacis, about the enemies' ears, 
Sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. — We throw them, &c. 

And when the siege is over, we to the town repair, 
The townsmen cry Hurra, hoys, here comes a Grenadier, 
Here come the Grenadiers, my hoys, who know no doubts or fears, 
Then sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. — Here come the, &c. 

Then let us fill a bumper, and drink a health to those 
Who carry caps and pouches, and wear the louped clothes. 
May they and their commanders live happy all their years, 
With a tow, row, row, row, row, row, for the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. — May they, &c. 

THE CUSHION DANCE. 
The Cushion Dance was in favour both in court and country in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and is occasionally danced even at the present day. In Lilly's Miphues, 
1580, Lucilla, says, "Trulie, Euphues, you have mist the cushion, for I was neither 
angrie with your long absence, neither am I well pleased at your presence." This 
is, perhaps, in allusion to the dance, in which each woman selected her partner by 
placing the cushion before him. Taylor, the water-poet, calls it " a pretty little 
provocatory dance," for he before whom the cushion was placed, was to kneel and 
salute the lady. In Heywood's A Woman kiWd loith Kindjiess, (which Henslow 
mentions in his diary, in 1602), the dances which the country people call for are, 
Rogero ; The Beginning of the World, or Sellenger''s Round; John, come kiss me 
now ; Tom Tyler ; The hunting of the Fox; Tlie Say ; Put on your smock a 
Monday ; and The Cushion Dance ; and Sir Francis thus describes their style of 
dancing ; — 

" Now, gallants, while the town-musicians 
Finger their frets within ; and the mad lads 
And country lasses, every mother's child. 
With nosegays and bride-laces in their hats. 
Dance aU their country measures, rounds, and jigs, 
What shall we do ? Hark ! they're all on the hoigh ; 
They toil like mill-horses, and turn as round ; 
Marry, not on the toe : aye, and they caper, 
But not without cutting ; you shall see, to-morrow, 
The hall floor peck'd and dinted like a mill-stone, 
Made with their high shoes : though their skill be small. 
Yet they tread heavy where their hob-nails fall." 
When a partner was selected in the dance, he, or she, sang "Prinkum- 
prankum is a fine dance," &c. ; which line is quoted by Burton, in his Anatomy 
of Melancholy ; and, " No dance is lawful but Prinkum-prankum," in The Muses' 
Looking-glass, 1638. 

In the AiMthegms of King James, the Earl of Worcester, kc, 1658, a wedding 



154 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

entertainment is spoken of: and, " Tvlien the masque Avas ended, and time had 
brought in the supper, the cushion led the dance out of the parlour into the hall." 
Selden, speaking of Trenchmore and The Cushion Dance in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, says, " Then all the company dances, lord and groom, lady and kitchen- 
maid, no distinction." — (See ante p. 82.) In The Dancing Master of 1686, and 
later editions, the figure is thus described : — 

" This dance is begun by a single person (either man or woman), who, talcing a 
cushion in hand, dances about the room, and at the end of the tune, stops and sings, 
' This dance it will no further go." The musician answers, ' I pray you, good Sir, 
why say you so ? ' — Ifan. ' Because Joan Sanderson will not come too.' — Musician. 
' She must come too, and she shall come too, and she must come whether she will 
or no.' Then he lays down the cushion before the woman, on which she kneels, and 
he kisses her, singing ' Welcome, Joan Sanderson, welcome, welcome.' Then she 
rises, takes up the cushion, and both dance, singing, 'Prinkum-prankum is a fine dance, 
and shall we go dance it once again, once again, and once again, and shall we go dance 
it once again.' Then making a stop, the woman sings as before, 'This dance it will 
no further go.' — Musician. ' I pray you, madam, why say yon so ?' — Woman. ' Because 
John Sanderson will not come too.' — Musician. ' He must come too, and he shall 
come too, and he must come whether he will or no.' And so she lays down the 
cushion before a man, who kneeling upon it, salutes her; she singing, 'Welcome, 
John Sanderson, welcome, welcome.' Then he taking up the cushion, they take 
hands, and dance round, singing as before. And thus they do, till the whole com- 
pany are taken into the ring ; and if there is company enough, make a little ring in its 
middle, and within that ring, set a chair, and lay the cushion in it, and the first man 
set in it. Then the cushion is laid before the first man, the woman singing, ' This 
dance it will no further go ;' and as before, only instead of ' Come too,' they sing, ' Go 
fro ;' and instead of ' Welcome, John Sanderson,' they sing, ' Farewell, John Sanderson, 
farewell, farewell;' and so they go out one by one as they came in. Note. — The 
women are kissed ly all the men in the ring at their coming and going out, and liJte- 
rvise the men hy all the women." 

This agreeable pastime tended, without doubt, to popularize the dance. 

One of the engravings in Johannis de Brunes Mnblemata (4to., Amsterdam, 
1624, and 1661) seems to represent the Cushion Dance. The company being 
seated round the room, one of the gentlemen, hat in hand, and with a cushion held 
over the left shoulder, bows to a lady, and seems about to lay the cushion at her 
feet. 

In 1737, the Rev. Mr. Henley, or " Orator Henley," as he called himself, 
advertised in the London Daily Post that he would deliver an oration on the 
subject of the Cushion Dance. 

A political parody is to be found in Poems on Affairs of State, from 1640 to 
1704, called, " The Cushion Dance at Whitehall, by way of Masquerade. To the 
tune of Joan Sanderson." 

Enter Godfrey Aldworth, followed by the King and Duke. ' 
King. " The trick of trimming is a fine trick. 

And shall we go try it once again? 
Duke. " The plot it will no further go. 
King. " I pray thee, wise brother, why say you so," &c. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



155 



The tunes of Cusliion-Dances ( like Barley-Breaks ) have the first part in 
I, and the last in i time. The earliest printed copy I have found is in Tahlature 
de Luth, intihiU Le Secret des Muses, 4to., Amsterdam, 1615, where it is 
called Gaillarde Anglaise. In Nederlandtsche Q-edenck-Glanck, Haerlem, 1626, 
the same air is entitled Grallarde Suit Margriet, -(vhich being intended as English, 
may be guessed as " Galliard, Sweet Margaret." It is the following : — 
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The Galliard (a word meaning brisk, gay ; and used in that sense by Chaucer) 
is described by Sir John Davis as a swift and wandering dance, with lofty turns 
and capriols in the air. Thoinot Arbeau, in his OrchesograpJiie, 1589, says that, 
formerly, when the dancer had taken his partner for the galliard, they first placed 
themselves at the end of the room, and, after a bow and curtsey, they walked once 



156 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



or twice round it. Then the lady danced to the other end, and remained there 
dancing, while the gentleman followed ; and presenting himself before her, made 
some steps, and then tm-ned to the right or left. After that she danced to the 
other end, and he followed, doing other steps ; and so again, and again. " But 
now" says he, " in towns they dance it tumultuously, and content themselves 
with making the five steps and some movements without any design, caring only 
to be in position on the sixth of the bar" (pourvu qu'ils tombent en cadence). 
In the foiu' first steps, the left and right foot of the dancer were raised alternately, 
and on the fifth of the bar he sprang into the air, twisting round, or capering, as 
best he could. The repose on the sixth note gave more time for a lofty spring.'' 
"Let them take their pleasures," says Burton, in his Anatomy of MelancJioly ; 
" young men and maids flourishing in their age, fair and lovely to behold, well 
attired, and of comely carriage, dancing a Greek GralUarde, and, as their dance 
requireth, keep their time, now turning, now tracing, now apart, now altogether, 
now a curtesie, then a caper, &c., it is a pleasant sight." 

The following tune is from The Dancing Master of 1686, called '■'■Joan Sanderson, 
or The Cushion Dance, an old Round Dance." 



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ivas a dance in common time : four steps to the four beats ment of the second bar. 



REISN OF ELIZABETH. 



157 



Reverting to the pavan and galliard, Morley says, " The pavan" (derived from 
pavo, a peacock) "for grave dancing; galliards, which usually follow pavans, they 
are for a lighter and more stii'ring kind of dancing."' The pavan was sometimes 
danced by princes and judges in their robes, and by ladies with long trains held up 
behind them ; but usually the galliard followed the pavan, much in the same manner 
as the gavotte follows the minuet. Butler, in his Principles of Musick, 1636, says, 
" Of this sort (the Ionic mood) are pavans, invented for a slow and soft kind of 
dancing, altogether in duple proportion [common time]. Unto which are framed 
galliards for more quick and nimble motion, always in triple proportion : and, 
therefore, the triple is oft called galliard time, and the duple pavan time. In this 
kind is also comprehended the infinite multitude of Ballads, set to sundry pleasant 
and delightful tunes by cunning and witty composers, with country dances fitted 
unto them, . . . and which surely might and would be more freely permitted by 
our sages, were they used as they ought, only for health and recreation." — (p. 8.) 
At this time Puritanism was nearly at its height. 

WITH MY FLOCK AS WALKED I. 

Stafford Smith found this song, with the tune, in a manuscript of about the year 
1600, and printed it in his Musica Antiqua, p. 57. I discovered a second copy of 
the tune in Elizabeth Rogers' MS. Virginal book, in the British Museum, under 
the name of The faithful Brothers. 

The song is evidently in allusion to Queen Elizabeth, and in the usual com- 
plimentary style to her beauty, to her vow of virginity, &c. 
Gracefully. 



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158 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Sucli a face she had for to 

Invite any man to love her; 

But her coy behaviour taught 

That it was but in vain to move lier ; 

For divers so this dame had wrought 

That they themselves might move her." 

Phoebus for her favour spent 
His hair, her fair brows to cover ; 
Venus' cheek and lips were sent, 
That Cupid and Mars might move her ; 
But Juno, alone, her nothing lent. 
Lest Jove himself should love her. 



Though she be so pure and chaste, 
That nobody can disprove her; 
So demure and straightly cast. 
That nobody dares to move her; 
Yet is she so fresh and sweetly fair 
That I shall always love her. 

Let her know, though fair she he, 
That there is a power above her ; 
Thousands more enamoured shall be. 
Though little it will move her; 
She still doth vow virginity. 
When all the world doth love her. 



GO NO MORE A RUSHING. 
This tune is called Cfo no more a rusliing, in a MS. Virginal Book of Byrd's 
arrangements and compositions, in the possession of Dr. Rimbault ; and Tell me, 
Daphne, in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 

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THE BLIND BEGGAR'S DAUGHTER OF BETHNAL GREEN. 
This tune was found by Dr. Rimbault in a MS. volume of Lute Music, written 
by Rogers, a celebrated lutenist of the reign of Chai-les II., in the library at 
Etwall Hall, Derbyshire. It is there called The Cripple, and the ballad of 
The stout Cripple of Cornwall is directed to be sung to the tune of The Hind 
Beggar. See Roxburghe Collection, i. 389, and Bagford, i. 32. It is also in 
Evans' Old Ballads, i. 97 (1810) ; but, as too frequently the case, the name of 
the tune to which it was to be sung, is there omitted. 



This line is evidently incorrect, but I liave no other cupy to refer to. 



KEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



169 



Pepys, in his diary, 25th June, 1663, speaks of going with Sii* William and 
Lady Batten, and Sir J. Minnas, to Sir W. Rider's, at Bednall Green, to dinner, 
" a fine place ; " and adds, " This very house was built by the blind Beggar of 
Bednall Green, so much talked of and sang in ballads ; but they say it was only 
some outhouses of it." The house was called Kirby Castle, then the property of 
Sir William Ryder, Knight, who died there m 1669. 

"This popular old ballad," says Percy, " was wi'itten in the reign of Elizabeth, 
as appears not only from verse 23, where the arms of England are called the 
' Queenes armes ; ' but from its tune being quoted in other old pieces written in 
her time. See the baUad on Mary Ambree," &c. 

In a blaek-letter book called The World's Folly, we read that " a dapper fellow, 
that in his youth had spent more than he got, on his person, fell to singing 
The blind Beggar, to the tune of Heigh ho! " — (Brit. Bibliographer, ii. 560.) 

In the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament," and 
in " Rats rhimed to death, or the Rump Parliament hang'd up in the shambles " 
(1660), are many songs to the tune of The blind Beggar, as well as in the King's 
Pamphlets, Brit. Museum. 

Among them, "A Hymn to the gentle craft, or Hewson's lamentation" 
(a satire on Lord Hewson, one of Cromwell's lords, who had been a cobbler, 
and had but one eye), and " The second Martyrdom of the Rmnp." 

The tune was sometimes called Pretty Bessy, and a ballad to be sung to it, 
under that name, is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 142. 
Moderate time and with expression. 



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160 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The ballad of The Wind Beggar will be found in Percy's ReUques, book ii., 
series 2; in tlie Roxburgbe Collection, i. 10; and in Dixon's Songs of the Peasantry 
of England. It is still kept in print in Seven Dials, and sung about tbe country, 
but to the following tune. 

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COCK LORREL, ok COOK LAWEEL. 
This tune is in the Choice Collection o/" 180 Loyal Songs, &c. (3rd edit. 1685), 
and in Pills to purge Melancholy, as well as in every edition of Tlie Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1725. In The Dancing Master it is called An old man is 
a bed full of hones, from a song, of which four lines are quoted in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight, act i., sc. 1., and one in Shirley's The Constant Maid, 
act ii., sc. 2., where the usurer's niece sings it. 

The song of Cooh Lorrel is in Ben Jonson's masque, The Cripsies metamor- 
phosed. Copies are also in the Pepys Collection of Ballads ; in Dr. Percy's folio 
MS., p. 182;'' and, with music, in Pills to purge Melancholy. It is a satii'e upon 
rogues and knaves of all classes supposed to be doomed to perdition. Cook 
Lorrel, a notorious rogue, invites his Satanic Majesty into the Peak in Derby- 
shire to dinner; and he, somewhat inconvenienced by the roughness of the 
road, commences by feasting on the most delicate sinner : 

" His stomach was queasie (for, riding there coaoh'd, 
The jogging had caused some crudities rise) ; 
To help it lie called for a Puritan jjoach'd, 

That used to turn up the eggs of his eyes, &c." 



' See Dr. DibiUn's Decameron, vol. 3. 



REIGN OF KLIZABBTH. 



161 



Wynken de Worde printed a tract called Cocke LorreWs Bote ; in which persons 
of all classes, and, among them the MynstreUes, are summoned te go on board 
his Ship of Fools. Cock LoreWs Boat is mentioned in a MS. poem in the 
Bodleian Library, called Boctour BouUe Ale, and in John Heywood's E-pigrams 
upon 300 Proverbs, 1566 (in the Epigram upon a Busy-body, No. 189). 

In S. Rowland's Martin Markhall, his defence and answer to the Bellman of 
London, 1610, is a list of rogues by profession, in which Cock Lorrel stands 
second. He is thus described : " After him succeeded, by the general council, 
one Cock Lorrell, the most notorious knave that ever lived. By trade he was a 
tinker, often carrying a pan and hammer for shew ; but when he came to a good 
booty, he would cast his profession in a ditch, and play the padder." In 1565, 
a book was printed called The Fraternitye of Vacahomles ; ivhereunto also is 
adjoyned the tiventy-five orders of knaves: confirmed for ever by Cocke Lor ell. 

In Satirical Poems by Lord Rochester (Harl. MSS., 6913) there is a ballad to 
the tune of An old man is a bed full of bones, but the air is far more generally 
referred to by the name of Cock Lorrel. 

In the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament " 
there are many to this air, such as "The Rump roughly but righteously 
handled;" "The City's Feast to the Lord Protector;" " St. George for England" 
(commencing, " The Westminster Rump hath been little at ease ") ; &c., &c. 
Others in the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus. ; in the Collection of 180 Loyal 
Songs, 1685 ; in Poems on Affairs of State, vol. i., 1703; and in the Roxburghe 
Collection of Ballads. 

A tune called TJie Painter is sometimes mentioned, and it appears to be 
another name for this air, because the ballad of " The Painter's Pastime : or a 
woman defined after a new fashion," &c., was to be sung to the tune of Cook 
Laurel. A black-letter copy is in the Douce Collection (printed by P. Brooksby, 
at the Golden Ball, &c.). 

Some copies of the tune are in a major, others in a minor key. The four lines 
here printed to it are from an Antidote to Melancholy, 1651, for, although some 
of the ballads above quoted are witty, they would not be admissible in the 
present day. 



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162 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



FORTUNE MY FOE. 

The tune of Fortune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book; in William 
Ballet's MS. Lute Book; in Vallet's Tablature de Luth, book i., 1615, and 
book ii., 1616; in Bellerophon, 1622; in Nederlandtsche Q-edenck-Clanck, 1626 ; in 
Dr. Camphuysen's Stichtelyclce Rymen, 1652 ; and in other more recent publica- 
tions. In the Dutch books above quoted, it is always given as an English air. 

A ballad " Of one complaining of the mutability of Fortune" was licensed to 
John Charlewood to print in 1565-6 (See Collier's Ex. Reg. Stat. Gomp., p. 139). 
A black-letter copy of " A sweet sonnet, wherein the lover exclaimeth against 
Fortune for the loss of his lady's favour, almost past hope to get it again, and in 
the end receives a comfortable answer, and attains his desire, as may here appear : 
to the tune of Fortune my foe P is in the Bagford Collection of Ballads (643 m., 
British Museum). It begins as follows: — 
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There are twenty-two stanzas, of four lines each, in the above. 

Fortune my foe is alluded to by Shakespeare in The Merry Wives of Windsor, 
act ii., sc. 3 ; and the old ballad of Titus Andronicus, upon which Shakespeare 
founded his play of the same name, was sung to the tune. A copy of that ballad 
is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 892, and reprinted in Percy's Meliques. 

Ben Jonson alludes to Fortune my foe, in The case is altered, and in his masque 
The Gipsies Metamorphosed; Beaumont and Fletcher, in TJie Custom of the 
Country, The Knight of the Burning Pestle, and The Wild Goose Cliase ; Lilly 
gives the first verse in his Maydes Metamorphosis, 1600 ; Chettle mentions the 
tune in Kind-harfs Dreame, 1592 ; Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621 ; 
Shirley, in The Gi-ateful Servant, 1630 ; Brome, in his Antipodes, 1638. See 



KEIQN OF ELIZABETH. 163 

also Lodge's Rosalind, 1590 ; Lingua, 1607 ; Every Woman in her humour, 1609 ; 
The Widoiv's Tears, 1612 ; Henry Hutton's Follie's Anatomie, 1619 ; Tlie tivo 
merry Milkmaids, 1620 ; Vox Borealis, 1641 ; The Rump, or Mirror of the 
Times, 1660 ; Tomh Ussence, 1677, &c. In Forbes' Oantus, 1682, is a parody 
on Fortune my foe, beginning, Satan my foe, fidl of iniquity, with which the tune 
is there printed. 

One reason for the great popularity of this air is that " the metrical lamenta- 
tions of extraordinary criminals have been usually chanted to it for upwards of 
these two hundred years." Rowley alludes to this in his Noble Soldier, 1634: 
" Tlie King ! shall I be bitter 'gainst the King ? 
I shall have scurvy ballads made of me, 
Sung to the hanging tune ! " 
And in " The penitent Traytor : the humble petition of a Devonshire gentleman, 
who was condemned for treason, and executed for the same, anno 1641," the 
last verse but two runs thus : 

" How could I bless thee, couldst thou take away 
My life and infamy both in one day ? 
But this in ballads will survive I know, 
Sung to that preaching tune, Fortune my foe" 
The last is from " Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament." 

Deloney's ballad, " The Death of King John," in his Strange Histories, 1607 ; 
and " The most cruel murder of Edward V., and his brother the Duke of York, 
in the Tower, by their uncle, the Duke of Gloucester" (reprinted in Evans' Old 
Ballads, iii. 13, ed. 1810), are to this tune; but ballads of this description which 
were sung to it are too many for enumeration. In the first volume of the Rox- 
burghe Collection, at pages 136, 182, 376, 392, 486, 487, 488, and 490, are 
ballads to the tune of Fortune, and all about mm-ders, last dying speeches, or 
some heavy misfortunes. 

In the Pepys' Collection, i. 68, is a ballad of " The lamentable burning of the 
city of Cork, by the lightning which happened the last day of May, 1622, after 
the prodigious battle of the stares" {i.e., starlings), "which fought most strangely 
over and near the city the 12th and 14th May, 1621." 

Two other ballads require notice, because the tune is often referred to under 
their names, Dr. Faustus, and Aim not too high. The first, according to the title 
of the ballad, is " The Judgment of God shewed upon Dr. John Faustus : tune, 
Fortune my foe.'''' A copy is in the Bagford Collection.^ It is illustrated by two 
woodcuts at the top : one representing Dr. Faustus signing the contract with the 
devil ; and the other shewing him standing in a magic circle, with a wand in his 
left hand, and a sword with flame running up it, in his right: a little devil 
seated on his right arm. Richard Jones had a licence to print the baUad " of the 
life and deathe of Dr. Faustus, the gi-eat cungerer," on the 28th Feb., 1588-9. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 434, is " Youth's warning piece," &c., " to the 
tune of Dr. Faustus;^' printed for A. K., 1636. And in Dr. Wild's Iter 
Boreale, 1671, " The recantation of a penitent Proteus," &c., to the tune of 
Dr. Faustus. 

" It is also printed iti my Nit/ionnl English Airs, quarto, part i., 183S. 



164 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

The other name is derived from — 

" An excellent song, wherein you shall finde 
Great consolation for a troubled mind. 
To the txme oi Fortu7ie my foe." Commencing thus : 

"Ayme not too Me in things above thy reach ; 
Be not too foolish in thine owne conceit ; 
As thou hast wit and worldly wealth at will, 
So give Him thanks that shall encreaae it still," &c. 
This ballad is also in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 106., printed by the "Assignes 
of Thomas Symcocke : " and, in the same, others to the tune of Aim not too high 
will be found, viz., in vol. i., at pages 70, 78, 82, 106, 132, and 482 ; ui vol. ii., 
at pages 128, 130, 189, 202, 283, 482, and 562, &c. 

In the Douce Collection there is a ballad of "The manner of the King's" 
[Charles the First's] " Trial at Westminster Hall," &c. ; " the tune is Aim not 
too high.'''' 

DEATH AND THE LADY. 

Death and the Lady is one of a series of popular ballads which had their rise 
from the celebrated Dance of Death. A Dance of Death seems to be alluded to 
in The Vision of Pierce Plowman, written about 1350 : 

" Death came driving after, and al[l] to dust pashed 
Kyngs and Kaisars, Knights and Popes ;" 
but the subject was rendered especially popular in England by Lydgate's free 
translation from a French version of the celebrated German one by Machaber. 

Eepresentations of The Dance of Death were frequently depicted upon the 
walls of cloisters and cathedrals. Sir Thomas More speaks of one " pictured in 
Paules," of which Stow, in his Survey of London, gives the following account : — 
" John Carpenter, town clerk of London in the reign of Henry VI., caused, with 
great expense, to be curiously painted upon board, about the north cloister of 
Paul's, a monument of Death leading all estates, with the speeches of Death, and 
answer of every state. This cloister was pulled down in 1549." 

On the walls of the Hungerford Chapel in Salisbury Cathedral was a painting 
executed about 1460, representing Death holding conversation with a young 
gallant, attired in the fullest fashion, who thus addresses him : — 
" Alasse, Dethe, alasse ! a hlessful thing thou were 
If thou woldyst spare us in our lustynesse. 
And cum to wretches that hethe of he[a]vy chere. 
When they thee clepe [call] to slake their dystresse. 
But, owte alasse 1 thyne owne sely self-willdnesse 
Crewelly we[a]rieth them that sighe, wayle, and weepe, 
To close their eyen that after thee doth clepe." 
To which Death gloomily replies : 

" Graceles Gallante, in all thy luste and pryde 
Rememhyr that thou ones schalte dye ; 
De[a]th shold fro' thy body thy sonle devyde, 
Thou mayst him not escape, certaynly. 



BEIGN OP ELIZABETH. 165 

To the de[a]de bodys cast downe thyne eye, 
Behold them well, consyder and see, 
For such as they are, such shalt thou he." 
Among the Roxburghe Ballads is one entitled " Death's unconti'oUable sum- 
mons, or the mortality of mankind; being a dialogue between Death and a young 
man," which very much resembles the verses in the Hungerford Chapel, above 
quoted. We have also " The dead man's song," reprinted in Evans' Collection, 
"Death and the Cobbler," and "Death's Dance," proving the popularity of these 
moralizations on death. Another "Dance and Song of Death," which was 
licensed in 1568, has been printed at page 85. 

In the Douce Collection is a black-letter copy of " The midnight messenger, or 
a sudden call from an earthly glory to the cold grave, in a dialogue between Death 
and a rich man," &c., beginning — 

" Thou wealthy man, of large possessions here, 
Amounting to some thousand pounds a year. 
Extorted by oppression from the poor. 
The time is come that thou shalt be no more," &c. ; 
which is reprinted in Dixon's Songs of the Peasantry, &c. 

In Mr. Payne Collier's MS. volume, written in the reign of James I., is a 
dialogue of twenty-four stanzas, between " Life and Death," commencing — 
Life. — " Nay, what art thou, that I should give 
To thee my parting breath ? 
Why may not I much longer live ? " 
Death. — " Behold ! my name is Death." 
lAfe. — ".I never have seen thy face before ; 
Now tell me why thou came : 
I never wish to see it more — 
Death. — " Behold I Death is my name," &c. 
The following " Dialogue betwixt an Exciseman and Death " is from a copy in 
the Bagford Collection, dated 1659. 

Upon a time when Titan's steeds were driven Sjpeake, what's thy name? and quickly tell 
To drench themselves against the western me this, 

heaven ; Whither thou goest, and what thy bus'ness is ? 
And sable Morpheus had his curtains spread, exciseman. 

And silent night had laid the world to bed, Whate'er my bus'ness is, thou foule-mouthed 
'Mongst other night-birds which did seek for scould, 

prey, I'de have you know I scorn to be coutroul'd 

A blunt exciseman, which abhorr'd the day, By any man that lives ; much less by thou. 

Was rambling forth to seeke himself a booty Who blurtest out thou knowst not what, nor 
'Mongst merchants' goods which had not paid how ; 

the duty : 1 goe about my lawful bus'ness ; and 

But walking all alone, Death chanc'd to meet I'le make you smarte forbidding of mee stand. 

him, DEATH. 

And in this manner did begin to greet him. Imperious cox-combe I is your stomach vext ? 

DEATH. Pray slack your rage, and harkeii what comes 
Stand, who comes here? what means this knave next : 

to peepe I have a writt to take you up ; therefore, 

And sculke abroad, when honest men should To chafe your blood, I bid you stand, once 

sleepe ? more. 



166 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



EXCISEMAN. 

A writt to take mee up ! excuse mee, sir, 
You doe mistake, I am an officer 
In publick service, for my private wealth ; 
My bus'ness is, if any seeke by stealth 
To undermine the states, I doe discover 
Their falsehood ; therefore hold your hand, — 
give over. 

DEATH. 

Nay, fair and soft ! 'tis not so quickly done 
As you conceive it is : I am not gone 
A jott the sooner, for your hastie chat 
Nor bragging language ; for I tell you flat 
'Tis more than so, though fortune seeme to 

thwart us. 
Such easie terms I don't intend shall part us. 
With this impartial arme I'll make you feele 
My fingers first, and with this shaft of Steele 
I'le peck thy bones ! as thou alive wert hated, 
So dead, to doggs thou shalt be segregated. 

EXCISEMAN. 

I'de laugh at that ; I would thou didst but dare 
To lay thy fingers on me ; I'de not spare 
To hack thy carkass till my sword was broken, 
I'de make thee eat the wordes which thou hast 

spoken ; 
All men should warning take by thy trans- 
gression. 
How they molested men of my profession. 
My service to the states is so welle known. 
That I should but complaine, they'd quickly 

owne 
My publicke grievances ; and give mee right 
To cut your eares, before to-morrow night. 

DEATH. 

Well said, indeed ! but bootless all, for I 
Am well acquainted with thy villanie; 
I know thy office, and thy trade is such. 
Thy service little, and thy gaines are much : 
Thy braggs are many; but 'tis vaine to swagger. 
And thinke to fighte mee with thy guilded 

dagger : 
As I abhor thy person, place, and threate. 
So now I'le bring thee to the judgement seate. 



EXCISEMAN. 

The judgement seate I I must confess that 

word 
Doth cut my heart, like any sharpned sword : 
What! come t' account! methinks the dreadful 

sound 
Of every word doth make a mortal wound, 
Which sticks not only in ray outward skin, 
But penetrates my very soule within. 
'Twas least of all my thoughts that ever Death 
Would once attempt to stop excisemen's breath. 
But since 'tis so, that now I doe perceive 
You are in earnest, then I must relieve 
Myself another way : come, wee'l be friends. 
If I have wronged thee, I'le make th' amendes. 
Let's joyne together ; I'le pass my word this 

night 
Shall yield us grub, before the morning light. 
Or otherwise (to mitigate my sorrow), 
Stay here, I'le bring you gold enough to- 
morrow. 

DEATH. 

To-morrow's gold I will not have ; and thou 
Shalt have no gold upon to-morrow : now 
My final writt shall to th' execution have thee, 
All earthly treasure cannot help or save thee. 

EXCISEMAN. 

Then woe is mee ! ah ! how was I befool'd ! 
I thought that gold (which answereth all 

things) could 
Have stood my friend at any time to baile mee ! 
But griefe growes great, and now my trust doth 

faile me. 
Oh ! that my conscience were but clear within, 
Which now is racked with my former sin ; 
With horror I behold my secret stealing. 
My bribes, oppression, and my graceless deal- 
ing I 
My office-sins, which I had clean forgotten. 
Will gnaw my soul when all my bones are 

rotten : 
I must confess it, very griefe doth force mee, 
Dead or alive, both God and man doth curse 

mee, 
Let all excisemen hereby warning take. 
To shun their practice for their conscience sake. 



Of all the ballads on the subject of Death, the most popular, however, was 
Death and the Lady. In Mr. George Daniel's Collection there is a ballad 
"imprinted at London by Alexander Lacy" (about 1572), at the end of which 
is a still older woodcut, representing Death and the Lady. ' It has been used as 
an ornament to fill up a blank in one to which it bears no reference ; but was, in 
all probability, engraved for this, or one on the same subject. The tunc is in 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



167 



Henry Carey's Musical Century, 1738. He calls it " the old tune of Death and 
the Lady." Also in Tlic Cohhler's Opera, 1729 ; The Fashionable Lady ; and 
many others about the same date. 

The oldest copies of Aim not too high direct it to be sung to the tune of Fortune, 
but there is one class of ballads, said to be to the tune of Aim not too high, that 
could not well be sung to that air. The accent oi Fortune my foe is on the first 
syllable of each line; exactly agreeing with the tune. But these ballads on 
Death have the accent on the second, and agree with the tune of Death and the 
Lady. See, for instance, the four lines above quoted from The Dialogue hetiveen 
Death and the rich man, which the black-letter copies direct to be sung to the 
tune of Aim not too high. I believe, therefore, that Aim not too high had either 
a separate tune, which is the same I find under the name of Death and the Lady, 
or else, Fortune, being altered by the singer for the accent of those ballads, and 
sung in a major key, gradually acquu-ed a different shape. (Many of these airs 
are found both in major and minor keys.) This would account for Fortune and 
Aim not too high being so frequently cited as different tmies in ballads printed 
about the same period. 

I suppose, then, that ballads to the tune of Aim- not too high may be either 
to Fortune, or Death and the Lady; a point to be determined generally by the 
accent of the words. 

The ballad of Death and the Lady is printed in a small volume entitled A Guide 
to Heaven, 12mo., 1736 ; and it is twice mentioned in Goldsmith's popular tale, 
The Vicar of Wakefield, fii-st printed in 1776. 

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168 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



What bold attempt is this ? pray let me know 
From whence you come, and whither I must go ! 
Shall I, who am a lady, stoop or bow 
To such a pale-fac'd visage? Who art thou? 

DEATH. 

Do you not know me? Well, I'll tell you, then : 
'Tis I who conquer all the sons of men ! 
No pitch of honour from my dart is free ; 
My name is Death ! have you not heard of me ? 

LADY. 

Yes, I have heard of thee time after time ; 
But, being in the glory of my prime, 
I did not think you would have called so soon. 
Why must my sun go down before its noon ? 

DEATH. 

Talk not of noon ! you may as well be mute ; 
This is no more the time for to dispute : 
Your riches, jewels, gold, and garments brave — 
Houses and lands, must all new masters have. 
Though thy vain heart to riches was inclin'd. 
Yet thou must die, and leave them all behind. 

LADY. 

My heart is cold ; I tremble at the news ! 
Here's bags of gold if thou wilt me excuse, 
And seize on them : and finish thou the strife 
Of those that are most weary of their life. 
Are there not many bound in prison strong. 
In bitter grief of soul have languish'd long? 
All such would find the grave a place of rest 
From all the griefs by which they are opprest. 
Besides, there's many both with hoary head, 
And palsied joints, from which all strength is 

fled. 
Release thou those, whose sorrows are so great. 
But spare my life to have a longer date. 

DEATH. 

Though they, by age, are full of grief and 

pain, 
Yet their appointed time they must remain. 
I come to none before their warrant's seal'd. 
And when it is, all must submit and yield ; 
I take no bribe, believe me this is true ; 
Prepare yourself, for now I come for you. 

LADY. 

Be not severe ! O Death ! let me obtain 
A little longer time to live and reign ! 
Fain would I stay, if thou my life wilt spare, 
I have a daughter, beautiful and fair ; 
I'd live to see her wed, whom I adore; 
Grant me but this, and I will ask no more. 



DEATH. 

This is a slender, frivolous excuse, 

I have you fast, and will not let you loose ; 

Leave her to Providence, for you must go 

Along with me, whether you will or no. 

I, Death, command e'en kings to leave their 

crown. 
And at my feet they lay their sceptres down. 
If unto kings this favour I don't give. 
But cut them off, can you expect to live 
Beyond the limits of your time and space? 
No ! I must send you to another place. 

LADY. 

You learned doctors, now express your skill. 
And let not Death of me obtain his will ; 
Prepare your cordials, let me comfort find, 
And gold shall fly like chaff before the wind ! 

DEATH. 

Forbear to call, their skill will never do. 
They are but mortals here, as well as you ; 
I gave the fatal wound, my dart is sure ; 
'Tis far beyond the doctor's skill to cure. 
How freely can you let your riches fly 
To purchase life, rather than yield to die ! 
But while you flourish'd here in all your store. 
You would not give one penny to the poor. 
Who in God's name their suit to you did make ; 
You would not spare one penny for His sake. 
The Lord beheld wherein you did amiss. 
And calls you hence to give account for this. 

LADY. 

Oh, heavy news ! must I no longer stay? 
How shall I stand at the great judgment day." 
Down from her eyes the crystal tears did flow : 
She said, "None knows what now I undergo. 
Upon a bed of sorrow here I lie. 
My carnal life makes me afraid to die ; 
My sins, alas ! are many, gross, and foul. 
Lord Jesus Christ have mercy on my soul ! 
And though I much deserve thy righteous 

frown, 
Yet pardon. Lord, and send a blessing down ! " 

Then, with a dying sigh, her heart did break, 
And she the pleasures of this world forsake. - 
Thus do we see the high and mighty fall. 
For cruel death shows not respect at all 
To any one of high or low degree : 
Great men submit to death, as well as we. 
If old or young, our life is but a span — 
A lump of clay — so vile a creature's man. 
Then happy they whom Christ has made his 

care — 
Die in the Lord, and ever blessed are ! 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



169 



THE KING AND THE MILLER OF MANSFIELD. 

This tune was found by Dr. Rimbault in a MS. volume of virginal music in the 
possession of T. Birch, Esq., of Repton, Derbyshire. The black-letter copies of 
the ballad of King Eenry II. and the Miller of Mansfield, direct it to be sung to 
the tune of The French Levalto, and, as the air was found under that name, it 
may be a French tune, although neither Dr. Rimbault nor I think it so. The 
progression of the last four notes in each part is very English in character. 

There are copies of the ballad in the Roxbm-ghe Collection (v. i. 178 and 228) ; 
in the Bagford (p. 25) ; and ia the Pepys. It is also in Old Ballads, 1727, 
v. i., p. 53 ; and in Percy's Beliques, series 3, book ii. Tlie French Levalto is 
frequently referred to as a ballad tune. 
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170 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



All a long summer's day rode the king pleasantlye, 

With all his princes and nobles eche one ; 
Chasing the hart and hind, and the bucke gallantlye, 

Till the darke evening forc'd all to turne home. 
Then at last, riding fast, he had lost quite 
All his lords in the wood, late in the night. 

Wandering thus wearilye, all alone, up and downe, 

With a rude miller he mett at the last : 
Asking the ready way unto faire Nottingham ; 

Sir, quoth the miller, I meane not to jest. 
Yet I thinke, what I thinke, sooth for to say, 
You doe not lightlye ride out of your way. 

Why, what dost thou thinke of me, quoth our king merrily 
Passing thy judgment upon me so briefe ? 

Good faith, sayd the miller, I meane not to flatter thee; 
I guess thee to be but some gentleman thiefe ; 

Stand thee backe, in the darke; light not adowne, 

Lest that I presentlye crack thy knaves crowns. &c. 



LITTLE MUSGRAVE AND LADY BARNARD. 

This ballad is quoted in Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, and Monsieur 
TJiomas ; in The Varietie, 1649 ; and in Davenant's The Wits, where Twack, an 
antiquated beau, boasting of his qualifications, says — 

" Besides, I sing Little Musgrove ; and then 
For Chevy Chase no lark comes near me." 
A copy of the ballad is in the Bagford Collection, entitled " A lamentable 
ballad of Little Musgrove and the Lady Barnet, to an excellent new time." It is 
also in Wit restored, 1658 ; in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iii. 312 (1716) ; and 
in Percy's Reliques, series 3, book i. 

The tune is the usual traditional version. 
GracefuUi). 






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As it fell out on a high holiday, As many there be in the year, When 



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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



171 



THE GIPSIES' ROUND. 
The tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 

Whenever gipsies are introduced in old plays, we find some allusions to their 
singing, dancing, or music, and generally a variety of songs to be sung by them. 
In Middleton's Spanish Gipsy, Roderigo, being invited to turn gipsy, says — 
"I can neither dance, nor sing; but if my pen 
From my invention can strike music tunes. 
My head and brains are yours." 
In other words, " I think I can invent tunes, and therefore have one qualification 
for a gipsy, although I cannot dance, nor sing." 

By Round is here meant a country dance. Counti'y dances were formerly danced 
quite as much in rounds as in parallel lines ; and in the reign of Elizabeth were 
in favour at court, as well as at the May-pole. In the Talbot papers. Herald's 
College, is a letter from the Earl of Worcester to the Earl of Shrewsbury, dated 
Sep. 19th, 1602, in which he says, " We are frolic here in court ; much dancing 
in the privy chamber of country dances before the Queen's Majesty, who is 
much pleased therewith." — (Lodge, iii. 577.) 

Boldly. 



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THE LEGEND OF SIR GUY. 



This ballad was entered to Richard Jones on Jan. 6th, 1591-2, as "A plesante 
songe of the valiant actes of Guy of Warwicke, to the tune of Was ever man so 
tost in love." The copy in the Bagford Collection (p. 19) is entitled " A pleasant 
song of the valiant deeds of chivalry achieved by that noble knight, Sir Guy of 
Warwick, who, for the love of fair Phillis, became a hermit, and died in a cave of 



172 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC, 



a craggy rock, a mile distant from Warwick. Tune, Was ever man, &c." Other 
copies are in the Pepys Collection ; Roxburghe, iii. 50 ; and in Percy's Reliques, 
series 3, book ii. 

It is quoted in Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, act ii., sc. 8 ; and in 
Tlie little French Lawyer, act ii., sc. 3. 

William of Nassyngton (about 1480) mentions stories of Sir Guy as usually 
sung by minstrels at feasts. (See ante page 45.) Puttenham, in his Art of 
Poetry, 1589, says they were then commonly sung to the harp at Christmas 
dinners and bride-ales, for the recreation of the lower classes. And in Dr. King's 
Dialogues of the Dead, "It is the negligence of our ballad singers that makes us to 
be talked of less than others : for who, almost, besides St. G-eorge, King Arthur, 
Bevis, Guy, and Hichathrift, are in the chronicles." — (Vol. i., p. 153.) 

This tune is from the ballad-opera of Robin Hood, 1730, called Sir Guy. 



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Was ever knight for la-dy's sake Sotoss'din love as I, Sir Guy ! For Phillis 



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love she would grant me. Which made me ven - ture far and near. 



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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



173 



LOTH TO DEPAKT. 

Tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, where it is arranged by Giles 
Farnaby. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Wii at several Weapons, act ii., sc. 2, Pompey 
makes his exit singing Loath to depart. In Middleton's The Old Law, act iv., 
sc. 1, " The old woman is loath to depart; she never sung other tune in her life." 
In the ballad of Arthur of Bradley, which exists in black-letter, and in the Anti- 
dote to Melancholy, 1661, are the following lines : — 

" Then Will and his sweetheart 

Did call for Loth to depart." 

Also in Chapman's Widoiu's Tears, 1612 ; Vox Borealis, 1641; and many others. 

A Loth to depart was the common term for a song sung, or a tune played, on 
taking leave of friends. So in a Discourse on Marine Affairs (Harl. MSS., 
No. 1341) we find, "Being again returned into his barge, after that the trumpets 
have sounded a Loathe to departe, and the barge is fallen off a fit and fair birth 
and distance from the ship-side, he is to be saluted with so many guns, for an 
adieu, as the ship is able to give, provided that they be always of an odd 
number." — (Quoted in a note to Teonge's Diary, p. 5.) In Tarlton's Neivs out of 
Piirgatory, (about 1589), "And so, with a Loath to depart, they took their 
leaves ; " and in the old play of Damon and Pithias, when Damon takes leave, 
saymg, " Loth am I to depart," he adds, " Music, sound my doleful plaints 
when I am gone away," and the regals play " a mourning song." 

The following are the words of a round in D enter omelia, 1609 : — 
" Sing with thy mouth, sing with thy heart, 
Like faithful friends, sing Loath to depart; 
Though friends together may not always remain, 
Yet Loath to depart sing once again." 

The four lines here printed to the tune, are part of a song called " Loth to 
depart," in Wifs Lnterpreter, 1671. It is also in TJie Loyal Q-arland ; and, with 
some alteration, in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv., 80. It is there attributed to 
Mr. J. Donne. 



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Lie near my dear! why dost thourise? The light that shines, comes fiom thine eyes 



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174 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



QUEEJSr ELEANOR'S CONFESSION. 

This is the traditional tune to the ballad which is printed in Percy's Reliques^ 
of Ancient Poetry (No. 8, series ii., book 2). A copy is in the Bagford Collection, 
i. 26, to be sung to "a pleasant new tune." 
Moderate time. 






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Queen Eleanor was a sick ■woman, And a-fraid that she should die, Then 



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ESSEX'S LAST GOOD-NIGHT, or WELL-A-DAY. 

This air is contained in Elizabeth Rogers' MS. Virginal Book (Brit. Mus.) ; 
and in a transcript of virginal music made by Sir John Hawkins, now in the pos- 
session of Dr. Rimbault. In the former it is entitled Essex's last Grood-night, and 
there are but eight bars in the tune ; the latter is called Well-a-day, and consists 
of sixteen bars. 

The ballad of Essex's last Good-nigld is in the Pepys Collection, i. 106 ; and 
Roxburghe, i. 101, and 185. In the Pepys Collection it is called "A lamentable 
new ballad upon the Earl of Essex his death ; to the tune of Tlie King's last 
Good-nighty In the Roxburghe, i. 101, to the tune of Essex's last Oood-night. 
It is printed in Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 167 (1810) ; but, as usual, without the 
name of the tune. The first verse of the Pepys copy is as follows : — 
" All you that cry hone, O hone ! [alas], 
Come now and sing Lord with me ; 
For why our jewel is from us gone, 

The valiant knight of chivalry. 
Of rich and poor belov'd was he ; 
In time an honorable knight ; 
When by our laws condemn'd was he. 
And lately took his last Good-night." 
This is on the death of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex (father of Queen Eliza- 
beth's favorite), who died in Dublin, in 1576. Another on the same subject, and 
in the same metre, has been printed by Mr. Payne Collier, in his Extracts from 
the Registers of the Stationers' Company, ii. 35 ; beginning thus : — 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 175 

" Lament, lament, for he is dead 

Who serv'd his priuce most faithfully ; 
Lament, each subject, and the head 

Of this our realm of Brittany. 
Our Queen has lost a soldier true ; 
Her subjects lost a noble friend : 
Oft for his queen his sword he drew, 

And for her subjects blood did spend," &c. 
The ballad of Well-a-day is entitled " A lamentable dittie composed upon the 
death of Robert Lord Devereux, late Earle of Essex, who was beheaded in the 
Tower of London, upon Ash Wednesday, in the morning, 1601. To the tune of 
Well-a-day. Imprinted at London for Margret Allde, &c., 1603. Reprinted in 
Payne Collier's Old Ballads, 124, 8vo., 1840 ; and in Evans', iii. 158. Copies 
are also in the Bagford and Roxburghe Collections (i. 184) ; and Harl. MSS., 
293. The first verse is here given with the tune. 

The ballads to the tune of Essex's last Good-night are in quite a different metre 
to those which were to be sung to Well-a-day ; and either the melody consisted 
originally of but eight bars, and those bars were repeated for the last four lines 
of each stanza, or else the second part differed from my copy. 

Well-a-day seems to be older than the date of the death of either Earl, because, 
in 1566-7, Mr. Wally had a license to print "the second Well-a-day" (Ux. Reg. 
Stat., i. 151.) ; and, in 1569-70, Thomas Colwell, to print " A new Well-a-day, 
As plain. Mi-. Papist, as Dunstable way." 

To " sing well-away " was proverbial even in Chaucer's time ; for in the pro- 
logue to the Wife of Bath's Tale, speaking of her husbands, she says (lines 
5597-600) " I sette [t]hem so on werke, by my fay ! 

That many a night thay songen weylaway. 
The bacoun was nought fet for hem, I trowe. 
That som men fecche in Essex at Dunmowe." * 
And in the Shipman's Tale, " For I may synge alias and waylaway that I was 
born." So in the Oivl and the Nightingale, one of our earliest original poems, the 
owl says to the nightingale — 

" Thu singest a night, and noght a dai, 
And al thi song is wail awai." 
In the sixteenth century we find a similar passage in Nicholas Breton's Farewell 
to town — " I must, ah me ! wretch, as I may, 

Go sing the song of Welaway." 
The ballads sung to one or other of these tunes are very numerous. Among 
them are — 

" Sir Walter Rauleigh his Lamentation," &c., " to the tune of Well-a-day. 
Pepys Collection, i. Ill, b. l. 

" The arraignment of the Devil for stealing away President Bradshaw." Tune, 
Well-a-day, tvell-a-day. (King's Pamphlets, vol. 15, or Wright's Political 
Ballads, 139.) 

•^ The claiming the Flitch of Bacon at Dimmow was fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. See also a song in 
a custom to which frequent allusions are made in the ReliquicE AiiiiqiK^, ii. 29. 



176 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" The story of 111 May-day, &c., and how Queen Catherine begged the lives of 
2,000 London apprentices." Tune JEssex's Crood-night. {Grown Grarland of 
G-olden Roses, or Evans, iii. 76.) 

"The doleful death of Queen Jane, wife of Henry VIH.," &c. "Tune, 
The Lamentation of the Lord of Essex. ''^ [Grown G-arland, or Evans, iii. 92.) 

A Carol, to the tune of Essex's last Q-ood-night, dated 1661. (Wright's 
Carols.) — " All you that in this house be here, 

Remember Christ that for us died ; 
And spend away with modest cheer, 
In loving sort this Christmas-tide," &c. 
Several other tunes were named after the Earl of Essex. Li Dr. Camphuysen's 
Stichtelycke Hymen (4to., Amsterdam, 1647) is one called Essex'' s Cralliard, and. 
another Essex^s Lamentation. The last is the same air as What if a day, or a 
month, or a year. 

In The World's Folly (b.l.) a widow "would sing The Lamentatimi of a Sinner, 
to the tune of Well-a-daye." 
Slow. 



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Sweet England's prize is gone! Well -a- day, well - a-day ; ^1,' i t l • 



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sigh and groan E-ver - more still 



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THE FIT'S COME ON ME NOW. 



This song is quoted by Valentine in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit without 
money, act v., sc. 4., where a verse is printed. 

One of my friends recollects his nurse singing a ballad with the burden — 
" I must and will get married, 

The fit's upon me now." 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



177 



The tune is from the seventh edition of The Dancing Master. In some later 
editions it is called The Bishop of Chester's Jig, or Thefifs come on me now. 

Cheerfully. 






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The fit's up - on me now, The fit's up - on 



me now. Come 



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quick-ly gen - tie lady, The fit's up - on me now. The world shall know tliey 're fools. And 



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MALL SIMS. 

This favorite old dance tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in Morley's 
Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611 ; in Rossiter's Consort Lessons, 1609 ; in Vallet's 
Tahlature de Lutk, intitule Le Secret des Muses, book i., 4to., Amsterdam, 1615, 
entitled " Bal Anglois, Mai Simmes ;" also in the second book of the same work, 
1616 ; in Nederlandtsclie Gredench-Clank, 1626 ; in Camphuysen's Stichtehjcke 
B2jmen,1647 (called "The English Echo, or Malsims"); in the Skene MS., &c. 

It is most likely one of the old harpers' tunes, as it has quite the character of 
harp music. In Rossiter's Consort Lessons, 1609, in which the names of the com- 
posers are given to every other air, this is marked Incertus: and if imknown 
then, it is probably much older than the date of the book. 

In Wit Restored, 1658, is the ballad of " The Miller and the King's Daughters," 
written by Dr. James Smith, in which this tune is mentioned : 
" What did he doe with her two shinnes ? 
Unto the violl they danc't 3Ioll Syms." 



178 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Pompously. 



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CRIMSON VELVET. 

This tune is found in one of the Dutch collections, Friesche I/ust-Hof, by Jan 
Jansz Starter, the edition printed at Amsterdam in 1634. It is called " 'Twas a 
youthful Knight, which loved a galjant Lady," which is the first line of the 
ballad of " Constance of Cleveland: to the tune of Crimson Velvet.''^ The 
ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, iii. 94, and in Collier's Roxburghe 
Ballads, p. 163. 

The tune of Crimson Velvet was, as Mr. Collier remarks, " highly popular in 
the reigns of Elizabeth and her successor." Among the ballads that were sung 
to it, are " The lamentable complaint of Queen Mary, for the unkind departure of 
King Philip, in whose absence she fell sick and died ; " beginning — 

" Mary doth complain, 
Ladies, be you moved 
"S^'ith my lamentations 
And my bitter groans," &c. 
A copy in the Crown Garland of Golden Roses (reprint of edit, of 1659, p. 69). 
" An excellent ballad of a prince of England's courtship to the King of 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



179 



France's daughter, and liow the prince was disasterously slain; and how the 
aforesaid princess was afterwards married to a forrester ; " commencing — 
" In the daj's of old, 
When fair France did flourish," &c. 
Copies in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 102, the Bagford, the Pepys, Deloney's 
G-arland of good-will, and Percy's Reliques, series iii., book 2, 16. 
The following is the ballad of " Constance of Cleveland." 



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It was a youth-ful knight Lov'd a gal-lant la-dy, Fair she was and bright, 
Her-self she did be - have, So courteously as maybe, Wedded they were, brave; 



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And of vir - tues rare. Joy with -out com - pare. 



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Here be - gan the grief, 
Wo - men lewd of mind. 



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Be - ing bad in-clin'd. He on - ly lent a plea - sant look. The 



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180 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



His fair lady's words 

Nothing lie regarded ; 
Wantonness affords, 

To some, delightful sport ; 
While they dance and sing, 

With great mirth prepared. 
She her hands did wring 
In most grievous sort. 

Oh ! what hap had I, 

Thus to wail and cry, 
Unrespected every day. 

Living in disdain, 

While that others gain 
All the right I should enjoy ! 

I am left forsaken, 

Others they are taken ; 
Ah ! my love why dost thou so ? 

Her flatteries helieve not. 

Come to me and grieve not ; 
Wantons will thee overthrow. 

The knight, with his fair piece. 

At length the lady spied. 
Who did him daily fleece 

Of his wealth and store ; 
Secretly she stood, 

While she her fashions tiyed 
With a patient mind ; 

While deep the strumpet swore : 
" O sir knight," quoth she, 
"So dearly I love thee. 
My life doth rest at thy dispose. 

By day, and eke by night. 

For thy sweet delight 
Thou shalt me in thy arms enclose ; 

I am thine for ever, 

Still I will persever, 
True to thee where'er I go." 

Her flatteries believe not. 

Come to me and grieve not; 
Wantons will thee overthrow. 

The virtuous lady mild 

Enters then among them. 
Being big with child 

As ever she might be ; 
With distilling tears 

She looked then upon them, 
FilledJuH of fears. 

Thus replyed she : 
" Ah, my love and dear. 
Wherefore stay you here, 



Refusing me, your loving wife, 

For an harlot's sake. 

Which each one will take ; 
Whose vile deeds provoke much strife. 

Many can accuse her, 

O, my love, refuse her. 
With thy lady home return ; 

Her flatteries believe not. 

Come to me and grieve not; 
Wantons will thee overthrow." 

All in a fury then 

The angry knight upstarted. 
Very furious when 

He heard his lady's speech ; 
With many bitter terms 

His wife he ever thwarted. 
Using hard extremes 

While she did him beseech. 
From her neck so white 
He took away in spite 
Her curious chain of purest gold : 
Her jewels and her rings. 
And all such costly things. 
As he about her did behold ; 
The harlot, in her presence. 
He did gently reverence. 
And to her he gave them all. 
He sent away his lady. 
Full of woe as may be. 
Who in a swound with grief did fall. 

At the lady's wrong 

The harlot fleer'd and laughed ; 
Enticements are so strong, 

They overcome the wise : 
The knight nothing regarded 

To see the lady scoff'ed ; 
Thus she was rewarded 
For her enterprise. 

The harlot all this space 

Did him oft embrace ; 
She flatters him, and thus doth say : 
" For thee I'll die and live, 

For thee my faith I'll give. 
No woe shall work my love's decay; 

Thou shalt be my treasure. 

Thou shalt be my pleasure, 
Thou shalt be my heart's delight ; 

I will be thy darling, 

I will be thy worldling. 
In despite of fortune's spite." 



IIEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



181 



Thus did he remain 

In wasteful great expences, 
Till it bred his pain, 

And consum'd him quite. 
When his lands were spent, 

Troubled in his senses. 
Then he did repent 
Of his late lewd life ; 

For relief he hies, 

For relief he flies 
To them on whom he spent his gold; 

They do him deny. 

They do him defy. 
They will not once his face behold. 

Being thus distressed. 

Being thus oppressed. 
In the fields that night he lay ; 

Which the harlot knowing. 

Through her malice growing, 
Sought to take his life away. 

A young and proper lad 

They had slain in secret 
For the gold he had ; 

Whom they did convey. 
By a ruffian lewd. 

To that place directly. 
Where the youthful knight 
Fast a sleeping lay ; 

The bloody dagger, then, 

Wherewith they kill'd the man. 
Hard by the knight he likewise laid ; 

Sprinklhig him with blood, 

As be thought it good, 
And then no longer there he stay'd. 

The knight, being so abused, 

Was forthwith accused 
For this murder which was done ; 

And he was condemned 

That had not offended. 
Shameful death he might not shun. 

When the lady bright 

Understood the matter, 
That her wedded knight 

Was condemned to die, 
To the king she went 

With all the speed that might be. 
Where she did lament 
Her hard destiny. 
" Noble king," quoth she, 
" Pity take on me, 



And pardon my poor husband's life; 

Else I am undone, 

With my little son, 
Let mercy mitigate this grief." 
" Lady fair, content thee. 

Soon thou wouldst repent thee 
If he should be saved so ; 

Sore he hath abus'd thee, 

Sore he hath misus'd thee, 
Therefore, lady, let him go." 

" O, my liege," quoth she, 

" Grant your gracious favour; 
Dear he is to me. 

Though he did me wrong." 
The king replied again. 
With a stern behaviour, 
" A subject he hath slain. 

Die, he shall, ere long : 
Except thou canst find 
Any one so kind 
That will die and set him free." 
" Noble king," she said, 
" Glad am I apaid, 
That same person wUl I be. 
I will suffer duly, 
I will suffer truly, 
For my love and husband's sake." 
The king thereat amazed. 
Though he her beauty praised, [take. 
He bade from thence they should her 

It was the king's command, 

On the morrow after. 
She should out of hand 
To the scaffold go ; 
Her husband was 

To bear the sword before her ; 
He must, eke alas ! 

Give the deadly blow. 

He refus'd the deed, 

She bade him to proceed 
With a thousand kisses sweet. 

In this woeful case 

They did both embrace ; 
Which mov'd the ruffians in that place 

Straight for to discover 

This concealed murder ; 
Whereby the lady saved was. 

The harlot then was hanged. 

As she well deserved : 
This did virtue bring to pass. 



182 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



WALKING IN A COUNTRY TOWN. 

The tune from Robinson's ScJioole of Musicke, 1603, called Walking in a 
country town. In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 412, is a ballad beginning 
" Walking in a meadow green," and, from the similarity of the lines, and the 
measure of the verse so exactly suiting the air, I infer this to be the tune of both. 
The latter was printed by John Trundle, at the sign of the Nobody in Barbican, 
rendered famous by Ben Jonson, who in his Every man in his Humour, makes 
Rnowell say, " Well, if he read this with patience, I'll ' go,' and troll ballads for 
Master John Trundle yonder, the rest of my mortality." 

It is entitled " The two Leicestershire Lovers : to the tune of And yet methinks 
I love thee." The first stanza is here printed to the music. 

The last line of the verse is, "Upon the meadow brow," and Tlie meadow brow 
is often quoted as a tune. So in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 92, or Colliers's 
Roxburghe Ballads, p. 1, is " Death's Dance" (beginning, "If Death would come 
and shew his face"), " to be sung to a pleasant new tune called no, no, no, not 
yet, or TJie meadow brow." And Bishop Corbet's song, " Farewell, rewards and 
fairies," is " to be sung or whistled to the tune TJie meddoiv broiv by the learned : 
by the unlearned, to the tune of Fortune." — (Percy, series iii., book 2.) All 
might be sung to this time. 



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PHILLIDA FLOUTS ME. 
In The Croivn Garland of Golden Hoses, 1612, is " A short and sweet sonnet 
made by one of the Maides of Honor upon the death of Queene Elizabeth, which 
she sowed upon a sampler, in red silke: to a new tune, or Phillida flouts me;" 
beginning — " Gone is Elizabeth, 

^'STiom we have lov'd so dear," &c. 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



183 



Patrick Carey also wrote a ballad to the tune of Pliillida jkuts me ; beginning — 
" Ned I she that likes thee now, 
Next week will leave thee ! " 
It is contained in his " Trivial Poems and Triolets, written in obedience to 
Mrs. Tomkin's commands, 20th August, 1651." In Walton's Angler, 1653, the 
Milkwoman asks, " What song was it, I pray ? Was it Come, shepherds, deck 
your heads, or As at noon Didcina rested, or Phillida flouts me ? " 

The ballad oi Phillida flouts me is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 142, and in 
the same volume, p. 24, " The Bashful Virgin, or The Secret Lover : tune of 
I am so deep in love, or Little boy, &c." It begms — 

" what a plague it is 
To be a lover ; 
Being denied the bliss 
For to discover," &c. 
This appears to be also to the air of Phillida flouts me, although the first line of 
that ballad is " Oh ! what a plague is love," not " I am so deep in love." 

The words and music are in Watts' Musical Miscellany, ii. 132 (1729), and an 
answer, beginning, " where's the plague in love." The tune is also in many of 
the ballad-operas, such as The Quaker'' s Opera, 1728 ; Love in a Riddle, 1729 ; 
Damon a?id Phillida, 1734, &c. 

Ritson printed the words in his Ancient Songs, from a copy in The Theatre of 
Compliments, or Neiv Academy, 1689, but did not discover the tune. 
Slowly and gracefully. 




O what a plague is love ! 
She will in - constant prove 



I can -not bear it; 
I great -ly fear it: 



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184 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



At the fair t'other day, 

As she pass'd by me. 
She look'd another way, 

And would not spy me. 
I woo'd her for to dine, 

But could not get her ; 
Dick had her to the Vine, 

He might intreat her. 
With Daniel she did dance, 
On me she would not glance ; 
Oh, thrice unhappy chance ! 
Phillida flouts me. 

Fair maid, be not so coy, 

Do not disdain me ; 
I am my mother's joy ; 

Sweet, entertain me. 
I shall have, when she dies, 

All things that's fitting ; 
Her poultry and her bees. 

And her goose sitting ; 
A pair of mattrass beds, 
A barrel full of shreds : 
And yet, for all these goods, 

Phillida flouts me. 

I often heard her say. 

That she lov'd posies ; 
In the last month of May 

I gave her roses. 
Cowslips and gilly-flowers. 

And the sweet lily, 
I got to deck the bow'rs 

Of my dear Philly. 
She did them all disdain, 
And threw them back again ; 
Therefore 'tis flat and plain 

Phillida flouts me. 

Thou shalt eat curds ond cream 

All the year lasting. 
And drink the ciystal stream. 

Pleasant in tasting : 
Swig whey until you burst, 

Eat bramble-berries. 



Pye-lid, and pastry-crust, 

Pears, plums, and cherries ; 
Thy garments shall be thin. 
Made of a wether's skin ; 
Yet all's not worth a pin : 

Phillida flouts me. 

Which way soe'er I go, 

She still torments me ; 
And, whatsoe'er I do. 

Nothing contents me : 
I fade, and pine away 

With grief and sorrow ; 
I fall quite to decay, 

Like any shadow ; 
I shall be dead, I fear, 
Within a thousand year, 
And all because my dear 

Phillida flouts me. 

Fair maiden, have a care, 

And in time take me ; 
I can have those as fair, 

If you forsake me ; 
There's Doll, the dairy-maid, 

Smil'd on me lately, 
And wanton Winifred 

Favours me greatly ; 
One throws milk on my clothes, 
T'other plays with my nose ; 
What pretty toys are those ! 
Phillida flouts me. 

She has a cloth of mine, 

Wrought with blue Coventry, 
Which she keeps as a sign 

Of my fidelity : 
But if she frowns on me. 

She shall ne'er wear it ; 
I'll give it my maid Joan, 

And she shall tear jt. 
Since 'twill no better be, 
I'll bear it patiently ; 
Yet, all the world may see, 

Phillida flouts me. 



LADY, LIE NEAR ME. 

This ballad is entitled " The longing Shepherdess, or Lady " pLiaddy] " lie 
near me." Copies are in the Pepys Collection, iii., 59, and Douce, p. 119, &c. 
It is also in the list of ballads that were printed by W. Thackeray, at the Angel, 
in Duck Lane. 

The tune (which bears a strong resemblance to Phillida flouts me) is in The 
Dancing Master, from the first edition in 1650, to the eighth in 1690. 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



185 



In Ritson's North Country Chorister there is another ballad, called " Laddy, lie 
near me" (beginning, "As I walked over hills, dales, and high mountains") ; and 
in 1793 Mr. George Thomson gave Burns a tune of that name, to wi-ite words to, 
which is now included in Scotch Collections. It differs wholly from this. 

Slowly and gracefully. ^^^^^^ 



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MILL-FIELD. 

In the collection of ballads and proclamations in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries is one by W. Elderton, entitled " A new ballad, declaring the great 
treason conspii-ed against the young King of Scots, and how one Andrew Browne, 
an Englishman, which was the King's Chamberlaine, prevented the same. To the 
tune of Milfield, or els to Greene sleeves." It was printed by " Yarathe James," 
to whom it was licensed on 30th May, 1581. 

The tune is in The Dancing Master from 1650 to 1658. The ballad in Percy's 
Beliques, series ii., book 2, No. 16. The first stanza is here mth the music. 



186 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Gracefully. 



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THE SPANISH LADY. 

Dr. Percy says, " this beautiful old ballad most probably took its rise from one 
of those descents made on the Spanish coasts in the time of Queen Elizabeth : 
and, in all likelihood, from the taking of the city of Cadiz (called by our sailors, 
corruptly. Gales), on June 21, 1596, mider the command of the Lord Howard, 
admiral, and of the Earl of Essex, general." 

The question as to who was the favored lover, has been fully discussed; it may 
therefore be sufficient here to refer the reader to Tlie Edinhnrgh Revieiv for April, 
1846 ; Tlie Times newspapers of April 30, and May 1, 1846 ; and The Quarterly 
Review for October, 1846. 

The ballad is quoted in Cupid's Wliirligig, 1616, and parodied in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight, 1633. In the Douce Collection, ii. 210 and 212, there 
are two copies, the one " to a pleasant new tune ; " the other (which is of later 
date) to the tune of Flying Fame ; but could not be sung to that air. In the 
same volume, p. 254, is " The Westminster Wedding, or Carlton's Epithalamium," 
(dated 1663) : to the tune of Tlie Spanish Lady. It commences thus : 
"Will you hear a German Princess, 
How she chous'd an English Lord," &c. 



REIGN OP ELIZABETH. 



187 



The tune is contained in the Skene MS., and in several of the ballad-operas, 
such as The Quaker's Opera, 1728 ; Tlie Jovial Crew, 1731, &c. 

The words are found in Tlie Garland of Grood-will, and in several of the cele- 
brated collections of ballads; also in Percy's Reliques, series ii., book 2. 

y Slow. 



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THE JOVIAL TINKER, or JOAN'S ALE IS NEW. 

On the 26th Oct., 1594, John Danter entered on the books of the Stationers' 
Company, " for his copie, a ballet intituled Jone's ale is newe ; " and on the 
15th Nov., of the same year, Edward White one called " The unthrifte's adieu 
to Jone's ale is newe." 

In Ben Jonson's Tale of a tub, " old father Rosin, chief minstrel of Highgate, 
and his two boys " play the dances called for by the company, which are " Tom 
Tiler; The jolly Joiner ; and TJie jovial Tinker." The burden of the song called 
"The jovial Tinker" is "Joan's ale is new." ("Tom Tiler" is one of the 
country dances mentioned in Heywood's A woman IdWd loith kindness.) In the 
Mad Pranks and merry Jests of Rolin Croodfellow, 1628, there is a song to the 
tune of The jovial Tinker, which has a burden or chorus of four lines, unsuited to 
this air, although the song itself could be sung to it. As tinkers were so famous 
in song, there was probably another tune called TJie jovial Tinker. " He that a 
tinker, a tinker will be," is one of the catches in the Antidote to Melancholy, 1661; 
" Tom Tinker lives a merry life," is in Davenant's play, The Benefice ; " Have 
you any work for a tinker," in Wit and Drollery, 1661 ; and Ben Jonson says, 
in Paris'' Anniversary, " Here comes the tinker I told you of, with his kettle- 
drum before and after, a master of music." 



188 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The song of Joan's ale is new is in the Douce Collection, p. 110. It is in the 
list of those printed by W. Thackeray, at the Angel in Duck Lane, in the reign 
of Charles II. ; and is in both editions of Pills to purge Melancholy, with the 
tune.— (Ed. of 1707, iii. 133 ; or ed. of 1719, v. 61.) 

The copy in the Douce Collection consists of thirteen stanzas, and has the 
following lengthy title : " Joan's ale is new ; or a new merry medley, sh'ewing 
the power, the strength, the operation, and the vu-tue that remains in good ale, 
which is accounted the mother-di-ink of England." 

" All you that do this merry ditty view, 
Taste of Joan's ale, for it is strong and new, &:c." 
" To a pleasant new Northern tune." 
Cheerfully. 



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drink - er, He ne - ver was a shrink -er, Be - lieve me, this is true. 



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, REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 189 

The tinker he did settle The cobhler and the broom-man 

Most like a man of mettle, Came up into the room, man, 

And vovv'd to pawn his kettle ; And said they would drink for boon, man, 

Now mark what did ensue : Let each one take his due ! 

His neighbours they flock in apace. But when the liquor good they found. 

To see Tom Tinker's comely face. They cast their caps upon the ground, 

Where they drank soundly for a space. And so the tinker he drank round, 

Whilst Joan's ale, &c. Whilst Joan's ale, &c. 

In anothei' volume in the Douce Collection, p. 180, is an answer to the 
above, to the same tune. It is the " The poet's new year's gift ; or a pleasant 
poem in praise of sack : setting forth its admu-able vii-tues and qualities, and how 
much it is to be preferred before all other sorts of liquors, &c. To the tune of 
The jovial Tinker, or Tom a Bedlam;" commencing — 
" Come hither, learned sisters, 

And leave Parnassus mountain ; 
I will you tell where is a well 

Doth far exceed your fountain," &c. 

UNDER AND OVER. 

This is the same air as the preceding, but in a minor instead of a major key. 
It is in every edition of TJie Dancing Master, under the name of Under and over; 
but in a MS. volume of virginal music, formerly in the possession of Mr. Windsor, 
of Bath, it is entitled A man had three sons. 

The ballad of Under and over is in the Pepys Collection, i. 264, b.l., as "A new 
little Northern Song, called — 

" Under and over, over and under. 

Or a pretty new jest aud yet no wonder ; 
" Or a maiden mistaken, as many now be. 
View well this glass, and you may plainly see." 
" To a pretty new Northern tune." 

It is very long, full of typographical errors, and devoid of merit ; I have 
therefore only printed the first verse with the music. 

In the same volume are the following : " Rocke the babie, Joane : to the tune 
of Under and over," p. 396 ; beginning — 

" A young man in our parish, 
His wife was somewhat currish," &c. 
And at p. 404, another, commencing — 

" There was a country gallant. 
That wasted had his talent," &c. 
In the Roxburghe, iii. 176, " Rock the cradle, John : 

Let no man at this strange story wonder, 
It goes to the tune of Over and underT 
And in the same Collection, i. 411, " The Times' Abuses ; to the tune of Over and 
under; commencing — 

'•' Attend, my masters, and give ear," &c. 
The last is also printed in Collier's Boxhunjhe Ballads, p. 281. 



190 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Cheerfully. 



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ilk - ing, I heard two lo - vers 

rn - ins:, Up - on a sura - mer's 



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talk - ing One to an - o - tlier speaking, Of lo - vers' con - stan - cy. 
morn - ing, I heard these lo - vers mourning 'Cause of love's cru - el - ty. 



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THE OXFORDSHIRE TRAGEDY. 

This is one of the old and simple chaunt-like ditties, which seem to have been 
peculiarly suited to the lengthy narratives of the minstrels ; and I am strongly 
impressed with a belief that it was one of theh' tunes. It has very much the same 
character as Sir Quy, which I met with in another of the ballad operas, and 
which — the entry at Stationers' Hall proving to be earlier than 1592 — ^may be 
fairly supposed to be the air used, by the class of minstrel described by Puttenham, 
in singing the adventures of Sir Guy, at feasts. See page 172. 

I have seen no earlier copy of The Oxfordshire Tragedy, than an edition 
" printed and sold in Bow Church- Yard," in which the name of the tune is not 
mentioned. The ballad is in four parts, the third and fourth of which, being in 
a different metre, must have been sung to another air. 

*' As I walk'd forth to take the air," is the second line of the first part, 
and a tune is often referred to under that title. As the measures agree, it may 
be a second name for this air. 

In the Douce Collection, 44, is a black-letter ballad of " Cupid's Conquest, or 



KEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



191 



Will the Shepherd and fair Kate of the Green, hoth united together in pure love : 
to the tune, As J went forth to take the air j-" commencing, — 
" Now am I tost on waves of love ; 

Here like a ship that's under sail," &c. 
and in the Eoxburge, ii. 149, " The faithful lovers of the West : tune, AsIwalU 
forth to take the air." 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Collection, is " The unfortunate Sailor's Garland, with 
an account how his parents murdered him for love of his gold." It is in two 
parts, and hoth to the tune of Tlie Oxfordshire Tragedy. After four lines of 
exordium, it begins thus : — 

" Near Bristol liv'd a man of fame, 
But I'll forbear to tell his name ; 
He had one son and daughter bright, 
In whom he took a great delight," &c. 
Another Garland, called " The cruel parents, or the two faithful lovers," is to 
the tune of The Oxfordshire Lady, and in the same metre. 

The tune of The Oxfordshire Tragedy is in Tlie Cobblers' Opera, 1729, Tlie 
Village Opera, 1729, and Sylvia, or The Country Burial, 1731. 
Slow. 



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To view the fields and meadows round, Methoughtl heard a dreadful sound. 



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Down by a crystal river side, 

A gallant bower I espied, 

Where a fair lady made great moan. 

With many a bitter sigh and groan. 

Alas ! quoth she, my love's unkind, 
My sighs and tears he will not mind ; 
But he is cruel unto me, 
Which causes all my misery. 

My father is a worthy knight. 
My mother is a lady bright, 
And 1 their only child and heir ; 
Yet love has brought me to despair. 

A wealthy squire lived nigh, 
Who on my beauty cast an eye ; 
He courted me, both day and night. 
To be his jewel and delight. 



To me these words he often said: 
Fair, beauteous, handsome, comely maid. 
Oh ! pity me, I do implore. 
For it is you I do adore. 

He still did beg me to be kind, 
And ease his love-tormented mind; 
For if, said he, you should deny, 
For love of you I soon shall die. 

These words did pierce my tender heart, 
I soon did yield, to ease his smart ; 
And unto him made this reply, — 
For love of me you shall not die. 

With that he flew into my arms. 
And swore I had a thousand charms ; 
He call'd me angel, saint, and he 
Did swear, for ever true to be. 



192 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Soon after he had gain'd my heart, 
He cruelly did from me part ; 
Another maid he does pursue, 
And to his vows he bids adieu. 

'Tis he that makes my heart lament, 
He causes all my discontent ; 
He hath caus'd my sad despair, 
And now occasions this my care. 

The lady round the meadow run. 
And gather'd flowers as they sprung ; 
Of every sort she there did pull. 
Until she got her apron full. 

Now, there's a flower, she did say. 
Is named heart's-ease ; night and day, 
I wish I could that flower find. 
For to ease my love-sick mind. 

But oh ! alas ! 'tis all in vain 
For me to sigh, and to complain ; 
There's nothing that can ease my smart. 
For his disdain will break my heart. 

The green ground served as a bed. 
And flow'rs a pillow for her head ; 
She laid her down and nothing spoke, 
Alas ! for love her heart was broke. 

But when I found her body cold, 
I went to her false love, and told 
What unto her had just befel ; 
I'm glad, said he, she is so well. 

Did she think I so fond could be. 
That I could fancy none but she ? 
Man was not made for one alone ; 
I take delight to hear her moan. 

Oh ! wicked man I find thou art. 
Thus to break a lady's heart ; 
In Abraham's bosom may she sleep. 
While thy wicked soul doth weep ! 

THE ANSWER. 

A second part, I bring you here. 
Of the fair maid of Oxfordshire, 
Who lately broke her heart for love 
Of one, that did inconstant prove. 

A youthful squire, most unjust. 
When he beheld this lass at first, 
A thousand solemn vows he made, 
And so her yielding heart betray 'd. 

She mourning, broke her heart, and died. 
Feeling the shades on every side ; 

The third and fourth parts present 
it is the lady's cruelty which causes the 



With dying groans and grievous cries, 
As tears were flowing through her eyes. 

The beauty which did once appear. 
On her sweet cheeks, so fair and clear. 
Was waxed pale, — her life was fled ; 
He heard, at length, that she was dead. 

He was not sorry in the least. 
But cheerfully resolv'd to feast; 
And quite forgot her beauty bright. 
Whom he so basely ruin'd quite. 

Now, when, alas ! this youthful maid. 
Within her silent tomb was laid, 
The squire thought that all was well. 
He should in peace and quiet dwell. 

Soon after this he was possest 
With various thoughts, that broke his rest ; 
Sometimes he thought her groans he heard. 
Sometimes her ghastly ghost appear'd 

With a sad visage, pale and grim. 
And ghastly looks she cast on him ; 
He often started back and cried, 
Where shall I go myself to hide ? 

Here I am haunted, night and day. 
Sometimes methinks I hear her say, 
Perfidous man ! false and unkind. 
Henceforth you shall no comfort find. 

If through the fields I chance to go, 
Where she receiv'd her overthrow, 
Methinks I see her in despair;- 
And, if at home, I meet her there. 

No place is free of torment now ; 
Alas ! I broke a solemn vow 
Which once I made ; but now, at last, 
It does my worldly glory blast. 

Since my unkindness did destroy 
My dearest love and only joy. 
My wretched life must ended be. 
Now must I die and come to thee. 

His rapier from his side he di-ew. 
And pierced his body thro' and thro' ; 
So he dropt down in purple gore 
Just where she did some time before. 

He buried was within the grave 
Of his true love. And thus you have 
A sad account of his hard fate. 
Who died in Oxfordshire of late. 



a similar story, in different metre : 
first suicide. 



but 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



193 



PUT ON THY SMOCK ON MONDAY. 
This is mentioned as a country dance tune in Heywood's A Woman MWd with 
Kindness, act i., sc. 2; and alluded to in Fletcher's Lovers Cure, act ii., so. 2. 
It is contained in the fom-th, fifth, and later editions of The Dancing Master. 
Moderate time. 



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DRIVE THE COLD WINTER AWAY. 

This is the burden of a song in praise of Chi'istmas, copies of which are in the 
Pepys (i. 186) and Roxburghe (i. 24) Collections. It is entitled " A pleasant 
countrey new ditty: merrily shewing how to drive the cold winter away. To 
the tune of WIten Phmbus did rest" " &c. ; black-letter, printed by H[enry] 
G[osson]. It is one of those parodied in Andro Hart's Oompendinm of Crodly 
Songs. " The wind blawis cald, furious and bald, 

This lang and mony a day ; 
But, Christ's mercy, we mon all die, 

Or keep the cald wind away. 
This wind sa keine, that I of meine, 

It is the vyce of auld ; 
Our faith is inelusit, and plainely abusit, 
This wind he's blawin too cald," &c. 

Scottish Poems qfl&th Century, ii. 177, 8vo., 1801. 
The tune is in every edition of The Dancing Master ; in MusicFs Delight on 
the Cithren, 1666; and in Walsh's Dancing Master: also in both editions of 
Pills to purge Melancholy, with an abbreviated copy of the words. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 518, is a ballad entitled " Hang pinching ; or 
The good fellow's observation 'mongst a jovial crew, of them that hate flinch- 
ing, but are always true blue. To the tune of Drive the cold luinter away ;'' 
commencing — " All you that lay claim to a good fellow's name, 
And yet do not prove yourselves so, 
Give ear to this tiling, the which I will sing. 
Wherein I most plainly will shew 



" A song beginning "When Phoebus addrest liis course 
to the West," will be' found in Merry Drotleri/ Complete, 
Part ii., 1G6I; also in Wii and Drollery, Jorial Poems. 
The burden is, " O do not, do not kill me yet, for I am 



not prepared to die." By that name it is quoted in J. 
Starter's Boerligheden, quarto, Amsterdam, 1634, where 
the tune is also printed. 



194 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



^Yith proof and good ground, those fellows profound, 
That unto the alewives are true, 
• In drinking their drink, and paying their chink, 

such a good fellow's true Hue." 
Sometimes a tune named True Hue is quoted, and perhaps from this ballad. It is 
subscribed W. B., and printed for Thomas Lambert, at the sign of the Horse 
Shoe, in Smithfield. Lambert was a printer of the reigns of James and Charles I. 
Li the Pepys Collection, i. 362, is another black-letter ballad, entitled " The 
father hath beguil'd the son : Or a wonderful tragedy which lately befell in Wilt- 
shu-e, as many men know full well ; to the tune of Drive the cold winter away ; " 
beginning — " I often have known, and experience hath shown. 
That a spokesman hath wooed for himself, 
And that one rich neighbour will, underhand, labour 
To overthrow another with pelf," &c. 
Other ballads to the tune will be found in the Roxburghe Collection (i. 150 and 
160, &c.) ; in the King's Pamphlets, and the Collection of Songs against the 
Rump Parliament; in Wright's Political Songs; in Moch Songs, 1676 ; in Evans' 
Collection, i. 349, &c. 

Boldly and not too fast. , Song in praise of Christmas. 



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Good fortune attend each merry man's friend. That dothbutthebestthathe may ; 
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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



195 



Let Misery pack, with a whip at his back, 

To tlie deep Tantalian flood ; 
In Letlie profound, let envy be drown'd, 

That pines at another man's good ; 
Let Sorrow's expanse be banded from hence. 

All payments of grief delay, 
And wholly consort with mirth and with sport 

To drive. the cold winter away. 

'Tis ill for a mind to anger inclin'd 

To think of old injuries now ; 
If wrath be to seek, do not lend her thy cheek, 

Nor let her inhabit thy brow. 
Cross out of thy books malevolent looks, 

Both beauty and youth's decay. 
And spend the long nights in honest delights, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

The court in all state now opens her gate, 

And bids a free Welcome to most; 
The city likewise, tho' somewhat precise. 

Doth willingly part with her cost: 
And yet by report, from city and court. 

The country will gain the day ; 
More liquor is spent, and with better content. 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Our good gentry there, for cost do not spare. 

The yeomanry fast not till Lent ; » 
The farmers, and such, think nothing too much. 

If they keep but to pay for their rent. 
The poorest of all do merrily call. 

When at a fit place they can stay. 
For a song or a tale, or a pot of good ale, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Thus none will allow of solitude now, 

But merrily greets the time. 
To make it appear, of all the whole year, 

That this is accounted the prime : 
December is seen apparel'd in green, 

And January, fresh as May, 
Comes dancing along, with a cup and a song, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

THE SECOND PART. 

This time of the year is spent in good cheer. 
And neighbours together do meet. 

To sit by the fire, with friendly desire. 
Each other in love to greet ; 



Old gpudges forgot, are put in the pot, 

All sorrows aside they lay. 
The old and the young doth carol his song. 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Sisley and Nanny, more jocund than any. 

As blithe as the month of June, 
Do carol and sing, like birds of the Spring, 

(No nightingale sweeter in tune) 
To bring in content, when summer is spent, 

In pleasant delight and play, [year. 

With mirth and good cheer, to end the old 

And drive the cold winter away. 

The shepherd and swain do highly disdain 

To waste out their time in care. 
And Clira of the Clough' hath plenty enough 

If he but a penny can spare, 
To spend at the night in joy and delight. 

Now after his labours all day. 
For better than lands is the help of his hands, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

To mask and to mum kind neighbours will 

With wassails of nut-brown ale, [cou.e 

To drink and carouse to all in the house. 

As merry as bucks in the dale ; 
Where cake, bread and cheese, is brought for 

To make you the longer stay ; [your fees. 
At the fire to warm will do you no harm, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

When Christmas's tide comes in like a bride. 

With holly and ivy clad, 
Twelve days in the year, much mirth and 

In every household is had ; [good cheer. 
The country guise is then to devise 

Some gambols of Christmas play, 
Whereat the young men do best that they can. 

To drive the cold winter away. 

When white-bearded frost hath threatened his 

And fallen from branch and brier, [worst, 
Then time away calls, from husbandry halls 

And from the good countryman's fire. 
Together to go to plough and to sow. 

To get us both food and array ; 
And thus with content the time we have spent 

To drive the cold winter away. 



" For tile support and encouragement of the tishing 
towns, in the time of Elizabeth, "Wednesdays and Fridays 
were constantly observed as fast days, or days of absti- 
nence from flesh. This was by the advice of her minister, 
Cecil ; and by the vnlgar it was generally called Cecil's 
Fast. See Warburton's and Blakeway's notes in Boswell's 
edition of Shakespeare, x. 49 and 50. 



*• Clim of the Clough means Clement of the Cleft. The 
name is derived from a noted archer, once famous in the 
north of England. See the old ballad, Adam Bdl, Clim of 
ilie Clough, and William of Cloudesty, printed by Bp. Percy. 
A Clougk is a sloping valley, breach, or Cleft, from the 
side of a hill, where trees or furze usually grow. 



196 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



UP, TAILS ALL. 

This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virgmal Book, and in Tlie Dancing Master 
from 1650 to 1690. It is alluded to m Sharpham's Fleire, 1610: " She every 
day sings John for the King, and at ZTp, tails all, she's perfect." Also in Ben 
Jonson's Ever^J man out of his humour; in Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb; 
Vanbrugh's Provoked Wife, &c. 

There are several political songs of the Cavaliers to this air, in the King's 
Pamphlets (Brit. Mus.) ; in the Collection of Songs wi'itten against the Rump 
Parliament ; in Rats rhimed to Death, 1660 ; and one in Merry Drollery complete, 
1670 : but party feeling was then so often expressed with more virulence than wit, 
that few of them will bear republication. In both the editions of Pills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707 and 1719, the song of Up, tails all, beginning " Fly, merry 
news," is printed by mistake with the title and tune of The Friar and the Nun. 
Moderate tune and lightly. 



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PESCOD TIME. 

The tune of In Pescod Time (i.e., peas-cod time, when the field peas are 
gathered) , was extremely popular towards the end of the sixteenth century. It is 
contained in Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books ; in Anthony 
Holborne's Citharn Schoole (1597) ; and in Sir John Hawkins' transcripts ; but 
so disguised by point, augmentation, and other learned contrivances, that it was 
only by scanning the whole arrangement (by Orlando Gibbons) that this simple 
air could be extracted. In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, the same air is 
called The Hunt's up, in another part of the book. 

The words are in Migland^s Helicon, 1600 (or reprint in 1812, p. 206) ; in 
Miss Cooper's Tlie Muses' Library, 8vo, p. 281 ; and in Evans' Old Ballads, 
i. 332 (ed. of 1810). 

Two very important and popular ballads were sung to the tune : Chevy Chace, 
and The Lady^s Fall. 

Chevy Chace had also a separate air (see page 199) ; but the earlier printed 
copies of the ballad direct it to be sung to " Jm Pescod Time.''^ 



EEIGN OF ELIZABETH. 197 

The " Lamentable ballad of the Lady's Fall, to the tune of In Pescod Time" 
will be found in the Douce, Pepys, and Bagford Collections, and has been reprinted 
by Percy and Ritson. It commences thus : — 

" Mark well my heavy dolefull tale, 
You loyal lovers all ; 
And heedfiilly bear in your breast 
A gallant lady's fall." 
Among the ballads to the tune of The Lady's Fall are The Bride's Burial, 
and TJie Lady Isabella's Tragedy ; both in Percy's Reliqiies. The life and death 
of Queen Elizabeth, in the Qroion Garland of Q olden Roses, 1612 (page 39 of the 
reprint), and in Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 171. The Wandering Jew, or the Shoe- 
maker of Jerusalem, ivho lived ivhen our Saviour Christ ivas crucified, and appointed 
to live until his coming again; two copies in the British Museum, and one in 
Mr. Halliwell's Collection ; also reprinted by Washbourne. It has the burden, 
" Repent, therefore, England," and is, perhaps, the ballad by Deloney, to which 
Nashe refers in Have with you to Saffron- Walden (ante page 107). Tlie Cruel 
Black ; see Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 232. A Warning for Maidens, or young 
Bateman; Roxburghe Collection, i. 501. It begins, "You dainty dames so finely 
framed." And You dainty dames is sometimes quoted as a tune ; also Bateman, 
as in a ballad entitled " A Warning for Married Women, to a West-country tune 
called TJie Fair Maid of Bristol, or Bateman, or John True; Roxburghe, i. 502. 
The following Carol is from a Collection, printed in 1642, a copy of which is in 
Wood's Library, Oxford. I have not seen it elsewhere. 

" A Carol for Twelfth Day, to the tune of The Lady's Fall" 
Mark well my heavy doleful tale, Come, butler, fill a brimmer full, 

For Twelfth Day now is come, To cheer my fainting heart, 

And now I must no longer stay, Th{it to old Christmas I may drink 

And say no word but mum. Before he does depart. 

For I perforce must take my leave And let each one that's in the room 

Of all my dainty cheer — With me likewise condole, 

Plum porridge, roast beef, and minc'd pies, And now, to cheer their spirits sad, 
My strong ale and my beer. Let each one drink a bowl. 

Kind-hearted Christmas, now adieu. And when the same it hath gone round, 

For I with thee must part; Then fall unto your cheer; 

But oh ! to take my leave of thee For you well know that Christmas time 

Doth grieve me at the heart. It comes but once a year. 

Thou wert an ancient housekeeper, But this good draught which I have drank 

And mirth with meat didst keep ; Hath comforted my heart ; 

But thou art going out of town, For I was very fearful that 

Which causes me to weep. My stomach would depart. 

God knoweth whether I again Thanks to my master and my dame, 

Thy merry face shall see ; That do such cheer afford ; 

Which to good fellows and the poor God bless them, that, each Christmas, they 

Was always frank and free. May furnish so their board. 

Thou lovest pastime with thy heart, My stomach being come to me, 

And eke good company ; I mean to have a bout ; 

Pray hold me up for fear I swound [swoon], And now to eat most heartily, — 

For I am like to die. Good friends, I do not flout. 



198 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 




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CHEVY CHACE. 

Although sometimes sung to the tunes of Pescod Time and Tlie Children in the 
Wood, this is the air usually entitled Chevy Chace. It bears that name in all the 
editions of Pills to purge Melancholy, and in the ballad operas, such as Tlie 
Beggars' Opera, 1728, Trick for Trick, 1735, &c. Another name, and probably 
an older, is Flying Fame, or Wlien flying Fame, to which a large number of 
ballads have been written. In Pills to purge Melancholy, " King Alfred and the 
Shepherd's Wife," which the old copies direct to be sung to the tune of Flying 
Fame, is printed to this air. 

Much has been written on the subject of CJievy Chace ; but as both the ballads 
are printed in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry (and in many other collec- 
tions) , it may be sufficient here to refer the reader to that Avork, and to Tlie 
British Bihliographer (iv. 97). The latter contains an account of Richard Sheale, 
the minstrel to whom we are indebted for the preservation of the more ancient 
ballad, and of his productions. The manuscript containing them is in the Ash- 
molean Library, Oxford (No. 48, 4to). His verses on being robbed on Duns- 
more Heath have been already quoted (pages 45 to 47). 

The ballad of Chevy Chace, in Latin Rhymes, by Henry Bold, will be found in 
Dryden's Miscellany Poems, ii. 288. The translation was made at the request of 
Dr. Compton, Bishop of London. 

Bishop Corbet, in his Journey into Fraunce, speaks of having sung Chevy 
Chace in his youth ; the antiquated beau in Davenant's play of Tlie Wits, also 
prides himself on being able to sing it ; and, in Wifs Interpreter, 1671, a man, 
enumerating the good qualities of his wife, cites, after the beauties of her mind 
and her patience, " her curious voice, wherewith she useth to sing Chevy Chace." 
From these, and many similar allusions, it is evident that it was much sung in 
the seventeenth century, despite its length. 

Among the many ballads to the tune (either as Flying Fame or Chevy Oliace), 
the following require particular notice. 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



199 



" A lamentable song of the Death of King Lear and his three Daughters : to 
the tune of Wlwi flying Fame." See Percy's Rdiques, series i., booli 2. 

" A mournefull dittie on the death of Faire Kosamond; tune of Flying Fame : " 
beginning, " When as King Hem-y rul'd this land ; " and quoted in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight. See Strange Sistories, 1607 ; 27*6 Garland of Q-ood- 
will; and Percy, series ii., book 2. 

" The noble acts of Arthur of the Round Table, and of Sir Launcelot du Lake : 
tune of Flying Fame." See The Crarland of Good-will, 1678, and Percy, series i., 
book 2. The first line of this ballad (" When Arthur first in court began") is 
sung by FalstaiF in Part II. of Shakespeare's King Henry IV. ; also in Marston's 
The Malcontent, 1604, and in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Little French Lawyer. 

" King Alfred and the Shepherd's Wife : to the tune of Flying Fame." See 
Old Ballads, 1727, i. 43 ; Pills to purge Melancholy, 1719, v. 289 ; and Evans' 
Old Ballads, 1810, ii. 11. 

" The Union of the Red Rose and the White, by a marriage between King 
Henry VII. and Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV : to the tune of 
Wlien flying Fame." See Grown Garland, 1612, and Evans, iii. 35. 

" The Battle of Agincourt, between the Englishmen and the Frenchmen : tune, 
Flying Fame." (Commencing, " A council grave our King did hold.") See 
Oroivn Garland, 1659, and Evans, ii. 351. 

" The King and the Bishop : tune of Qhevy Ohace." Roxburghe, iii. 170. 

" Strange and true newes of an Ocean of Flies di-opping out a cloud, upon the 
town of Bodnam p3odmin?] in Cornwall: tune of Chevy Ohace" (dated 1647). 
See King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus., vol. v., and Wright's Political Ballads. 

" The Fire on London Bridge " (from which the nursery rhyme, " Three 
childi-en sliding on the ice," has been extracted), " to the tune of Chevy Chace.^' 
Merry Drollery complete, 1670, Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 6, 1707, and 
RimhsiVLlt' 3 Little Book of Songs and Ballads, 12mo., 1851. Dr. Rimbault quotes 
other copies of the ballad, and especially one in the Pepys Collection (ii. 146), 
to the tune of The Ladfs Fall ; further proving the difficulty of distinguishing 
between this tune and In Pescod Time. 
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200 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

THE CHILDREN IN THE WOOD. 

In the Registers of the Stationers' Company, under the date of 15th Octoher, 
1595, we find, " Thomas Millington entred for his copie under t'handes of bothe 
the Wardens, a ballad intitutled ' The Norfolk Gentleman, his Will and Testament, 
and howe he commytted the keeping of his children to his owne brother, -whoe delte 
moste wickedly with them, and howe God plagued him for it." This entry agrees, 
almost verbatim, with the title of the ballad in the Pepys Collection (i. 518), 
but which is of later date. Copies will also be found in the Roxburghe (i. 284), 
and other Collections ; in Old Ballads^ 1726, i. 222 ; and in Percy's Heliques, 
series iii., book 2. 

Sharon Turner says, " I have sometimes fancied that the popular ballad of 
Tlie Children in the Wood may have been written at this time, on Richard [III.] 
and his nephews, before it was quite safe to stigmatize him more openly." — 
{Hist. Miff., iii. 487, 4to). This theory has been ably advocated by Miss 
Halsted, in the Appendix to her Richard III. as Duke of Gloucester and King of 
England. Her argument is based chiefly upon internal evidence, there being no 
direct proof that the ballad is older than the date of the entry at Stationers' Hall. 

In Wager's interlude. The longer thou livest the more fool thou art, Moros says, 
"I can sing a song of Robin Redbreast; " and in Webster's TJie White Devil, 
Cornelia says, " I'll give you a saying which my grandmother was wont, when 
she heard the bell toll, to sing unto her lute : 

Call for the robin-redbreast and the wren, 
Since o'er the shady groves they hover, 
And with leaves and flowers do cover 
The friendless bodies of unburied men," &c. 

Dudsley's Old Plays, vi. 312, 1825. 
These maij be in allusion to the ballad. 

In Anthony a Wood's Collection, at Oxford, there is a ballad to the tune of 
The tivo Children in the Wood, entitled " The Devil's Cruelty to Mankind," &c. 

The history of the tune is somewhat perplexing. In the ballad-operas of 
Tlie Jovial Creio, The Lottery, An old man taught ivisdom, and Tlie Beggars^ 
Opera, it is printed under the title of Now ponder well, which are the first words 
of " The Children in the Wood." 

The broadsides of Chevy Chace, which were printed ivith music about the com- 
mencement of the last century, are also to this tune ; and in the ballad-opera of 
Penelope, 1728, a parody on Chevy Chace to the same. 

In Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707 and 1719, the ballads of " Henry V. at the 
battle of Agincourt," " The Lady Isabella's Tragedy," and a song by Sir John 
Birkenhead, are printed to it. The last seems to be a parody on " Some Christian 
people all give ear," or " The Fire on London Bridge." 

According to the old ballads, Tlie Battle of Agincourt should be to the tune of 
Flying Fame, The Lady IsahellcCs Tragedy to In Pescod Time, and Tlie Fire on 
London Bridge to Chevy Chace. I suppose the confusion to have arisen from 
Chevy Chace being sung to all the three tunes. 

The traditions of the stage also give this as the air of the Gravedigger's Song 
in Hamlet, " A pick-axe and a spade." 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



201 



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IN SAD AND ASHY WEEDS. 

The four first stanzas of this song were found among the Howard papers in 
the Heralds' College, in the hand^vriting of Anne, Countess of Arundel, widow of 
the Earl who died in confinement in the Tower of London in 1595. They were 
written on the cover of a letter. Lodge, who printed them in his Illustrations of 
British History (iii. 241, 8vo., 1838), thought they " were probably composed" 
by the Countess ; and that " the melancholy exit of her lord was not unlikely to 
have produced these pathetic effusions." She could not, however, have been the 
autJior of verses, in her transcript of which the rhymes between the first and third 
lines of every stanza have been overlooked." They were evidently written from 
memory, and rendered more applicable to her case by a few trifling alterations, 
such as " Not I, poor I, alone," instead of " Now, a poor lad alone," at the 
commencement of the fourth stanza. 

The tune is contained in a MS. volume of virginal music, transcribed by Sir 
John Hawkins ; the words in the Croiim Garland of Golden Jtoses, edition of 
1659 (Percy Society reprint, p. 6.). It is there entitled " The good Shepherd's 
sorrow for the loss of his beloved son." 

Among the ballads to the tune of Iii sad and ashy weeds, are " A servant's 
sorrow for the loss of his late royal mistress, Queen Anne " (wife to James I.) , 
" who died at Hampton Court" (May 2, 1618), beginning — 
" In dole and deep distress, 
Poor soul, I, sighing, make my moan." 
It will be found in the same edition of the Croivn Garland ; as well as an answer 
to In sad and ashy tveeds, entitled " Coridon's Comfort : the second part of the 
good Shepherd;" commencing, " Peace, Shepherd, cease to moan." 

The tune is quoted under the title of "In sadness, or Who can blame my woe," 
as one for the Psalnies or Songs of Sion, &c., 1642. 



■» In the Countess's transcript, as printed by Lodge, 
the first four lines stand thus — 

"In sad and asliy weeds I sigh, 
I groan, I pine, I mourn ; 
My oaten yellow reeds 
I all to jet and ebon turn ; " 



instead of — 

" In sad and ashy weeds 

I sigh, I groan, I pine, I mourn ;" 
as " weeds " should rhyme with " reeris " in the third line, 
and so In eaeh verse. 



202 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 

Slowly and smoothly. — == 



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In sable robes of night 

My days of joy consumed be, 
My sorrow sees no light. 

My lights through sorrow nothing see. 
For now my sun 
His course hath run. 
And from my sphere doth go, 
To endless bed 
Of folded lead ; 
And who can blame my woe ? 
My flocks I now forsake, 

That so my sheep my grief may know, 
Tlie lilies loathe to take. 

That since his death presum'd to grow. 
I envy air, 



Still breathe, and he not so ; 

Hate earth, that doth 

Entomb his youth ; 
And who can blame my woe? 

Not I, poor I, alone, 

(Alone, how can this son-ow be?) 
Not only men make moan. 

But more than men make moan with me : 

The gods of greens, 

The mountain queens, 
The fairy-circled row. 

The muses nine, 

And powers divine. 
Do all condole my woe. 



Because it dare 
In the above lines I have chiefly followed the Countess of Arundel's transcript. 
There are three more verses in the Oroivn Garland of Golden Hoses, besides seven 
in the second part. 



REIGN OF KLIZABETH. 



203 



THE BAILIFF'S DAUGHTER OF ISLINGTON. 

Copies of this ballad are in the Roxburgte, Pepys, and Douce Collections; it is 
printed by Ritson among the ancient ballads in his English Songs, and by Percy 
{Reliques, series iii., book 2, No. 8). 

In the Roxburghe, ii. 457, and Douce, 230, it is entitled " True love requited, 
or The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington : to a North-countnj tune, or I have a good 
old mother at home.^' In other copies it is to "I have a good old woman at home," 
and " I have a good wife at home." 

In the Douce, 32, is a ballad called " Crums of comfort for the youngest sister, 
&c., to a pleasant new West-country tune;" beginning — 
" I have a good oldfatJier at home, 
Au ancient man is he : 
But he has a mind that ere he dies 
That I should married be." 
Dr. Rimbault found the first tune in a lute MS., formerly in the possession of 
the Rev. Mr. Gostling, of Canterbury, under the name of The jolly Pinder. It is 
in the ballad-opera of The Jovial Crew, 1731, called " The Rally's Daughter of 
Islington." 

The second is the traditional tune to which it is commonly sung throughout the 
country. 

Rather slow. First Tune. 



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There was a youth, and a well-belov'd youth, And he was a Squire's 



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He lov - ed the bai - lifF's daughter dear, That liv - ed in Is-ling - ton. 



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Yet she was coy, and would not believe 

That he did love her so, 
No, nor at any time would she 

Any countenance to him show. 

But when his friends did understand 

His fond and foolish mind, 
They sent him up to fair London, 

An apprentice for to bind. 

And when he had been seven long years, 
And never his love could see : 

Many a tear have I shed for her sake. 
When she little thought of me. 



Then all the maids of Islington 
Went forth to sport and play, 

All but the bailiff's daughter dear; 
She secretly stole away. 

She pulled off her gown of green. 
And put on ragged attire, 

And to fair London she would go. 
Her true love to enquire. 

And as she went along the high road. 
The weather being hot and dry. 

She sat her down upon a green bank, 
And her true love came riding by. 



204 



ENQLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



She started up with a colour so red, 
Catching hold of his bridle-rein ; 

One penny, one penny, kind sir, she said. 
Will ease me of much pain. 

Before I give you one penny, sweet-heart. 
Pray tell me where you were bom : 

At Islington, kind Sir, said she, 
Where I have had many a scorn. 

I prythee, sweet^heart, tell to me, 

O tell me whether you know 
The bailiff's daughter of Islington ? 

She is dead, Sir, long ago. 

Rather slowly and very smoothly. 



iS rfH-^ 






If she be dead, then take my horse, 

My saddle and bridle also ; 
For I will into some far country, 

Where no man shall me know. 

O stay, O stay, thou goodly youth, 

She standeth by thy side ; 
She is here alive, she is not dead. 

And ready to be thy bride. 

O farewell grief, and welcome joy, 

Ten thousand times therefore ; 
For now I have found mine own true love. 

Whom I thought I should never see more 

Second Tune. , i 
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There was a youth, and a well - be-lov - ed youth. And he was a squi-er's 



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son; He lov - ed the bai-liff's daughter dear, That liv - ed in , ,. ^ 



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IT WAS A LOVER AND HIS LASS. 
From a quarto MS., which has successively passed through the hands of 
Mr. Cranston, Dr. John Ley den, and Mr. Heber ; and is now in the Advocates' 
Libi'ary, Edinbui-gh. It contains about thirty-four songs with words," and sixteen 
song and dance tunes without. The latter part of the manuscript, which bears 
the name of a former proprietor, William Stii-ling, and the date of May, 1639, 
consists of Psalm Tunes, evidently in the same handwriting, and written about 
the same time as the earlier portion. This song is in the comedy of As you 
like it, the first edition of which was printed in 1623 ; and the inaccuracies in 
that copy, which have given much trouble to commentators on Shakespeare, are 
not to be found in this. In the printed copy, the last verse stands in the place of 
the second : this was first observed and remedied by Dr. Thirlby ; and the words 
" ring time," there rendered " rang time," and by commentators altered to "rank 
time," were first restored to the proper meaning by Steevens, who explains them 
as signifying the aptest season for marriage. The words are here printed fi:om the 



' Among these are Wither's song, " Shall I, wasting 
in despair," and " Farewell, dear love," quoted in Twelfth 
Night, the music of which, by Robert Jones (twelfth from 
his first book, published in IGOl) is reprinted in Musica 



Antiqua: a Selection of Music from the commencement*of 
the twelfth to the beginnitig of the eighteenth century, &c. 
edited by John StaiFord Smith. 



ILLUSTRATIKG SHAKESPKARE. 



205 



manuscript in the Advocates' Library, (fol. 18), and other variations will be 
found on comparing them with the published copies of the play. 

Moderate time. ■-■■■ n i- . ^ l p-. 



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It was a lover and his lass, With a hey, with a ho, with a hey non ne 



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field, 



did pass. In Spring time, in Spring time, in Spring time; The on-ly pretty 



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ring time, When birds do sing, Hey ding a ding a ding, Hey ding a ding a ding, Hey 



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ding a ding a ding. Sweet lov - ers love the Spring. 



. M^ C- 



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Between the acres of the rye. 

With a hey, with a ho, with a hey, non ne no. 

And a hey non ne, no ni no. 

These pretty country fools did lie, 

In Spring time, in Spring time, 

The only pretty ring time. 

When birds do sing 

Hey ding, a ding, a ding, 

Sweet lovers love the Spring. 



This carol they began that hour, 

With a hey, &c. 
How that life was but a flow'r. 

In Spring time, &c. 

Then, pretty lovers, take the time, 

With a hey, &c., 
For love is crowned with the prime, 

In Spring time, &c. 



206 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



WILLOW, WILLOW! 

The song of Oh ! ivilloio, willow, wtich Desdemona sings in the fourth act of 
Othello, is contained in a MS. volume of songs, with accompaniment for the lute, 
in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 16,117). Mr. Halliwell considers the 
transcript to have been made about the year 1633; Mr. Oliphant (who catalogued 
the musical MS.) dates it about 1600 ; but the manuscript undoubtedly contains 
songs of an earlier time, such as — 

" O death I rock me asleep, 
Bring me to quiet rest," &c. 

attributed to Anne Boleyn, and which Sir John Hawkins found in a MS. of the 
reign of Henry VHI. 

The song of Willoiv, ivillow, is also in the Roxburghe Ballads, i. 54 ; and was 
printed by Percy from a copy in the Pepys Collection, entitled " A Lover's 
Complaint, being forsaken of his Love : to a pleasant tune." 

Willoio, ivillow, was a favorite burden for songs in the sixteenth century. 
There is one by John Heywood, a favorite dramatist and court musician of the 
reigns of Henry VHI. and Queen Mary, beginning — - 

" Alas I by what mean may I make ye to know 
The unkindness for kindness that to me doth grow?" 

which has for the burden — 

" All a green willow ; willow, willow, willow ; 
All a green willow, is my garland." 

It has been printed by Mr. Halliwell, with others by Hey^vood, Bedford, &c., for 
the Shakespeare Society, in a volume containing the moral play of Wit and 
Science. 

Another with the burden — 

" Willow, willow, willow ; sing all of green willow ; 
Sing all of green willow, shall be my garland," 

will be found in A Gorgious G-allery of Gallant Inventions (1578). It commences 
thus : 

" My love, what misliking in me do you find, 
Sing all of green willow ; 
That on such a sudden you alter your mind ? 

Sing willow, willow, willow. 
What cause doth compel you so fickle to be, 

Willow, willow, willow, willow ; 
In heart which you plighted most loyal to me ? 

Willow, willow, willow, willow." — Heliconia, i. 32. 

In Fletcher's Tlie tivo Nohle Kinsmen, when the Jailer's daughter went mad 
for love, " She sung nothing but Willoiv, willow, willow.'''' — Act iv., sc. 1. 

In the tragedy of Othello, Desdemona introduces the song " in this pathetic 
and affecting manner : " 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



207 



" My mother had a maid call'd Barbara ; 
She was in love ; and he she lov'd prov'd mad, 
And did forsake her : she had a song of Willow ; 
And old thing 'twas, but it express'd her fortune. 
And she died singing it. That song to-uight 
Mill not go from my mind ; I have much to do. 
But to go hang my head all at one side. 
And sing it like poor Barbara." 



JRather slow and smoothh). 

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The poor soul sat sigh - ing by a si - ca - more tree. Sing 



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Ritard. ~ 



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A tempo, sf 



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wil - low, willow, wi 



-low! With his hand in his bo-som, and his head up-on his 



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(fillow. willow, willow, wil-low. Oh ! willow, willow, willow, wi. 



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knee ; 



Oh! willow, willow, willow, wil-low, Oh! willow, willow, willow, wil-low. Shall 

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wil - low, willow. 



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my gar - land : Sing all a green wil - low, 
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wil - low. Ah me ! the green wil - low must be my gar 
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land. 



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208 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



He sigh'd in his singing, and made a great moan, Sing, &c. ; , 
I am dead to all pleasure, my true love he is gone, &c. 

The mute bird sat by him was made tame by his moans, &c. ; 

The true tears fell from him would have melted the stones, Sing, &c. 

Come, all you forsaken, and mourn you with me. Sing, &c. ; 
Who speaks of a false love, mine's falser than she. Sue. 

Let love no more boast her in palace nor bower, Sing, &c. ; 
It buds, but it blasteth ere it be a flower, &c. 

Though fair, and more false, 1 die with thy wound, Sing, &c. ; 
Thou hast lost the truest lover that goes upon the ground, &c. 

Let nobody chide her, her scorns I approve [though I prove] ; 
She was born to be false, and I to die for her love, &c. 

Take this for my farewell and latest adieu, Sing, &e. ; 
Write this on my tomb, that in love I was true, &c. 

The above copy of the words is from the same manuscript as the music. It 
differs from that in Percy's Meliqnes of Ancient Poetry; and Shakespeare has 
somewhat varied it to apply to a female character. 



WHOOP ! DO ME NO HARM, GOOD MAN. 

This is twice alluded to by Shakespeare, in act iv., sc. 3, of J. Winter's Tale ; 
and by Ford, in act iii., sc. 3, of The Fancies cJiaste and noble, where Seeco, 
applying it to Morosa, sings " Whoop ! do me no harm, good womari." 

The tune was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault, from a MS. volume of virginal 
music, in the possession of the late John Holmes, Esq. , of Retford. A song with 
this burden will be found in Fry's Ancient Poetry, but it would not be desirable 
for republication. 



Cheerfully. 




- • f—' — ^—- — f f "^^"^ 

I whoop ! do me nc 



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me no harm, good man. 

I ' — >^ 



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f 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



209 



O MISTRESS MINE ! 

This tune is contained in both the editions of Morley's Consort Lessons, 1599 
and 1611. It is also in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, arranged by Byrd. 

As it is to be found in print in 1599, it proves either that Shakespeare's Ttvelfth 
Night was wi-itten in or before that year, or that, m accordance with the then pre- 
vailing custom, Mistress mine was an old song, introduced into the play. 

Mr. Payne Collier has proved Twelfth Night to have been an established 
favorite in February, 1602 {Annals of the Stage, i. 327), but we have no evidence 
of so early a date as 1599. 

In act ii., sc. 3., the Clown asks, " Would you have a love-song, or a song of 
good life?" 

Sir Tobij. — " A love-song, a love-song." 
Moderate time and very smoothly. 



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O mistress mine, where are you roaming? O mistress mine, where are )'ou roaming ? 



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rail. 



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a tempo. ^-^ 



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stay and hear ; your tnie love's coming. That can sing both higli and low : Trip no further, 



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pretty eweet-ing, Jom' - nej-s end in lovers' meeting, Ev' - ry wise man's son doth know. 



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"What is love? — 'tis not hereafter ; 
Present mirth hath present laughter; 

What's to come is still unsure : 
In delay there lies no plenty ; 
Then come kiss me, sweet-and-twenty, 

Youth's a stuff will not endure." 

HEART'S-EASE. 
The tune of Mearf s-ease is contained in a MS. volume of lute music, of the 
sixteenth century, in the Public Library, Cambridge (D. d., ii. 11), as well as in 
The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1698. It belongs, in all probability, to an 
earlier reign than that of Elizabeth, as it was sufficiently popular about the year 
1560 to have a song written to it in the interlude of Misogonus. Shakespeare 
thus alludes to it in Romeo and Juliet, 1597 (act iv., sc. 5.) — 



210 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



Peter. — " Musicians, musicians, Heart' s-ease, heart' s-ease : an you will have 
me live, play Hearts-ease. 

\st Mus. — Why Heart' s-ease? 

Peter. — musicians, because my heart itself plays My heart is full of rvoe:'' 
O play me some merry dump,'' to comfort me." 

The follo-ffing song is from Misogonus, hy Thomas Rychardes ; and, as Mr. 
Payne Collier remarks, " recollecting that it was written about the year 1560, 
may be pronounced quite as good in its kind as the drinking song"= in Gfammer 
Chirtonh Needle.'''' 

Moderate time. 



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care a - way with sport and play. Pas - time is all our 



Sine 



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pleasure ; If well we fare. For nought we care. In mirth con-sists our treasure. 



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Let lun - gis lurk. And di-udges work. We do de - fy their slavery : He 



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[lankies] 



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is but a fool That goes to school. All we de - light in bravery. 



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^ This is the burden of "A pleasant new Ballad of two 
Lovers: to a pleasant new tune;" beginning— 
"Complain my lute, complain on him 
That stays so long away; 
He promised to be here ere this, 

But still unkind doth stay. 
But now the proverb true I find. 
Once out of sight then out of mind. 
Hey, ho ! my heart is full of woe," &c. 



It has been reprinted by Mr. Andrew Barton, in the first 
volume of the Shakespeare Society's Papers, 1844. 

^ A dump was a slow dance. Queen Marifs Btimp \s 
one of the tunes in "William Ballet's Lute Book, and My 
Lady Carey's Dompc is printed in Stafford Smith's Musica 
Antigua, ii. 470, from a manuscript in the British 
Museum, temp. Henry VIII. 
" *' I cannot eat but little meat," see page 72. 



ILLUSTBATING SHAKESPBAKE. 211 

" What doth't avail far hence to sail, 'Tis a beastly thing to lie musing 

And lead our life in toiling? With pensiveness and sorrow; 

Or to what end should we here spend For who can tell that he shall well 

Our days in irksome moiling? [labour] Live here until the morrow? 

It is the best to live at rest, We will, therefore, for evermore, 

And talce't as God doth send it; While this our life is lasting, 

To haunt each wake, and mirth to make, Eat, drink, and sleep, and ' merry ' keep, 

And with good fellows spend it. 'Tis Popery to use fasting. 

Nothing is worse than a full purse In cards and dice our comfort lies. 

To niggards and to pinchers; In sporting and in dancing, 

They always spare, and live in care. Our minds to please and live at ease. 

There's no man loves such flinchers. And sometimes to use prancing. 

The merry man, with cup and can, With Bess and Nell we love to dwell 

Lives longer than do twenty ; In kissing and in ' talking ; ' 

The miser's wealth doth hurt his health ; — But whoop ! ho holly, with trolly lolly, 

Examples we have plenty. To them we'll now be walking." 

Collier's History of Early Dramatic Poetry, ii. 470. 

JOG ON, JOG ON. 

This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1698, called Jog on ; also in 
Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, under the name of Hanskin. The words of 
Jog on, of which the first verse is stmg by Autolycus, in act iv., sc. 2, of 
Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale, are in TJie Antidote against MelancJwhj, 1661. 
Another name for the tune is Sir Francis Brake, or Eigldy- eight. 

The following is the song from The Antidote against Melancholy : — 
" Jog on, jog on the footpath way, Yovar paltry money-bags of gold, 

And merrily hent* the stile-a; What need have we to stare for. 

Your merry heart goes all the day ; When little or nothing soon is told. 

Your sad tires in a mile-a. And we have the less to care for. 

Cast care away, let sorrow cease, 

A fig for melancholy ; 
Let's laugh and sing, or, if you please. 

We'll frolic with sweet Dolly." 

In the Westminster Drollery, 3rd edit., 1672, is " An old song on the Spanish 
Armado," beginning, " Some years of late, in eighty-eight ; " and in MSS. Hark, 
791, fol. 59, and in Merry Drollery complete, 1661, a different version of the same, 
commencing, " La eighty-eight, ere I was born." Both have been reprinted for 
the Percy Society in Halli well's Naval Ballads of England. The former is also 
in Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707, ii. 37, and 1719, iv. 37, or Ritson's Ancient 
Songs, 1790, p. 271. 

In the Collection of Ballads in the Cheetham Library, Manchester, fol. 30, is 

* To kcnt or Iiaid is to hold or seize. At the head of "Upon the sea, till Jhesu Crist him hciitc," — Chaucer, 
one of the chapters of Sir Walter Scott's novels, this is line 700. 

misquoted " bend." "Till they the reynes of his bridel ;;eH(™."— Chaucer, 

" And in his hand a battle-axe he henty— Honor of the line 900. 

Garter, by George Peele. " Or reave it out of the hand that did it AeKd."— Spenset'a 

Faern Queen. 



212 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



" The Catholick Ballad, or an Invitation to Popery, upon considerable grounds and 
reasons, to the tune oi Mghty-eight." It is in black-letter, -with a bad copy of the 
tune, and another (No. 1103), dated 1674. It will also be found in J^ills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707, ii. 32, or 1719, iv. 32. It commences thus :— 
" Since Popery of late is so much in debate, 
And great strivings have been to restore it, 
I cannot forbear openly to declare 
That the ballad-makers are for it." 

This song attained some popularity, because others are found to the tune of 
Tlie Qatholic Ballad. 

The following are the two ballads on the Spanish Armada; the first (with the 
tune) as in the Harl. MS., and the second from Westminster Drollery. 
Moderate time. 



i 



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m 



55 



In eiglity-eight, ere I was bom, As I can well re - mem-ber, In 



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Au - gust was a 



fleet pre - par'd, The month be - fore Sep - tern - ber 



^ 



P 



W 



^ 



Spain, with Biscay and Portugal, 

Toledo and Grenada ; 
All these did meet, and made a fleet, 

And call'd it the Armada. 

Where they had got provision, 
As mustard, pease, and bacon ; 

Some say two ships were full of whips, 
But I think they were mistaken. 

There was a little man of Spain 

That shot well in a gun-a, 
Don Pedro" hight, [called] as good a knight 

As the Knight of the Sun-a. 

King Philip made him admiral. 
And charg'd him not to stay-a. 

But to destroy both man and boy. 
And then to run away-a. 



The King of Spain did fret amain. 

And to do yet more harm-a ; 
He sent along, to make him strong, 

The famous Prince of Parma. 

When they had sail'd along the seas. 

And anchor'd upon Dover, 
Our Englishmen did board them then, 

And cast the Spaniards over. 

Our Queen was then at Tilbury, 
What could you more desire-a? 

For whose sweet sake Sir Francis Drake 
Did set them all on fire-a. 

But let them look about themselves, 

For if they come again-a, 
They shall be serv'd with that same sauce 

As they were, I know when-a. 



• The person meant by Don Pedro was the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, commander of tlie Spanish fleet. His 



name was not Pedro, but A'lonzo Perez di Guzman. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 213 

" An old song on the Spanish Armado," called, also, in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly, " Sir Francis Drake : or Eighty-eight." To the same tune. (The words 
from Westminster Drollery, 1672.) 
Some years of late, in eighty-eight, Their men were young, munition strong, 

As I do well remember ; And to do us more harm-a. 

It was, some say, the nineteenth of May, They thought it meet to join their fleet, 

And some say in September. All with the Prince of Parma. 

The Spanish train, launch'd forth amain. They coasted round about our land. 

With many a fine bravado. And so came in to Dover ; 

Their (as they thought, but it proved not) But we had men, set on them then, 

Invincible Armado. And threw the rascals over. 

There was a little man that dwelt in Spain, The Queen was then at Tilbury, 

Who shot well in a gun-a. What could we more desire-a, 

Don Pedro hight, as black a wight And Sir Francis Drake, for her sweet sake. 

As the Knight of the Sun-a. Did set them all on fire-a. 

King Philip made him admiral, Then straight they fled by sea and land, 

And bid him not to stay-a. That one man kill'd three score-a; 

But to destroy both man and boy, And had not they all run away. 

And so to come away-a. In truth he had kill'd more-a. 

Their navy was well Wctualled Then let them neither brag nor boast. 

With biscuit, pease, and bacon ; But if they come again-a. 

They brought two ships well fraught with whips. Let them take heed they do not speed. 

But I think they were mistaken. As they did, you know when-a. 

COME, LIVE WITH ME, AND BE MY LOVE. 

This tune, which was discovered by Sir John Hawkins, " in a MS. as old as 
Shakespeare's time," and printed in Steevens' edition of Shakespeare, is also con- 
tained in " The Second Booke of Ayres, some to sing and play to the Base-Violl 
alone : others to be sung to the Lute and Base-Violl," &c., by W. Corkine, 
fol. 1612. 

In act iii., sc. 1, of Tlie Merry Wives of Windsor, 1602, Sir Hugh Evans sings 
the following lines, which form part of the song : — 
" To shallow rivers, to whose falls 
Melodious birds sing madrigals ; 
There will we make our beds of roses, 
And a thousand fragrant posies." 
In Marlow's tragedy, Tlie Jew of Malta, written in or before 1591, he introduces 
the first lines of the song in the following manner : — 

" Thou, in whose groves, by Dis above, 
Shall live with me and be my love." 
In England's Helicon, 1600, it is printed with the name " Chr. Marlow " as the 
author. It is also attributed to Marlow in the following passage from Walton's 
Angler, 1653 : — " It was a handsome milkmaid, that had not attained so much 
age and wisdom as to load her mind with any fears of many things that will never 
be, as too many men often do; but she cast away all care and sung like a nightin- 
gale : her voice was good, and the ditty fitted for it : it was that smooth song 
which was made by Kit. Marlow, now at least fifty years ago." 



214 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 

On the other hand, it was first printed by W. Jaggard in " The passionate 
Pilgrim and other sonnets by Mr. William Shakespeare," in 1599; but Jaggard 
is a very bad authority, for he included songs and sonnets by Griffin and Barnfield 
in the same collection, and subsequently others by Hey wood. 

EnglancVs Helicon contains, also, " The Nimph's reply to the Shepheard," 
beginning — " If all the world and love were young, 

And truth in every shepherd's tongue;" 

which is there subscribed " Ignoto," but which Walton attributes to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, "in his younger days ;" and "Another of the same nature made since," 
commencing — " Come, live with me, and be my deere, 

And we will revel all the yeere," 
with the same subscription. 

Dr. Donne's song, entitled " The Bait," beginning — 
" Come, live with me, and be my love, 

And we will some new pleasures prove, 

Of golden sands and crystal brooks, 

With silken lines and silver hooks," &c. 

which, as Walton observes, he " made to shew the world that he could make soft 
and smooth verses, when he thought smoothness worth his labour," is also in 
Tlie Complete Angler ; and the thi-ee above quoted from England's Helicon, are 
reprinted in Ritsou's English Songs and Ancient Songs; and two in Percy's 
Reliques of Ancient Poetry, &c., &c. 

In QJioice, Chance, and Change ; or Conceits in their colours, 4to., 1606, 
Tidero, being invited to live with his fi-iend, replies, " Why, how now ? do you 
take me for a woman, that you come upon me with a ballad of Gome, live with me, 
and he my love ? " 

Nicholas Breton, in his Poste with a packet of Mad Letters, 4to., 1637, says, 
" You shall hear the old song that you were wont to like well of, sung by the 
black brows with the cherry cheek, under the side of the pied cow. Come, live with 
me, and he my love, you know the rest." 

Sir Harris Nicholas, in his edition of Walton's Angler, quotes a song in imi- 
tation of Come, live with me, by Herrick, commencing — 

" Live, live with me, and thou shalt see ; " 
and Steevens remarks that the ballad appears to have furnished Milton with the 
hint for the last lines of E' Allegro and Penseroso. 

From the following passage in The World's Polly, 1609, it appears that there 
may have been an older name for the tune : — " But there sat he, hanging his 
head, lifting up the eyes, and with a deep sigh, singing the ballad of Come, live 
with me, and he my love, to the tune of Adeiv, my deere." ^ 

In Deloney's Strange Histories, 1607, is the ballad of " The Imprisonment of 
Queen Eleanor," &c. , to the tune of Come, live ivith me, and he my love, but it has 

• A song in Hail. MSS. 2252, of the early part of Henry It is reprinted in Eitson's Ancieni Songs (p. 98), but the 

the Eighth's reign, "Upon the inconstancy of his mis- metre differs from that of Come, live with me, and with 

tiessi*' begins thus : — out repeating words, could not have been sung to the 

"JMornyng, momyng, thus may I sing, same air. 
Adew, my dere, adew." 



ILLUSTRATINS SHAKESPEARE. 



215 



six lines in each stanza; and " The woefull lamentation of Jane Shore," beginning, 
" If Rosamond that was so fair " (copies of which are in the Pepys, Bagford, and 
Roxburghe Collections), "to the tune of Live with rae," has four lines and a 
burden of two — " Then maids and wives in time amend, 

For love and beauty wiU have end." 
From this it appears that either the half of the tune was repeated, or that there 
were two airs to which it was sung. In Westminster Drollery, 1871 and 1674, a 
parody on Qome, live with me, is to the tune of My freedom is all my joy. That 
hag also six lines, and the last is repeated. 

Other ballads, like " A most sorrowful song, setting forth the miserable end of 
Banister, who betrayed the Duke of Buckingham, his lord and master : to the tune 
of Live with me;" and the Life and Death of the great Duke of Buckingham, who 
came to an untimely end for consenting to the depositing of two gallant young 
princes," &c. : to the tune of Shore's Wife, have, like Gome, live with me, only 
four lines in each stanza. (See Crown G-arland of Crolden Hoses, 1612 ; and 
Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 18 and 23.) 
Rather slow. 



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Come, live with me, and be my love, And we will all the plea-sures 



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prove That hilU and val-leys, dale and field, And all the crag-gy moun-tains yield, 



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There will we sit upon the rocks, 
And see the shepherds feed their flocks, 
By shallow rivers, to whose falls 
Melodious birds sing madrigals. 

There will I make thee beds of roses. 
And twine a thousand fragrant posies ; 
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle, 
Embroider'd all with leaves of myrtle. 



A gown made of the finest wool, 
Which from our pretty lambs we pull ; 
Slippers lined choicely for the cold, 
With buckles of the purest gold. 

A belt of straw and ivy buds. 
With coral clasps and amber studs: 
And if these pleasures may thee move, 
Come, live with me, and be my love. 



The shepherd swains shall dance and sing. 
For thy delight, each May morning ; 
If these delights thy mind may move. 
Then live with me, and be my love. 



* In Sir John Hawkins' copy, this note is written an 
octave lower, probably because taken from a lute arrange- 
ment, in which the note, being repeated, was to be played 
on a lower string. In the second bar of the melody, his 



copy, if transposed into this key, would be b a d, instead 
of B c D ; which latter seems right by the analogy of that 
and the other phrases, although the difference js not very 
material. 



216 



ENGLISH BONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



THREE MERRY MEN BE WE. 
This is quoted in the same passage in Tioelftli Night as Peg-a-Ramsey. The tune 
is contained in a MS. common-place book, in the handwi-iting of John Playford, 
the publisher of Tlie Dancing Master, in the possession of the Hon. George 
O'Callaghan." The words are also in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale, 1595 (Dyce, 
i. 208), where it is sung instead of the song proposed, man in desperation. 

In the comedy of Laugh and lie doivn, 1605, " He plaied such a song of the 
Tliree Merry Men.'" In Fletcher's The Bloody Brother, the Cook, who is about to 
be hung with two others, says : 

" Good Master Sheriff, your leave too ; 
This hasty work was ne'er done well : give us so much time 
As hut to sing our own ballads, for we'll trust no man. 
Nor no tune but our own ; 'twas done in ale too, 
And therefore cannot be refus'd in justice : 
Your penny-pot poets are such pelting thieves, 
TJiey ever hang men twice" 
Each then sings a song, and they join in the chorus of — 

" Three merry boys, and three merry boys. 
And three merry boys are we. 
As ever did sing in a hempen string 
Under the gallow tree." — Act iii., sc. 2, — Dyce, x. 428. 
" Three merry men be we " is also quoted in Westward Soe, by Dekker and 
Webster, 1607 ; and in Ram Alley, 1611. 
Moderate time and gaily. 



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Three merry men and three merry men, And three merry men be we 



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in the wood, and thou on the ground, And Jack sleeps in the tree 



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I LOATHE THAT I DID LOVE. 
On the margin of a copy of the Earl of Surrey's poems, in the possession of 
Sir W. W. Wynne, some of the little airs to which his favorite songs were sung 
are written in characters of the times. Dr. Nott printed them from that copy in 
his edition of Surrey's Songs and Sonnets,'^ 4to., 1814. From this the first tune 
for " I loathe that I did love " is taken. The second is from a MS. containing 
songs to the lute, in the British Museum (Addit. 4900), but it is more like the 
regular composition of a musician than the former. 

» The music was added after a portion of the edition had been circulated. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



217 



Three stanzas from the poem are sung by the grave-digger in Hamlet ; but 
they are much corrupted, and in all probability designedly, to suit the character 
of an illiterate clown. On the stage the grave-digger now sings them to the tune 
of The Children in the Wood. 

In the Grorgious Crallery of Gallant Inventions, 1578, " the lover complaineth 
of his lady's inconstancy ; to the tune of Ilothe that I did love," therefore a tune 
was formerly known by that name, and probably one of the two here printed. 

The song will be found among the ballads that illustrate Shakespeare, in Percy's 
Beliques of Ancient Poetry. 

Slow. First Tune. 



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I loathe that I did love ! In youth that I thought sweet, (As 



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time re-quires for my behove,) Me - thinks it is not meet. 



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Second Tune. 



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loathe that I did love! In youth that I thought sweet (As 



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time re - quires for my be - hove, for my 



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-thinks it 



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218 ENGLISH 50NG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



PEG A RAMSEY, ob PEGGIE EAMSET. 

In Twelfth Night, act ii., sc. 3, Sir Toby says, " Malvolio's a Peg-a-Bamsey, 
and Three merry men he we." There are two tunes under the name of Peg-a- 
Ramsey, and both as old as Shakespeare's time. The first is called Peg-a-Ramsey 
in William Ballet's Lute Book, and is given by Sir John Hawkins as the tune 
quoted in Twelfth Night. (See Steevens' edition of Shakespeare.) He says, 
" Peggy Ramsey is the name of some old song ; " but, as usual, does not cite his 
authority. It is mentioned as a dance tune by Nashe (see the passage quoted at 
p. 116), and in The Shepheard' s Holiday — 

"Bounce it Mall, I hope thou will, Spaniletto — The Venetto; 

For I know that thou hast skill ; John come kiss me — Wilson's Fancy. 

And I am sure thou there shall find But of aU there's none so sprightly 

Measures store to please thy mind. To my ear, as Touch ms lightly." 

Roundelays — Irish hayes ; Wi€s Recreations, 1640. 



y 



Cogs and Rongs, and Peggie Ramsy ; 



'r!i 



" Little Pegge of Ramsie " is one of the tunes in a manuscript by Dr. Bull, which 

formed a part of Dr. Pepusch's, and afterwards of Dr. Kitchener's library. Ramsey, f"? TT-- /< 

in Huntingdonshire, was formerly an important town, and called " Ramsey the 

rich," before the destruction of its abbey. 

Bui-ton, in his Anatomy of Melanclwly, says, " So long as we are wooers, we 
may kiss at our pleasure, nothing is so sweet, we are in heaven as we think ; but 
when we are once tied, and have lost our liberty, marriage is an hell. ' Crive me 
my yellow hose again : ' a mouse in a trap lives as merrily." 
" Give me my yellow hose" is the burden of a ballad called — 

" A merry jest of John Tomson, and Jackaman his wife, 
"VSTiose jealousy was justly the cause of all their strife ;" 
to the tune of Pegge of Ramsey ; beginning thus — 

" When I was a bachelor I cannot do as I have done, 

I led a merry life, Because I live in fear ; 

But now I am a married man If I go hut to Islington, 

And troubled with a wife, My wife is watching there. 

Oive me my yellow again, 

Give me my yellow hose, 
For now my wife she watcheth me, 

See yonder where she goes." 

It has been reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 187 (1810.) 

In Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy (1707, ill. 219, or 1719, 

V. 139), there is a song called "Bonny Peggy Ramsey," to the second tune, X 

which in earlier copies is called London is a fine town, and Watton Town's Mid. 
The original song, " Oh ! London is a fine town," is probably no longer extant. 

A ballad to be sung to the tune was written on the occasion of James the First's 

visit to Cambridge, in March, 1614 — 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 219 

" Cambridge is a merry town, 
And Oxford is another, 
Tlie King was welcome to the one. 
And fared well at the other," &c. 

See Hawkins' Ignoramus, xxxvi. 
A second with the burden — 

" London is a fine town. 
Yet I their cases pity ; 
The Mayor and some few Aldermen 
Have clean undone the city," 
will be found in the King's Pamphlets, British Museum (fol. broadsides, vol. v.). 
It begins, " Why kept your train-bands such a stir," and is dated Aug. 13, 1647. 
(Reprinted in Wright's Political Ballads, for the Percy Society.) 
In Le Prince d' Amour, 12m., 1660, is a third, commencing thus : — 
" London is a fine town, and a brave city, 
Governed with scarlet gowns ; give ear unto my ditty : 
And there is a Mayor, which Mayor he is a Lord, 
That governeth the city by righteous record. 
Upon Simon and Jude's day their sails then up they hoist. 
And then he goes to Westminster with all the galley foist. 
London is a fine town," &c. 
A foui'th song beginning, " Oli I London is a fine town," will be found in Pills to 
purge Melanclwly, 1707, ii. 40, or 1719, iv. 40 ; and in the same volume another 
to the tune, beginning — 

" As I came from Tottingham, Her journey was to London 

Upon a market day, ' With butterijjilk and whey, 

There I met a bonny lass To come down, a down. 

Clothed all in gray. To come down, down, a down-a" 

The burden to this song suggests the possibility of its being the tune of a snatch 
sung by Ophelia in Hamlet — 

" You must sing down, a down. 
An you call him a down-a." 
One of D'Urfey's " Scotch" Songs, called Tlie Groivlin, in his play of Trick for 
Trick, was also sung to this tune. 
~^ In 77ie Dancing Master, 1665 and after, it is called Walton Town^s Mid ; and 
in the second part of Mohin Croodfelloiv, 1628, there is a song " to the tune of 
Wattoti Town's Mid," beginning — 

" It was a country lad. 
That fashions strange would see," &c. 
It is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, 1810, i. 200. Another entitled — 
" The common cries of London town. 
Some go up street, some go down," 
is to the tune of Walton Townes Mid, black-letter, 1662. 

Many others will be found to these tunes, under their various names. 
The following is a verse from the ballad quoted in Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy. It consists of eighteen stanzas, each of eight lines, and a ditty of 
four (" Give me my yellow hose again," &c.). See Evans' Old Ballads. 



220 



Moderate time. 



g r4 B H — p — 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 




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When I was a Bache-lor, I liv'd a mer-ry life, But now 1 am a 



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mar-ried man, And troubled with a wife, I can -not do as I have done, Be- 



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-cause I live in fear. If I go but to Isling-ton, My wife is watching there. 



There are slight diflferences in the copies of the tune called Waiton Toivii's Mid 
in The Dancing Master, and Oh ! London is a fine town in Pills to ■purge Melan- 
choly, and in The Beggars^ Opera. The following is The Beggars' Opera version : — 



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Oh ! Lon - don is a fine town, And a gal - lant ci - ty ; 'Tis 



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govern'd by the scar - let gown, Come lis - ten to my dit - ty. 



This 



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ty has a May - or. This May - or is a Lord, 



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go - ver - netli the cit - i - zens All by his own ac - cord. 



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ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 221 



LIGHT O'LOVE. 



• Light of Love is so frequently mentioned by writers of the sixteenth century, 
that it is much to be regretted that the words of the original song are still 
undiscovered. When played slowly and with expression the air is beautiful. In 
the collection of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury, is " A very proper dittie : to 
the tune Light ie Love;" which was printed in 1570. The original may not have 
been quite so " proper," if " Light o'Love " was used in a sense in which it was 
occasionally employed, instead of its more poetical meaning : — 
" One of your London Light d Loves, a right one, 
Come over in thin pumps, and half a petticoat." 

Fletcher's Wild Goose Chase, act iv., so. 2. 
Or in the passage quoted by Douce : " There be wealthy housewives and good 
housekeepers that use no starch, but fair water ; their linen is as white, and they 
look more Christian-like in small ruffs than Light of Love looks in her great 
starched ruffs, look she never so high, with her eye-lids awry." — The Cflasse of 
Man's FoUie, 1615. 

Shakespeare alludes twice to the tune. Firstly in The Two Q-entlemen of Verona, 
act i., sc. 2 — 

" Julia. Some love of yours hath writ to you in rhime. 
Lucetta. That I might sing it, madam, to a tune : 
Oive me a note : — your ladyship can set. 
Jul. As little by such toys as may be possible : 

Best sing it 'to the tune of Light oLove. 
Luc. It is too heavy for so light a tune. 
Jul. Heavy? belike it hath some hiirden then. 
Luc. Ay ; and melodious were it would you sing it. 
Jul. And why not you ? 
Luc. I cannot reach so high. 
Jul. Let's see your song : — How now, minion ? 
Luc. Keep tune there still, so you W'ill sing it out : 

And yet, methinks, I do not like this tune. 
Jul. You do not ? 
Luc. No, madam ; 'tis too sharp. 
Jul. You, minion, are too saucy. 
Luc. Nay, now you are too flat, 

And mar the concord with too harsh a descant : 
There wanteth but a mean io fill your song. 
Jul. The mean is drown'd with your unruly base." 

I have quoted this passage in extenso as bearing upon the state of music at the 
time, beyond the mere mention of the tune. Fu'stly, when Lucetta says, " Give 
me a note [to sing it to] : your ladyship can set" [a song to music,] it adds one 
more to the many proofs of the superior cultivation of the science in those days. 
We should not now readily attribute to ladies, even to those who are gene- 
rally considered to be well educated and accomplished, enough knowledge of 



222 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 

harmony to enable them to set a song correctly to music, however agile their 
fingers may be. Secondly — 

" It is too heavy for so light a tune, 
Heavy ? belike it hath some burden then I " 

The burden of a song, in the old acceptation of the word, was the base, foot, or 
under-song. It was sung throughout, and not merely at the end of the verse. 
Burden is derived from bourdoun, a drone base (French, bourdon.) 
" This Sompnour bare to him a stiff burdoun, 
Was never trompe of half so gret a soun." — Chaucer. 

We find as early as 1250, that Somer is icumen in was sung with a foot, or burden, 
in two parts throughout ( " Sing cuckoo, sing cuckoo " ) ; and in the preceding 
century Giraldus had noticed the peculiarity of the English in singing under-parts 
to their songs. 

That burden still bore the sense of an under-part or base, and not merely of a 
ditty," see A Quest of Inquirie, &c., 4to., 1595, where it is compai-ed to the music 
of a tabor : — " Good people, beware of wooers' promises, they are like the musique 
of a tabor and pipe : the pipe says golde, giftes, and many gay things ; but perform- 
ance is moralized in the tabor, which bears the burden of ' I doubt it, I doubt it.' — 
{British Bibliographer, vol. i.) In Fletcher's Humorous Lieutenant, act v., sc. 2, 
"H'as made a thousand rhymes, sir, and plays the burden to 'em on a Jew's- 
trump" {Jeugd-tromp, the Dutch for a child's horn). So in Much Ado about 
Nothing, in the scene between Hero, Beatrice, and Margaret, the last says, " Clap 
us into Light o''Love, that goes without a burden " [there being no man or men 
on the stage to suig one]. " Do you sing it and I'll dance it." Light d'Love 
was therefore strictly a ballet, to be sung and danced. 

In the interlude of Tlie Four Elements, about 1510, Ignorance says — 
" But if thou wilt have a song that is good, 
I have one of Roliin Hood, 
The best that ever was made. 
Humanity. Then i' fellowship, let us hear it. 

Ign. JBut there is a bordon, thou must bear it, 
Or else it mill not be. 
Hum. Then begin and care not to . . . 
Downe, downe, dorvne, &c. 
Ign. Eobin Hood in Barnsdale stood," &c. 
Here Humanity starts with the burden, giving the key for the other to sing in. 
So in old manuscripts, the burden is generally found at the head of the song, and 
not at the end of the first verse. 

Many of these burdens were short proverbial expressions, such as — 
" 'Tis merry in hall when beards wag all ; " 
which is mentioned as the " under-song or holding " of one in The Serving-man'' s 
Comfort, 1598, and the line quoted by Adam Davy, in his Life of Alexander, as 
early as about 1312. Peele, in his Edivard I., speaks of it as "the old 

« " Ditties, they are Uie ouh of old ballads."— Rowley's A Ualch nl Midnighl, act iii., so. 1 . 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 223 

Englisli proverb ;" but he uses the word " proverb" also in the sense of song, for 
in his Old Wives' Tale, 1595, Antick says, " Let us rehearse the old proverb — 
' Three merry men and three merry men, 
And three merry men be we,' " &c. 
Shakespeare puts the following four- Imes into the mouth of Justice Silence when 
in his cups : — " Be merry, be merry, my wife has all, 

For women are shrews, both short and tall ; 
' Tis merry in hall, when heards mag all. 
And welcome merry Shrovetide." 
See also Ben Jonson, v. 235, and note; and vii. 273, Gifford's edit. 

Other burdens were mere nonsense words that went glibly off the tongue, giving 
the accent of the music, such as hey nonny, nonny no ; hey derry down, &c. The 
"foot" of the first song in The 'pleasant Comedy of Patient Grissil is — 
" Work apace, apace, apace, apace, 
Honest labour bears a lovely face ; 
Then hey noney, noney ; hey noney, noney." 
I am aware that " Hey down, down, derry down," has been said to be " a modern 
version of ' Hai down, ir deri danno,' the burden of an old song of the Druids, 
signifying, ' Come, let us hasten to the oaken grove' (Jones' Welsh Bards, i. 128) ; 
but I believe this to be mere conjecture, and that it would now be impossible to 
prove that the Druids had such a song. 

The last comment I have to make upon the passage from Shakespeare is on the 
word mean. The mean in music was the intermediate part between the tenor and 
treble ; not the tenor itself, as explained by Steevens. Descant has already been 
explained at p. 15. 

Reverting to Light d'Love : it is also quoted as a tune by Fletcher in The Two 
Nolle Kinsmen, The air was found by Sir J. Hawkins in an " ancient manu- 
script ; " it is also contained in "William Ballet's MS. Lute Book, and in Mtisick's 
Delight on the Cithren, 1666. 

In the volume of transcripts made by Sir John Hawkins there is a tune entitled 
Ihir Maid are you walking, the first four bars of which are identical with Light 
d'Love ; and in the Music School, Oxford, one of the manuscripts presented by 
Bishop Fell, with a date 1620, has Light o''Love under the name of Siche and sicJce 
and very sicke; but this must be a mistake, as that ballad could not be sung to it. 
See Captain Car in Ritson's Ancient Songs, 1790, p. 139. 

Li A Gorgious Grallery of Gfallant Inventions, 1578, the lover exhorteth his 
lady to be constant : to the tune of Attend thee, go p)lay tJiee ; =• and begins with 
the line, " Not Light d'Love, lady." The ballad, " The Banishment of Lord Mal- 
travers and Sir Thomas Gurney," in Deloney's Strange Histories, &c., 1607, and of 
" A song of the wooing of Queen Catherine by Owen Tudor, a young gentleman 
of Wales" are also to the tune of Light d'Love. See Old Ballads, 1727, iii. 32; 
or Evans, ii. 356. 

The following is the ballad by Leonard Gybson, a copy of which is in Mr. 
George Daniel's Collection. 

» "Attend tliee, go play thee," is a song in A Ilandefull by Wantonness in the interlude of The Marriage of Wit 
of Pleasant Seliles, 15S4, and is also the tune of one sung and Wisdom. See Shakespeare Society's Reprint, p. 20. 



224 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



A VERY PROPER DITTIE: TO THE TUNE OF LIGHTIE LOVE. 

" Leave lightie love, ladies, for fear of j-ll name: 
And trae love embrace ye, to pm'chase your fame." 
Very slow and S7nooihly. 



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By force I am fix-ed my fan -cy to write, In- p;ra-titudewilletlime not to re-frain : 
Thenblameme not, ladies, altliough 1 indite Wliatliglitj' love now amongstyoudothreign : 



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Your tra-ces in places, to outward allurements. Do move my en-deavour to hetliemoreplam: 
Your nioings and 'ticings,with sundry procurement3,To publish your lightie love do me constrain. 



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Deceit is not dainty, it comes at each dish ; 
Fraud goes a fishing with friendly looks ; 
Through friendship is spoiled, the silly poor 

fish 
That hover and shower upon your false hooks, 
With bait you lay wait, to catch here and there, 
Which causeth poor fishes their freedom to 

lose; 
Then lout ye, and flout ye; — whereby doth 

appear. 
Your lighty love, ladies, still cloaked with 

glose. 

With Dian so chaste you seem'd to compare. 
When Helens you be, and hang on her train ; 
Methinks faithful Thisbes be now very rare, 
But one Cleopatra, I doubt, doth remain. 
You wink, and you twink, until Cupid have 

caught. 
And forceth through ilames your lovers to sue : 
Your lighty love, ladies, too dear they have 

bought, [rue. 

When nothing will move you their causes to 

I speak not for spite, nor do I disdain 
Your beauty, fair ladies, in any respect; 
But one's ingratitude doth me constrain. 
As child hurt with fire, the flame to neglect. 
For, proving in loving, I find by good trial, 
When Beauty had brought me unto her beck. 
She staying, not weighing, but making denial, 
And shewing her lighty love, gave me the 
check. 



Thus fraud for friendship did lodge in her 

breast; 
Such are most women, that when they espy 
Their lovers inflamed, with sorrows opprest, 
They stand then with Cupid against their reply. 
They taunt, and they vaunt, they smile when 

they view 
How Cupid hath caught them under his train ; 
But warned, discerned, the proof is most true, 
That lighty love, ladies, amongst you does 

reign. 

Ye men that are subject to Cupid his stroke, 
And therein seem now to have your delight, 
Think, when you see bait, there is hidden a 

hook, [bite. 

Which surely will have you, if that you do 
Such wiles, and such guiles by women are 

wraught, [prevent ; 

That half of their mischiefs men cannot 
When they are most pleasant, unto your 

thought. 
Then nothing but lighty love is their intent. 

Consider that poison doth lurk oftentime 
In shape of sugar, to put some to pain ; 
And fair wordes painted, as dames can define, 
The old proverb saith, doth make some fools 

fain. 
Be wise and precise, take warning by me, 
Trust not the crocodile, lest you do rue ; 
To women's fair words do never agi-ee. 
For all is hut lighty love ; — this is most tnie. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



225 



I touch no such ladies as true love embrace, 

But such as to lighty love daily apply ; 

And none will be grieved, in this kind of 

case. 
Save such as are minded true love to deny. 
Yet friendly and kindly I shew you ray mind : 
Fair ladies, I wish you to use it no more; 
But say what you list, thus I have defin'd 
That lighty love, ladies, you ought to abhor. 



To trust women's words, in any respect. 
The danger by me right well it is seen ; 
And Love and his laws, who would not neglect, 
The trial whereof hath most perilous been? 
Pretending, the ending, if I have offended, 
I crave of you, ladies, an answer again : 
Amend, and what's said shall soon be amended. 
If case that your light love no longer do reign. 



WHEN THAT I WAS A LITTLE TINY BOY. 

The Fool's song -wliicli forms the Epilogue to Twelfth Night is still sung on the 
stage to this tune. It has no other authority than theatrical tradition. A song 
of the same description, and with the same burden, is sung by the Fool in King 
Lear, act iii., sc. 2 — 

" He that lias a little tiny vpit, 

With a heigh ho ! the wind and the rain, 
Must make content with his fortunes fit, 
For the rain it raineth ecery day." 
The following is the song in Twelfth Night : — 
In moderate time. 




When that I was a little tiny boy ,With a heigh ho! the wind and the rain, A 



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fool - ish thing was but a toy. For the rain it rain-eth ev' 



ry day. With a 




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heigh ho ! the wind and the rain. And the rain it rain - eth ev' - ry day. 



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But when I came to man's estate, But when I came unto my bed. 

With a heigh ho ! &c., With a heigh ho ! &c., 

'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gate, With toss-pots still I'd drunken head. 
For the rain, &c. For the rain, &c. 

But when I came, alas I to wive, A great while ago the world begun, 

With a heigh ho ! &c.. With a heigh ho ! the wind and the rain ; 

By swaggering I could never thrive, But that is all one, our play is done, 

For the rain, &c. And we'll strive to please you every day. 

Q 



226 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



SICK, SICK, AND VEEY SICK. 

This tune is contained in Anthony Holborne's Cittharn Schoole, 4to., 1697, and 
in one of the Lute MSS. in the Public Library, Cambridge. (D. d. iv. 23.) In 
Much Ado about Notliing, Hero says, " Why, how now ! do you speak in the sich 
tuneP" and Beatrice answers, "I am out of all other tune, methinks." Li 
Nashe's Summer's last Will and Testament, Harvest says, " My mates and fellows, 
sing no more Merry, merry, but weep out a lamentable Hoohy, lioohj, and let your 

sickles cry — 

Sick, sick, and very sick, 

And sick and for the time ; 
For Harvest, your master, is 

Abus'd without reason or rhyme." 
On 24th March, 1578, Richard Jones had licensed to him ' ' a ballad intituled 
Sich, sick, &c., and on the following 19th June, " A new songe, intituled — 
Sich., sick, in grave I would I were. 

For grief to see this wicked world, that will not mend, I fear." 
This was probably a moralization of the former. 

In the Harleian Miscellany, 4to, 10. 272, is " A new ballad, declaring the 
dangerous shooting of the gun at the court (1578), to the tune of Siclce and siche; 
commencing — 



" The seventeenth day of July last, 
At evening toward night, 

Our noble Queen Elizabeth 
Took barge for her delight ; 

And had the watermen to row, 
Her pleasure she might take. 



About the river to and fro, 
As much as they could make. 
Weep, weep, still I weep, 
And shall do till I die, 
To think upon the gun was shot 
At court so dangerously." 



The ballad from which the tune derives its name is probably that printed in 
Ritson's Ancient Songs, (1793, p. 139) from a manuscript in the Cotton Library 
(Vespasian, A 25), and entitled Captain Car. The event which gave rise to it 
occurred in the year 1571. The first stanza is here printed to the tune : — 



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It be - fell at 
Sick, sick, and 



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tin-mas, When weather wax - ed cold, 
ry sick. And sick and like to die ; 



The 



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Cap - tain Car said to 
sick - est night that I 



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his men, We must go take a hold, 
a - bode. Good Lord, have mercy on me. 



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ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



227 



TO-MORROW IS ST. VALENTINE'S DAY. 

This is one of Ophelia's songs in Hamlet. It is found in several of the ballad 
operas, such as The CobUers' Opera (1729), The Quakers'' Opera (1728), &c., 
under this name. Li Pills to piurge Melancholy (1707, ii. 44) it is printed to a 
song in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, beginning, " Arise, arise, my juggy, my 
puggy." Other versions will be found under the names of " Who list to lead 
a soldier's life," and " Lord Thomas and Fair Ellinor." See pages 144 and 145. 

Cheerfully. 



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a maid at your window, To be your Valen - tine. 



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GREEN SLEEVES. 

Green Sleeves, or Which nolocly can deny, has been a favorite tune, from the 
time of Elizabeth to the present day ; and is still frequently to be heard in the 
streets of London to songs with the old burden, " Which nobody can deny." It 
will also be recognised as the air of Christinas comes hut once a year, and many 
another raerry ditty. 

"And set our credits to the tune of Greene Sleeves." — The Loyal Subject, by 
Beaumont and Fletcher. 

JPalstqff. — " Let the sky rain potatoes ! let it thunder to the tune of Green Sleeves, 
hail kissing comfits, and snow eringoes, let there come a tempest of provocation, I will 
shelter me here." (Embracing her.) — Merry Wives of Windsor, act v., sc. 5. 

" llrs. Ford. — " I shall think the worse of fat men, as long as I have an eye to 
make difference of men's liking. And yet he would not swear; praised women's 
modesty ; and gave such orderly and well-behaved reproof to all uncomeliness, that 
I would have sworn his disposition would have gone to the truth of his words : but 
they do no more adhere and keep pace together, than the Hundredth Psalm to the 
tune of Green Sleeves." — Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii., sc. 1. 

The earliest mention of the ballad of Green Sleeves in the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company is in September, 1580, when Richard Jones had licensed to 
him, " A new Northern Dittye of the Lady Greene Sleeves.^' The date of the 
entry, however, is not always the date of the ballad ; and this had evidently 
attained some popularity before that time, because on the same day Edward 



228 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 

White had a license to print, "A ballad, being the Ladie Greene Sleeves Ansioere 
to Donkyn his frende." Also Edward Guilpin in his SkialetJtia, or a Shadow of 
Truth, 1598, says : " Yet like tli' olde ballad of the Lo7-d of Lome, 

Whose last line" in King Harries days was borne." 
As the ballad of The Lord of Lome and the False Steivard, -which was entered on 
the 6th October, 1580, was sung to the tune of Green Sleeves, it would appear that 
G-reen Sleeves must be a tune of Henry's reign. Copies of The Lord of Lome are in 
the Pepys Collection (i. 494), and the Roxbui-ghe (i. 222). 

Within twelve days of the first entry of Green Sleeves it was converted to a 
pious use, and we have, " Greene Sieves moralised to the Scripture, declaring the 
manifold benefites and blessings of God bestowed on sinful man ; " and on the 
fifteenth day Edward White had " tollerated unto him by Mr. Watkins, a 
ballad intituled Greene Sleeves and Countenance, in Countenance is Greene 
Sleeves." By the expression " tolerated " instead of " licensed," we may infer 
it to have been of questionable propriety. 

Great, therefore, was the popularity of the ballad immediately after its publica- 
tion, and this may be attributed rather to the merry swing of the tune, than to the 
words, which are neither remarkable for novelty of subject, nor for its treatment. 

An attempt was speedily made to improve upon them, or to supply others of 
more attractive character, for in December of the same year, Jones, the original 
publisher, had " tolerated to him A merry newe Northern Songe of Greene 
Sleeves," beginning, The honniest lass in all the land. This was probably the ballad 
that excited William Elderton to write his "Reprehension against Greene Sleeves" 
in the following February, for there appears nothing in the original song to have 
caused it. The seventh entry within the year was on the 24th of August, 1581, 
when Edward White had licensed " a ballad intituled — 
" Greene Sleeves is worne awaie, 
Yellow Sleeves come to decaie. 
Blacke Sleeves I holde in despite, 
But White Sleeves is my delight." 

Nashe, speaking of Barnes' Divine Centime of Sonets, says they are " such 
another device as the goodly ballet of John Careless, or the song of Green Sleeves 
Moralized." Fletcher says, " And, by my Lady Greensleeves, am I grown so 
tame after all my triumphs ? " and Dr. Rainoldes, in his Overthrow of Stage 
Plays, 1599, says, " Now if this were lawfully done because he did it, then 
William, Bishop of Ely, who, to save his honour and wealth, became a Green 
Sleeves, going in women's raiment from Dover Castle to the sea-side, did therein 
like a man ; — although the women of Dover, when they found it out, by plucking 
down his muffler and seeing his new shaven beard, called him a monster for it." 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Collection, and in that of the Society of Antiquaries, 
are copies of " A Warning to false Traitors, by example of fourteen ; whereof six 
were executed in divers places neere about London, and two near Braintford, the 

" The last lines of the Lord of Zorjie are— For God may suffer for a time, 

*' Let Rebels therefore warned be, But will disclose it at the end." 

How mischief once they do pretend ; Perhaps Guilpin may mean that this formed part of an 

older balled. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 229 

28t]i day of August, 1588; also at Tyborne were executed the 30th day six; 
viz., five men and one woman : to the tune of Q-reen Sleeves ^^ beginning — 
" You traitors all that do devise 
To hurt our Queen in treacherous wise. 
And in your hearts do still surmise 
Which way to hurt our England ; 
Consider what the end will be 
Of traitors all in their degree : 
Hanging is still their destiny 
That trouble the peace of England." 

The conspirators were treated with very little consideration by the ballad- 
monger in having their exit chaunted to a merry tune, instead of the usual 
lamentation, to the hanging-tune of Fortune my foe. 

Elderton's ballad, The King . of Scots and Andrew Brown, was to be sung to 
the tune oi Mill-field, or else to Green Sleeves (see p. 185), but the measure suits 
the former and not the latter. However, his " New Yorkshire Song, intituled — 
" Yorke, Yorke, for my monie, 
Of all the cities that ever I see, 
For merry pastime and companie, 
Except the cittie of London ; " 
which is dated "from Yorke, by W. E., and imprinted at London by Richard 
Jones," in 1584, goes so trippingly to Gfreen Sleeves, that, although no tune is 
mentioned on the title, I feel but little doubt of its having been intended for that 
air. It was written during the height of its popularity, and not long, after his 
own " Reprehension." 

The song of York for my money is on a match at archery between the York- 
shire and the Cumberland men, backed by the Earls of Essex and Cumberland, 
which Elderton went to see, and was delighted with the city and with his 
reception ; especially by the hospitality of Alderman Maltby of York. 
^ Copies will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 1, and Evans' Old Ballads, 
i. 20,. It begins, " As I come thorow the North countrey," and is refered to in 
Heywood's Xing Edivard IV., 1600. 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Old Ballads, printed for the Percy Society, there is one 
of Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Fort (written shortly anterior to the destruction of 
the Spanish Armada) to the tune of Triumph and Joy. The name of the air is 
probably derived from a ballad which was entered on the Stationers' books in 
1581, of " The Triumpe shewed before the Queene and the French Embassadors," 
who preceded the arrival of the Duke of Anjou, and for whose entertainment 
jousts and triumphs were held. The tune for this ballad is not named in the 
entry at Stationers' Hall, but if a copy should be found, I imagine it will prove 
also to have been written to G-reen Sleeves, from the metre, and the date 
coinciding with the period of its great popularity. 

Richard Jones, to whom Green Sleeves was first licensed, was also the printer 
of A Handefull of Pleasant D elites, 1584, in which a copy of the ballad will be 
found. Also in Ellis' Specimens, ii. 394, (1803). A few verses are subjoined, 



230 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



as affording an insiglit into the dress and manners of an age with which we cannot 
be too well acquainted. 

The tune is contained in several of Dowland's lute manuscripts; in William 
Ballet's Lute Book ; in Sir John Hawkins' transcripts of virginal music ; in The 
Dancing Master ; Tlie Beggar's Opera ; and in many other books. 

As the second part differs in the oldest copies, from others of later date, both 
versions are subjoined. 

The first is from William Ballet's Lute Book compared with another in Sir 
John Hawkins' transcripts of vu-ginal music ; both having the older second part. 
Smoothly and in moderate time. Tune of Green Sleeves. Oldest copy. 

»5 " 



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-courteously, And I have lov - ed you so long, De - light-ing in your 



company. 



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Green - sleeves was all my joy. 



Green - sleeves was my delight, 



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Green - sleeves was my heart of gold, And who but my La - dy 



Greensleeves. 



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I have been ready at your hand 
To grant whatever you would crave, 

I have both waged life and land, 
Your love and good-will for to have. 
Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 



I bought thee kerchers to thy head, 
That were wrought fine and gallantly, 

I kept thee booth at board and bed. 
Which cost my purse well favoredly. 
Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 231 

I'bought thee petticoats of the best, Thy smock of silk, both fair and white, 

The cloth so fine as might be ; With gold embroidered gargeously ; 

I gave thee jewels for thy chest, Thy petticoat of sendal right, [thin silk] 

And all this cost I spent on thee. And these I bought thee gladly. 

Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 

He then describes her girdle of gold, her purse, the crimson stockings all of sUk, 
the pumps as -white as milk, the gown of grassy green, the satin sleeves, the 
gold-fringed garters ; all of which he gave her, together with his gayest gelding, 
and his men decked all in green to wait upon her : 

They set thee up, they took thee down, 

They serv'd thee with humility ; 
Thy foot might not once touch the ground, 
And yet thou wouldst not love me. 
Greensleeves was all ray joy, &c. 

She could desire no earthly thing without being gratified : 

Well I will pray to God on high, • Greensleeves, now farewell I adieu ! 

That thou my constancy mayst see, God I pray to prosper thee ! 

And that yet once before I die For I am still thy lover true. 

Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me. Come once again and love me. 

Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 

At the Revolution Green Sleeves became one of the party tunes of the Cavaliers ; 
and in the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament," 
there are no less than foui'teen to be sung to it. It is sometimes referred to under 
the name of The Blachsmith, from a song (in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 250) 
to the tune oi Green Sleeves, beginning — 

"Of all the trades that ever I see 
There is none with the blacksmith's compared may be. 
For with so many several tools works he, 
Wldch nohody can deny." 

Pepys, in his diary, 22nd April, 1660, says that, after playing at nine-pins, 
" my lord fell to singing a song upon the Rump, to the tune of The BlachsmilhP 

It was also called The Breiuer, or Old Noll, the Brewer of Huntingdon, from a 
satirical song about Oliver Cromwell, which is to be found in TJie Antidote to 
Melancholy, 1661, entitled "The Brewer, a ballad made in the year 1657, to the 
tune of The Blacksmith ; " also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 1661. 

In I7ie Dancing Master, 1686, the time first appears under the name of Green 
Sleeves and Budding Pies ; and in some of the latest editions it is called Green 
Sleeves and Yellow Lace. Percy says, " It is a received tradition in Scotland that 
Green Sleeves and Pudding Pies was designed to ridicule the Popish clergy," but 
the tradition most probably refers to a song of James the Second's time called 
At Borne there is a terrible rout,^ which was sung to the tune, and attained some 
popularity, since in the ballad-opera of Silvia, or The Country Burial, 1731, 
it appears under that name. Boswell, in his Journal, 8vo., 785, p. 319, prints 
the following Jacobite song : — 

■^This is entitled "Father Peters' Policy discovered; or "In Rome there is a most fearful rout; 

the Prince of Wales proved a Popish Perkln." London : And what do you think it is about ? 

printed for R. M., ten stanzas, of which the following is Because the birth of the babe's come out, 

the first : — Sing Lullaby Baby, by, by, by." 



232 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 

" Green Sleeves and Pudding Pies, May our affairs abroad succeed, 

Tell me where my mistress lies, And may our King come home witli speed, 

And I'll be with, her before she rise, And all Pretenders shake for speed, 
Fiddle and aw together. And let his health go round. 

To all our injured friends in need, 
This side and beyond the Tweed, 
Let all Pretenders shake for dread, 
And let his health go round." 

There is no apparent connection between the subject of the first and that of the 
remaining stanzas ; and although the first may have been the burden of an older 
song, it bears no indication of having refered to the clergy of any denomination. 

There is scarcely a collection of old English songs in which at least one may 
not be found to the tune of Green Sleeves. In the West of England it is still 
sung at harvest-homes to a song beginning, " A pie sat on a pear-tree top; " and 
at the Maypole still remaining at Ansty, near Blandford, the villagers still dance 
annually round it to this tune. 

The following " Carol for New Year's Day, to the tune of Crreen Sleeves" is 

from a black-letter collection printed in 1642, of which the only copy I have seen 

is in the Ashmolean Library, Oxford. 

mi,™ „ij ,„„ „ • a J I thank my master and my dame, 

1 he old year now away is tied, •' •' ' , 

rri,„ „, „ u ;„ „„i. A The which are founders of the same, 

1 he new year it is entered ; . . ' 



Then let us now our sins down tread. 



To eat to drink now is no shame — 



And joyfully all appear. ^"^ send us a merry new year. 

Let's merry be this holiday. Come lads and lasses every one. 

And let us run with sport and play. Jack, Tom, Dick, Bess, Mary, and Joan, 

Hang sorrow, let's cast care away — Let's cut the meat unto the bone, 

God send you a happy new year. For welcome you need not fear. 

And here for good liquor we shall not lack. 

And now with new year's gifts each friend j^ ^ju ^^^^^^ ^^ i^^ains and strengthen my 
Unto each other they do send ; back 

God grant we may our lives amend. This joll'y good cheer it must go to wrack- 

And that the truth may appear. Q^d send us a merry new year. 

Now like the snake cast off your skin 

Of evil thoughts and wicked sin, C°'"''' S^^^ "^ ^°'^ ^^1"°'' ^^^° ^ '^° '=^"' 

And to amend this new year begin- ^'^^ ^''""^ ^° ^^''^ °"® '"^ ^'"' ^^"' 

/-, J J „ I hope that so loud I must not bawl, 

God send us a merry new year. ^ ' 

But unto me lend an ear. 
And now let all the company Good fortune to my master send, 

In friendly manner all agree. And to my dame which is our friend. 

For we are here welcome all may see God bless us all, and so I end — 

Unto this jolly good cheer. And God send us a happy new year. 

The following version of the tune, from The Bee/gars'' Opera, 1728, is that 
pow best known. I have not found any lute or virginal copy which had this 
second part. The earliest authority for it is Tlie Dancing Master, 1686, and it 
may have been altered to suit the violin, as the older second part is rather low, 
and less effective, for the instrument. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



233 



I have selected a few lines from a political song called Tlie Trimmer, to print 
■with this copy, because it has the burden, " Which nobody can deny." It is one 
of the many songs to the tune in Pills to purge Melancholy. 

Tune of Green Sleeves. Later copy. 



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Pray lend me youi' ear, if you've a - ny to spare, You that love ComtDon-wealth as j-ou 



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hate Common Prayer,That can in abreath pray, dissemble and swear,Whichnobodycan de - 



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MY ROBIN IS TO THE GREENWOOD GONE; ok, BONNY SWEET ROBIN. 

This is contained in Anthony Holborne's Cittharn Schoole, 1597 ; in Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in William Ballet's Lute Book ; and in many other 
manuscripts and printed books. 

There are two copies in William Ballet's Lute Book, and the second is entitled 
" Robin Hood is to the greenwood gone;" it is, therefore, probably the tune of a 
ballad of Robin Hood, now lost. 

Ophelia sings a line of it in Samlet — 

" For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy ; " 
and in Fletcher's Two liable Kinsmen, the jailer's daughter, being mad, says, 
" I can sing twenty more ... I can sing 27*6 Broom and Bonny Rohin." Li 
Robinson's Schoole of Musiche (1603), and in one of Dowland's Lute Manuscripts, 



234 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



(D. d., 2. 11, Cambridge), it is entitled, "Robin is to the greenwood gone; in 
Addit. MSS. 17,786 (Brit. Mus.), " My Robin," &c. 

A ballad of " A dolefull adieu to the last Erie of Darby, to the tune of Bonny 
siveet Mohin," was entered at Stationers' Hall to John Danter on the 26th April, 
1593 ; and in the Croivn Crarland of Golden Hoses is " A courtly new ballad of 
the princely wooing of the fair Maid of London by King Edward ; " as well as 
" The fair Maid of London's answer," to the same tune. The two last were also 
printed in black-letter by Henry Gosson, and are reprinted in Evans' Old 
Ballads, iii. 8. 

In " Good and true, fresh and new Christmas Carols," b.l., 1642, there is a 
" Carol for St. Stephen's day : tune of Bonny sweet Mohin" beginning — 
" Come, mad boys, be glad, boys, for Christmas is here. 
And we shall be feasted with jolly good cheer," &o. 
Slowly and ad Uhitum. 




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My Ro - bin is to the green-wood gone, 



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WITH A FADING. 
In act iv., so. 3, of Shakespeare's Winter^s Tale, the servant says of Autolycus, 
" He hath songs for man or woman, of all sizes ; no milliner can so fit his 
customers with gloves: he has the prettiest love-songs for maids; . . . with such 
delicate burdens of dildos a,nd fadings.^' 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 12, there is a ballad by L. P. (Laurence Price?), 
entitled " The Batchelor's Feast ; or — 

The difference betwixt a single life and a double ; 
Betwixt the batchelor's pleasure and the married man's trouble. 
To a pleasant new tune, called With a hie dildo dill." It begins thus : — ■ 
" As I walkt forth of late, where grass and flowers spring, 
I heard a batchelor within an harbour sing. 
The tenor of his song contain'd much melodie : 
It is a gallant thing to live in liberty. 

With a hie, dildo, dill, 
Hie do, dil dur lie ; 
It is a delightful thing 
To live at liberty." 
There are six stanzas ; and six more in a second part (at p. 17 of the same 



ILLUSTRATINO SHAKESPEARE. 



235 



volume), " printed at London for I. W." (either I. Wright or L White, who were 
both ballad printers of the reigns of James I. and Charles I.) 

In Qlioice Drollery, 1656, p. 31, is another, which would require a different 
tune, commencing — " A story strange I will you tell, 

But not so strange as true, 
Of a woman that danc'd upon the rope, 

And so did her husband too. 
With a dildo, clildo, dildo, 
With a dildo, dildo dee." 
In the Pepys Collection of Ballads, i. 224, is one by Robert Guy, printed for 
H. Gosson, and with the following title : — 

" The Merry Forester. 
Yoimg men and maids, in country or in city 
I crave your aids with me to tune this ditty ; 
Both new and true it is, no harm in this is, 
But is composed of the word call'd kisses ; 
Yet meant by none, abroad loves to be gadding : 
It goes unto the tune of With a f adding!' 
The first line is " Of late I chanc'd to be where I," &c. 

Another song, which has the burden " with a fading," will be found in 
Shirley's Bird in a Cage, act iv., sc. 1 (1633). A third in Sportive Wit, &c., 
1656, p. 58. The last is also printed in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 99 (1707), 
with the tune, of which there are other copies in the same work. 

There are also ballads to it, under the name of An Orange, and With a 
Pudding. See Roxburghe Collection, ii. 16 ; Pills to purge Melancholy, i. 90 
(1707), &c. 

The Fading is the name of an Irish dance, but With a fading {or /adding) 
seems to be used as a nonsense-burden, like Derry down, Hey nanny, nonny no, &c. 

Trippingly and in moderate time. 




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scorn the court, For we are as mer-ry up - on the downs As you are at 



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mid - night with all your sport. With a fad-in 



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236 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



You hawk, you hunt, you lie upon pallets. 
You eat, you drink (the Lord knows how !) ; 

We sit upon hillocks, and pick up our sallets, 
And drink up a syllahub under a cow. 

With a fading. 

Your masks are made for knights and lords, 
And ladies that go fine and gay ; 

We dance to such music the bagpipe affords. 
And trick up our lasses as well as we may. 
With a fading. 



Your clothes are made of silk and satin, 
And ours are made of good sheep's gray; 

You mix your discourse with pieces of Latin, 
We speak our English as well as we may. 
With a fading. 

You dance Corants and the French Braul, 
We jig the Morris upon the green. 

And make as good sport in a country hall, 
As you do before the King and the Queen. 
With a fading. 

HOW SHOULD I YOUR TRUE LOVE KNOW.' 
The late W. Linley (an aceomplislaed amateur, and brother of the highly-gifted 
Mrs. Sheridan) collected and published " the wild and pathetic melodies of 
Ophelia, as he I'emembered them to have been exquisitely sung by Mrs. Forster, 
when she was Miss Field, and belonged to Drury Lane Theatre;" and he says, 
" the impression remained too strong on his mind to make him doubt the 
correctness of the airs, agreeably to her delivery of them." Dr. Arnold also 
noted them down from the singing of Mrs. Jordan, and Mr. Ayrton has followed 
that version in his Annotations to Knight's Pictorial Hdition of Shakespeare. 
The notes of this ah- are the same in both ; but in the former it is in I time, 
in the latter in common time. The melody is printed in common time in 
The Beggars' Opera (1728) to " You'll think, ere many days ensue," and in 
The Grenerous Freemason, 1731. 

Dr. Percy selected some of the fragments of ancient ballads which are 
dispersed through Shakespeare's plays, and especially those sung by Ophelia in 
Samlet, and connected them by a few supplemental stanzas into his charming 
ballad, Tlie Friar of Orders Gray, the first line of which is taken from one, sung 
by Petruchio, in The Taming of the Shrew. 

The following is the tune; but in singing Ophelia's fragments, each line should 
begin on the first of the bar, and not with the note before it. In the ballad- 
operas it has the burden. Twang, lang, dildo dee at the end, with two additional 
bars of music, the same as to The Knight and Shepherd'' s Daughter. See p. 127. 
Moderate time and smoothly. 



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And how should I 
How should I 



your true - love know From many an - o - ther 

From an - o - ther 



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He is dead and gone, lady. 
He is dead and gone ; 

At his head a green grass turf, 
At his heels a stone. 



White his shroud as mountain snow, 
Larded with sweet flowers, 

Which bewept to the grave did go 
With true love showers. 



ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



237 



A parody on this song seems to be intended in Rowley's A Match at Midnight, 
1633, where the Welshman sings — 

" Did hur not see hur true love-a 

As hur come from London ? " &c. _ 

AND WILL HE NOT COME AGAIN ? 

This fragment, sung by Ophelia, was also noted down by W. Liuley. It 

appears to be a portion of the tune entitled TJie Merry Milhnaids in Tlie Dancing 

Master, 1650, and The Milkmaids' Bimips in several ballads. The following lines 

in Uastivard Roe, 1605, resemble, and are probably a parody on, Ophelia's song: — 

" His head as white as milk, 

All flaxen was his hair ; 

But now he is dead, 

And lain in his bed, 

And never will come again." 

. Very slowly and ad libifum. 



-Doddey, iv., 223. 



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His beard was white as snow, 
All flaxen was his hair, 

He is gone, he is gone, 

And we east away moan ; 
God 'a mercy on his soul. 

O DEATH! ROCK ME ASLEEP. 
In the second part of Shakespeare's King Henry IV., act ii., so. 4, Pistol 
snatching up his sword, exclaims — 

" What ! shall we have incision ? shall we imbrue ? 
Then death rock me asleep, abridge my doleful days ! " 
This is in allusion to the following song, which is supposed to have been written 
by Anne Boleyn. The words were printed by Sir John Hawkins in his History 
of Music, having been "communicated to him by a very judicious antiquary," 
then " lately deceased," whose opinion was that they were written either by, or in 
the person of, Anne Boleyn; "a conjecture," he adds, "which her unfortunate 
history renders very probable." On this Ritson remai-ks, " It is, however, but a 
conjecture: any other state prisoner of that period having an equal claim. 



238 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



George, Viscount Eochford, brother to the above lady, and who suffered on her 
account, ' hath the fame,' according to Wood, ' of being the author of several 
poems, songs, and sonnets, with other things of the like nature,' and to him he 
(Ritson) is willing to refer them." — (Ancient iSoni/s, 1790, p. 120.) 

The first stanza of the words, with the tune, is contained in a manuscript of 
the latter part of Henry's reign, foi'merly in the possession of Stafford Smith, 
and now in that of Dr. Rimbault. It is a single-voice part, in the diamond-headed 
note, and without accompaniment. Another copy, with an accompaniment for the 
lute, will be found in Addit. MSS. 4900, British Museum. 
Moderate time, and like recitative. 



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rest : Let pass my wea-ry, guiltless life Out of my careful breast. 



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ILLUSTRATING SHAKESPEARE. 



239 



My pains who can express 1 

Alas ! they are so strong ; 
My dolour will not suffer strength 
My life for to prolong. 
Toll on, &c. 

Alone in prison strong 

I wail my destiny ; 
Woe worth this cruel hap that I 

Should taste this misery. 
Toll on, &c. 



Farewell my pleasures past, 

Welcome my present pain ; 
I feel my torments so increase, 

That life cannot remain. 
Cease now the passing bell. 
Rung is my doleful knell. 
For the sound my death doth tell. 
Death doth draw nigh, 
Sound my end dolefully, 
For now I die. 



CAN YOU NOT HIT IT, MY GOOD MAN? 
The following lines are sung by Rosaline and Boyet in act iv., sc. 1, of Love's 
Labour Lost. The tune was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault from one of the MSS. 
presented by Bishop Fell to the Music School at Oxford, and bearing a date of 
1620. Canst thou not kit it is mentioned as a dance in the play of Wily Beguiled, 
written in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1579, " a ballat intytuled There is better 
game, if you coidd hit it," was licensed to Hughe Jaxon. 
Trippingly and moderately fast. , 

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The list of music illustrating Shakespeare might be largely increased, by- 
including in it catcheSj part-music, and the works of known composers, which do 
not fall within the scope of the present collection. The admirers of Shakespeare 
will be gratified to know that a work is in progress which will include not only 
those, but also such of the original music to his dramas as can still be found.^ 

The three following ballads, with which I close the reign of Elizabeth, were 
popular in the time of Shakespeare, but are not mentioned by the great poet. 



°' This work (to which Dr. Rimbault has devoted many 
years of zealous research) will be entitled " A Collection 
of Ancient Music, illustrating the plays and poems of 
Shakespeare." The first portion will contain all that now 
remains of the original music to his dramas, or which, if 
not composed for the first representation of them, was 
written during the life-time of the poet. The whole of 



the music of The Tempest will be included in this part. 
Another division will contain the old songs, ballads, 
catches, &c., inserted, or alluded to, by Shakespeare. Tlie 
dances will form the third part. It was owing to re- 
searches on a subject so much akin to that of the present 
Collection, that Dr. Rimbault's aid has been so peculiarly 
valuable in this work. 



240 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC 



BAKA FAUSTUS- DREAM. 

In tlie instrumental arrangements of this tune it is usually entitled Baia 
Faustus (or Barrow Fosterh) Dream ; and when found as a song, it is generally 
as, " Come, sweet love, let sorrow cease." 

It will be found under the former name in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book 
(twice); in Rossiter's Lessons for Consort, 1609 ; and in Nederlandtsche Gedenck- 
Clanck, 1626, under the latter in " Airs and Sonnets," MS., Trin. Col., Dublin 
(F. V. 13) ; in the MS. containing "It was a lover and his lass," described at 
p. 204 ; and in Forbes' Cantus, 1682. 

Bara Faushis' Dreame was one of the tunes chosen for the Psalmes or Songs 
of Sion, kc, 1642, 

Smoothly, and with expression 

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Come sweet Love, let sor-row cease, Banish frowns, leave oiF dis-sen-tion. 



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T , 1 xi X i IT 1 • .• 1, 1 i- Sunsliine follows 

Love swarmakesthesweetestpeace, Hearts u-ni-ting by contention, Af.ier sor-row 



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af-ter rain, Sor-rows ceas-ing, This is pleasing, All proves fair a - gain. 
Cometh joy, Trust me, prove me, try me, love me, This will care an - noy. 



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THE SPANISH PA VAN. 

Dekker, in his KnigWs Qonjuring (1607) thus apostrophises his opponent : 
" Thou, most clear-throated singing man, with thy harp, to the twinkling of 
which inferior spirits skipp'd like goats over the Welsh mountains, hadst privilege 
(because thou wert a fiddler) to be saucy ? Inspire me with thy cunning, and 
guide me in true fingering, that I may strike those tunes which thou playd'st ! 
Lucifer himself danced a Lancashire Hornpipe whilst thou wert there. If I can 
but harp upon thy string, he shall now, for my pleasure, tickle up The Spanish 
Favan." The tune of Tlie Spanish Pavan was very popular in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James. One of the songs in Anthony Munday's Banquet of 



REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



241 



Daintie Conceits, 1588, is " to the note of The Spanish Pavin ; " aoother in 
.part ii. of Mobin Cfoodfelloiv, 1628; and there are many in the Pepys and Rox- 
bui-ghe Collections of Ballads. 

It is mentioned as a dance in act iy., sc. 2, of Middleton's Blurt, Master Con- 
stable, 1602 ; and in act i., sc. 2, of Ford's ^Tis Pity, 1633. In the former the 
tune is played for Lazarillo to dance The Spanish Pavan. The figure, which 
differed from other Payans, is described in Thoinot Arbeau's Orchesographie, 1589; 
but as the tune there printed is wholly different from the following (which is 
found in Queen Elizabeth's Vii'ginal Book, William Ballet's Lute Book, Sh- 
J. Hawkins' transcripts of Virginal Music, &c.), I suppose this to be English, 
although not a characteristic air. 

The ballad, " When Samson was a tall young man," (of which the first stanza 
is here prmted) is in the Pepys Collection, i. 32 ; in the Roxburghe, i. 366 ; and 
in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 283 (1810)." It is parodied in Eastivard Hoe, the joint 
pi'oduction of Ben Jonson, Marston, and Chapman, act ii.,sc. 1. The two first 
lines are the same in the parody and the ballad. 
Moderate time. 



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tall young man, His pow'r and strength in 



When Sara - son was 



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saw a maiden fresh and gay, In Tim-nath, in Tim - nath. 



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« The copies in the Pepys and Roxburghe Collections (which is followed by Evans) was printed "for the 
differ. The former has no printer's name; the latter assigns of T. Symcocke." 

R 



242 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



WIGMOEE'S GALLIARD. 

The tune from William Ballet's Lute Book. In Middleton's Yovrfive Crallants, 
Jack says, " This will make my master leap out of the bed for joy, and dance 
Wigmore's Q-alliard in his shirt about his chamber !" It is frequently mentioned 
by other early wi'iters, and there are many ballads to the tune. Among them 
are " A most excellent new Dittie, wherein is shewed the wise sayings and wise 
sentences of Solomon, Avherein each estate is taught his dutie, with singular 
counsell to his comfort and consolation " (a copy in the collection of the late 
Mr. W. H. Miller, from Heber's Library). " A most famous Dittie of the joyful 
receiving of the Queen's most excellent Majestic by the worthie citizens of 
London, the 12th day of November, 1584, at her Grace's coming to St. James' " 
(a copy in the Collection of Mr. George Daniel). In the Pepys Collection, i. 455, 
is "A most excellent Ditty called Collin's Conceit," beginning — 

" Conceits of sundry sorts there are." 
Others are in the second volume of the Pepys Collection ; in the Roxburghe ; in 
Anthony Munday's Banquet of Daintie Conceits; in Deloney's Strange Histories, 
1607, &c. 

The following stanza is from the ballad of " King Henry the Second cro'^vning 
his son Henry, in his life-time," &c., by Deloney. The entire ballad is reprinted 
by Evans (ii. 63), from The Grarland of Delight, but he omits the name of the tune. 



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chil - dren doth ap - pear, Mark well the sto - ry now in 



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REIGN OF ELIZABETH. 



243 



GOOD FELLOWS MUST GO LEARN TO DANCE. 

The following ballad is from a copy (probably unique) in the Collection of 
Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury. It may be sung to several of the foregoing 
airs, but the name of the proper tune is not given on the copy. 

A NEW BALLAD INTITULED 

GOOD FELLOWS MUST GO LEARN TO DANCE. 



Good fellows must go leai-n to dance, 

The bridal is full near- a, 
There is a Braule come out of France, 

The trick'st you heard this year-a ; 
For I must leap, and thou must hop, 

And we must turn all three-a, 
The fourth must hounce it like a top. 

And so we shall agree-a ; 
I pray thee, Minstrel, make no stop, 

For we will merry be-a. 

The bridegroom would give 20 pound 

The marriage-day were past-a ; 
You know while lovers are unbound, 

The knot is slipp'ry fast-a. 
A better man may come in place, 

And take the bride away-a; 
Grod send or Wilkin better grace, 

Our pretty Tom doth say-a ; - 
Good Vicar, axe the banns apace, 

And haste the marriage-dav-a. 



A baud of bells in bawdrick wise 

Would deck us in our kind-a ; 
A shirt after the Morris guise, 

To flounce it in the wind-a ; 
A Whiffler for to make the way, 

And May brought in with all-a, 
Is braver than the sun, I say. 

And passeth Eound or Braule-a, 
For we will trip so trick and gay, 

That we will pass them all-a. 

Draw to dancing, neighbours all. 

Good fellows, hip is best-a; 
It skills not if we take a fall, 

In honoring this feast-a. 
The bride will thank us for our glee, 

The world will us behold-a ; 
where shall all this dancing be ? 

In Kent or in Cotswold-a ? 
Our lord doth know, then axe not me, 

And so my tale is told-a. 



Imprinted at London in Flete Strete at the signe of the Faucon, by Wylliam 
Gryffith, and are to be solde at his shoppe in S. Dunstones Church Yearde, 1569. 



244 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



EEIGN OP JAMES I. 

The most distmguisliing featm-e of chamber music, in the reign of James I., 
from that of his predecessor, was the rapidly-increasing cultivation of mstrumental 
music, especially of such as could he played in concert ; and, coevally, the in- 
cipient decline of the more learned, but less melodious descriptions of vocal music, 
such as madrigals and motets. 

During the greater part of the reign of Elizabeth, vocal music held an almost 
undivided sway, and the practice of instrumental music, in private life, was 
generally confined to solo performances, and to accompaniments for the voice. 

The change of fashion, so far as I have been able to trace it, may be dated from 
1599, in which year Morley printed a " Fu'st Booke of Consorte Lessons, made 
by divers exquisite authors," for six instruments to play together ; and Anthony 
Holborne a collection of " Pavans, Galliards, Almaines, and other short airs, both 
grave and light, in five parts." Morley's publication consisted of favorite 
subjects arranged for the Treble Lute, the Pandora," the Cittern, the (English) 
Flute,'' and the Treble and Bass Viols. Holborne's was for Viols, for Violins," 
or for wind-instruments. 

I know of no set of Madrigals printed during the reign of Elizabeth, which is 
described on the title-page as "apt /or Viols and Voices" — it was fully under- 
stood that they were for voices only; — but, from 1603, when James ascended the 
throne, that mode of describing them became so general, that I have found but 
two sets printed without it.'^ 

a There was a foreign instrument of the lute descrip- rather more than two feet. I had three or four of differ- 

tion, with a great number of strings, called the Pandara, ent sizes, the largest exceeding four feet in length. Tlie 

but I imagine the English Pandora to be the same instru- base flute must have been still longer. The modem 

ment as the iJandora. In Thomas Robinson's " School flute is blown like the old fife; or as in the ancient 

of Musicke, the perfect fingering of the Lute, Pandora, sculpture of The Piping Fawn. 

Orpharion and Viol da Gamba" the music is noted on six ° Under the name of " Violins " the four different sizes 
lines, for an instrument of six strings like the Lute. In of the instrument are here comprehended. The word. 
1613, Drayton and Sir William Leighton severally enu- Violoncello is of comparatively modem use. In Ben 
merated the instruments in use ih England. Drayton Jonson's BarUiolomew Fair, we find, "A set of these 
names the " Pandore" among instruments strung with Violins I would buy, too, for a delicate young noise" {i.e., 
wire. Sir William Leighton speaks of the "Bandore," company of young musicians) "I have in the country; 
but neither of i»o/A. In 1G09, Philip Hosseter printed a they are every one a size less than another; — just like your 
set of *' Lessons for Consort," like Morley's, and for the Jiddles." — Act iii., sc. 1. Charles the Second's famous 
same six instruments, if the Bandora be not an ex- band of " four-and-twenty fiddlers, all in a row," con- 
ception. It was a large instrument of the lute kind, sisted of six violins, six counter-tenors, six tenors, 
with the same number of strings (but in all probability of and six bases. The counter-tenor violin has become oh- 
wire), and invented in 1562 by John Rose, citizen of solete, because all the notes of its scale could be played 
London, dwelling in Bridewell. It was much used in upon the violin or tenor. 

this reign, especially with the Cittern, to which it formed '^ The exceptions are Bateson's First Set of Madrigals, 

tlie appropriate base. 1604, and Pilkington's First Set. 1613, but the second sets 

I' The English flute, described by Mersenne as the of both authors are described as "apt for viols and voices." 

Fistula dulcis, sen Anglica, and by some as the Flute SoareWilbye's5ccon<iSe(, 1609 ; Michael Este'sJ5i>7i«Sris, 

(I bee, has eight holes for the fingers, and a mouth-piece of "various dates, and the Madrigals of Orlando Gibbons, 

at the end like a flageolet. Of the eight holes, six are in Robert Jones, John Ward, Henry Lichfield, Walter Porter, 

a row in front, one at the end for the little finger as well as Byrd's P^a/mes, 5ony5, and 5onwef5, 1611 : Peer- 

( added afte^^'ards ), and one at the back for the son's Motets or Grave Chamber Music, 1630; and many 

thumb. The tone is soft, rich, and melodious, but less lighter kinds of music. See Rimbault's Bibliotlieca 

brilliant than the present flute. The ordinary length is Madrigaliana, 8vo., 1847. 



REIGN OF JAMES I. 



245 



Between 1603 and 1609, Dowland printed his "Lacrimse, or Seven Teares 
figured in seven passionate Pavans, with divers other Pavans, Galliards, and 
Almands." This work, to which there are so many allusions by contemporary 
Dramatists, was in five parts, for the Lute, Viols, or Violins. In 1609, Rossiter 
printed his '* Lessons for Consort" for the same six instruments as Morley, Li 
1611, Morley's woi'k was reprinted,^ and about the same time Orlando Gibbons 
published his Fantasies of three parts for Viols,^ 



"^ Twelve volumes of Dr. Burney's MS. extracts for his 
History of Music were formerly in my possession, and are 
uow in the British Museum. In one of them (Add. MSS. 
11,587) are his extracts from Morley's Consort Lessons. 
To "0 mistress mine " (which I have printed at p. 209) 
he appends the following note: — "If any melody or move- 
ment, hesides the Hornpipe {a tune played by the Cornish 
pipCf or pipe of Cornwall), be truly native, it seems to be 
this; which has the genuine drawl of our country clowns 
and ballad singers in sorrowful ditties, as the hornpipe has 
the coarse and vulgar jollity of their mirth and merri- 
ment." This criticism is a curiosity, and not less curious 
is the judgment he passes on the Consort Lessons, after 
scoring two out of the six parts (the Treble Viol and 
Flute), and adding his own base. Morley dedicates them 
to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and Dr. Bumey says, 
" Master Morley, supposing that the harmony which was 
to be heard through the clattering of knives, forks, spoons, 
and plates, with the jingling of glasses, and clamorous 
conversation of a city feast, need notbe very accurate and 
refined, was not very nice in setting parts to these tunes, 
if we may judge of the rest by what passes betiveen the viol 
and flute," &c. The whole of this passage is transferred 
to his History of Music (iii. 102, Note D, 17S9), except 
tlie qualification, "if we may judge," &c. It was not 
advisable to tell the reader Aoiy he had formed his opinion 
of a work that had formerly passed through two editions. 

Among Dr. Burney's other criticisms of English Music 
(for Ills History is essentially a critical one, and he has been 
commonly quoted as an authority) are the following, which 
are also directly connected with the subject of this hook :— 
In vol. ii., p. 553, he says, "It is related by Gio. Battista 
Donatio that the Turks have a limitednumber of tunes, to 
wliich the poets of their country have continued to write 
for ages; and the vocal music of our own country seems 
long to have been equally circumscribed ; for, till the last 
century, it seems as if the number of our secular and 
popular melodies did not greatly exceed that of the Turks." 
In a note it is stated that the tunes of the Turks were in 
all twenty-four; which were to depict melancholy, joy, or 
fury; to be mellifluous or amorous. It may not, I hope, 
be too presumptuous to say that Dr. Burney knew very 
little of the subject. In vol. iii., 143, after criticising a 
work printed in 1C14, and saying, "The Violin was now 
hardly known by the English, in shape or name" (although 
Ben Jonson describes the instrument, at that very time, 
as commonly sold with roast pigs in Bartholomew Fair, 
and violins had certainly been used on the English 
stage from its infancy. See, for instance, the tragedy of 
Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrext acted by the gentlemen 
of the Inner Temple before Queen Elizabeth, in 1561); 
he adds, " And the low state of our regal music 
in the time of Henry VIII., 1530, may be gathered 
from the accounts given in Hall and HoUinshed's 
Chronicles, of a Masque at Cardinal Wolsey's palace, 
Whitehall, where the King was entertained with 'o con- 
cert of drums and ffcs.'** He then says, " But this was 



soft music compared with that of his heroic daughter 
Elizabeth, who, according to Hentzner, used io be regaled 
during dinner " with twelve trumpets, and two kettle- 
drums; which, together with fifes, cornets, and side-drums, 
made the hall ring for half an hour together." I find 
nothing of the kind in Hall's Chronicle (there is a short 
notice of a similar Masque at Cardinal Wolsey's, in the 
tenth year of Henry VIII., fol. 65, b. 1548, but no drums • 
and fifes); and Hollinshed, who takes the account from 
Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, is speaking not of a "concert" 
at the Cardinal's, but of tlie manner of receiving the King 
and some of his nobles, who came by water tu a Masque; 
firstly by firing off "divers chambers" (short guns that 
make a loud report) at his landing, and then conducting 
him up into the chamber "with such a noise of drums 
and fleutes, as seldom had been heard the like." Caven- 
dish says, "with such a number of drums and fifes as 
I have seldom seen together at one time in any masque " 
(Singer's edit., 8vo., 1825); and, describing the masques 
generally, says, "Then was there all kind of music and 
harmony set forth, with excellent voices both of men and 
children." Saguduio, the Venetian Ambassador, who 
describes a banquet given by Henry VIII., in honor of 
the Flemish envoys, on the 7th July, 1517, says, "during 
the dinner there were boys on a stage in the centre of the 
hall, some of whom sang, and others played the flute, re- 
beck, and virginals, making the sweetest melody." As to 
Queen Elizabeth, I quote Hentzner's words from the copy 
used by Dr. Bumey; " During the time this guard, which 
consists of the tallest and stoutest men that can be found 
in all England, were bringing dinner, twelve trumpets and 
two kettle-drums made the hall ring for half an hour to- 
gether." (This was the loud music togive notice to pre- 
pare for dinner, like the gong, or dinner-bell of the present 
day, but the fifes, comets, and side-drums, are of Dr. 
Burney's invention.) ^^Ai the end of all this ceremonial 
a number of unmarried ladies appeared, wlio with par- 
ticular solemnity lifted the meat off the table, and conveyed 
it into ike Queen's inner and more private chamber, where, 
after she had chosen for herself, the rest goes to the ladies 
of the Court. The Queen dines and sups alone, with very 
few attendants," &c. Hentzner also says, "Without the 
city" (of London) "are some theatres where English 
actors represent almost every day tragedies and comedies 
to very numerous audiences: these are concluded with 
excellent music, variety of dances, and the excessive 
applause of those that are present.'* The original words 
are " quas variis etiam saltationibus, suavissima adhibita 
musica, magno cum populi applausu finiresolent." Again, 
in summing up the character of the English in a few 
lines, he says, ' ' They excel in dancing and music, for they 
are active and lively, though of a thicker make than the 
French," Dr. Burney, throughout his History, writes in 
a similarly disparaging strain about English music and 
English musicians, for which I am unable to account. 

^ For the republication of these, and many other works of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, tlie world is in- 



246 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Viola had six strings, and the position of the fingers was marked on the finger- 
board by frets, as in guitars of the present day. The " Chest of Viols " consisted 
of three, four, five, or six of difierent sizes ; one for the treble, others for the mean, 
the counter-tenor, the tenor, and perhaps two for the base. Old English musical 
instruments were commonly made of three or four difierent sizes, so that a player 
might take any of the four parts that were requii'ed to fill up the harmony. So 
Violins, Lutes, Recorders, Flutes, Shawms, &c., have been described by some 
writers in a manner which (to those unacquainted with this peculiarity) has 
appeared irreconcileable with other accounts. Shakespeare (in Samlet) speaks of 
the Recorder as a little pipe, and says, in A Midsummer Nighfs Bream, " he hath 
played on his prologue like a child on a recorder ; " but in an engraving of the 
instrument," it reaches from the lip to the knee of the performer; and among 
those left by Henry VIII. were Recorders of box, oak, and ivory, gi'eat and small, 
two base recorders of walnut, and one great base recorder. In the same catalogue 
we find " flutes called Pilgrims' staves," which were probably six feet long. 

Richard Braithwait, a writer of this reign, has " set down Some Bides for the 
Crovernment of the House of an Earl^^ in which the Earl was to keep "five 
musitions skillfull in that commendable sweete science," and they were required 
to teach the Earl's children to sing, and to play upon the base-viol, the vii'ginals, 
the lute, and the bandora, or cittern. When he gave " great feasts," the musi- 
cians were to play, whUst the service was going to the table, upon Sackbuts, 
Cornets, Shawms, and "such other instruments going with wind;'"' and upon 
" Viols, Violins, or other broken'^ musicke," during the repast. 

The custom of retaining musicians in the service of families continued to the 
time of the Protectorate. It was not confined to men of high rank (either in this 
or the preceding century), but was general with the wealthy of all classes. 

debted to tlie Musical Antiquarian Society. The Madri- reed in the Hautboy, and that these were Recorders. In 

gals of Wilbye, Weelkes, Bennet, Bateson, and Gibbons; the proverbs at Leckingfield (quoted ante Note *■, p. 35), 

the Ballets of Morley and Hilton ; the four-part songs of the Recorder is described as " desiring " the mean part, 

Dowtand, and four Operas by Purcell; besides the first but manifold fingering and stops bringetb high (notes) 

music printed for the Virginals, the four-part Psalms by from its clear tones. This agrees with Salter's book. He 

Este, and various Anthems, &c., &c. tells us the high notes are produced byplacing the thumb 

° See "The Genteel Companion for the Recorder," by Ao?/over the hole at the back, and blowing alittle stronger. 

Humphrey Salter, 16S3. Recorders and (English) Flutes Recorders were used for teaching birds to pipe, 
are to outward appearance the same, although Lord Bacon, ''In Middleton's play. The Spanish Gipsy, act ii., sc. 1, 

in his Natural History, cent, iii., sec. 221, says the Re- is another allusion to the loud music while dinner was 

corder hath a less bore, and a greater above and below. being carried in, as well as a common pun upon sackbuts 

The number of holes for the fingers is the same, and the and sack. 

scale, the compass, and the manner of playing, the same. Alv, " You must not look to have your dinner served in 

Salter describes the recorder from which the instrument with trumpets.'* 

derives its name, as situate in the upper part of it, i.e.. Car. " No, no, sack-buts shall serve us." 

between the hole below the mouth and the highest hole <= " Broken Music," as is evident from this and other 

for the finger. He says, " Of the kinds of music, vocal passages, means what we now term "a string band." 

has always had the preference in esteem, and in con- Shakespeare plays with the term twice: firstly in Troilus 

sequence, the Recorder, as approaching nearest to the ond Cressida, act iii., sc. 1, proving that the musicians then 

sweet delight/illness of the voice, ought to have first place on the stage were performing on stringed instruments; 

in opinion, as we see by the universal use of it confirmed." and secondly in Henry V., act v., sc. 2, where he says to 

The Hautboy is considered now to approach most nearly the French Princess Katherine, " Come, your answer in 

to the human voice, and Mr. Ward, the military instru- broken music; for thy voice is music and thy English 

ment manufacturer, informs me that he has seen "old broken." The term originated probably from harps, lutes, 

English Flutes " with a hole bored through the side, in and such other stringed instruments as were played with- 

the upper part of the instrument, the holes being covered out a bow, not having the capability to sustain a long note 

with a thin piece of skin, like gold-beater's skin. 1 sup- to its full duration of time, 
pose this would give somewhat the effect of the quill or 



EEISN OP JAMES I. 247 

So the old mercliaiit in Shii-ley's Love Tricks (licensed 1625) says, " I made a 
ditty, and my musician, that I keep in my house to teach my daughter, liath set it 
to a very good an*, lie tells me." At least one wealthy merchant of the reign of 
Henry VIII. retained as many musicians in his service as are prescribed for the 
household of an Earl m James' reign. Sir Thomas Kytson, citizen and mercer, 
built Hengrave Hall, in Suffolk, between the years 1525 and 1538, and at the 
death of his son (towards the close of Elizabeth's reign) inventories of all the fur- 
niture and effects were taken, including those of " the chamber where the musicyons 
playe," and of the " instruments and books of musicke" it contaiaed." With the 
exception of those for the lute, all the books of instrumental music were in sets of 
five (for music in five or more parts), as well as those containing the vocal music, 
described as " old." The number of musicians was perhaps increased by his son, 
for in the household expenses of the year 1574, we find, " seven cornets bought 
for the musicians ; " and the viols, violins, and recorders, in the inventory, are 
(like those of Henry VHI.) in chests or cases containing six or seven of each ; 
whilst much of the vocal music required six, and some seven and eight, voices 
to sing it. In 1575 he lent the services of Robert Johnson, Mus. Bac, one of 
his musicians, to the Earl of Leicester, on the occasion of the pageants at 
Kenil worth. 

Although we have no old English book written for the purpose of describing the 
musical instruments in use in former days, like those of Mersenne and Kircher 
for France and Germany, we find in our translations of the Bible and the 
Meti'ical Psalms, the names of all in general use at the times those translations 
were made, for the Hebrew instruments are all rendered by the names of such as 
were then commonly known. We are so accustomed to picture David play- 
ing on the harp, that we are not easily reconciled to the French version of the 
Psalms, in which, in translations of the same passages, the violin is the instru- 
ment assigned to him ; and what we translate lute, they render bagpipe [musette). 
It is not my pui'pose to enter upon a detailed account of musical instruments,'' 
but the curious in such matters will find in Sir William Leighton's " Teares or 
Lamentations of a sorrowful soule," a long catalogue of those known at this period. 
It is contained in " A thanksgiving to God, with magnifying of his holy name upon 
all instruments.'^ In the following lines from Song IV. in Drayton's Poly-olhion, 
printed in the same year (1613), many of those in common use are cited: — 

« History and Antiquities of Hengrave, by John Gage, « A copy with music in the British Museum. Among 

F.S.A., fol., 1822. There are six viols in a chest; six the instruments not mentioned by Drayton are the foUow- 

violins in a chest (in 1572 a treble violin cost 20s.); seven ing, which I give in Sir William Leighton's spelling: — 

recorders in a case; besides lutes, cornets, bandoras, "Regalls, Simballs, Timbrell, Syrons, Crowdes, Clari- 

citterns, sackbuts, flutes, hautboys, a curtail (orshortsort coales, Dulsemers, Crouncorns, and Simfonie." He men- 

of bassoon), a lysarden (base comet, or serpent), a pair of tions the Drum after the Simphony, thereby apparently 

little virginals, a pair of double virginals, "a wind instru- drawing a distinction between them, but according to 

ment like a virginal," and a pair of double organs. Bartholomeus Be Proprietatibus Rerum, printed by 

*> Sir John Hawkins' descriptions of musical instru- Wynken de Worde, the Simphony is "an instrument 

ments are too much drawn from foreign sources. English of musyke . . . made of an holowe tree, closed in lether 

instruments often differed materially from those in use in eyther syde, and mystrels betyth it wyth styckes." 

abroad, as many do at the present day. I cannot agree "Crouncom" means, perhaps, Krurahom or Cromhom, a 

with his description of the Cittern (it has too many strings) crooked horn, in imitation of which we have a reed stop in 

or of some others. The catalogue of musical instru- old organs called the Cromhorn, which is now corrupted 

ments left by Henry VHI. (Harl. MSS. 1419, fol. 200) into Cremona. Henry VIII., at his death, left several 

was unfortunately unkno^vn to him, or it would have cases containing from four to seven Crumhoms in each, 
explained many difficulties. 



248 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

" When now the British side scarce finished their song, 
But th' English, that repin'd to be delay'd so long, 
All quickly at the hint, as with one free consent. 
Struck up at once and sung, each to the instrument 
(Of sundry sorts that were, as the musician likes), 
On which the practic'd hand with perfect' st fing'ring strikes, 
Whereby their height of slrill might liveliest be exprest. 
The trembling Lute some touch, some strain the Viol best. 
In sets that there were seen, the music wondrous choice. 
Some, likewise, there affect the Gamba with the voice, 
To shew that England could variety afford. 
Some that delight to touch the sterner wiry chord, 
The Githren, the Pandore, and the Theorbo strike : 
The Gittern and the Kit the wand'ring fiddlers like. 
So were there some again, in this their learned strife, 
Loud instruments that lov'd, the Cornet" and the Fife, 
The Hoboy, Sackbut deep, Recorder, and the Flute ; 
E'en from the shrillest Shawm unto the Gornamute. 
Some blow the Bagpipe up, that plays the Country-Eound ; 
The Tabor and the Pipe some take delight to sound." 

The Sundry 3Ivsiques of England. 

In consequence of the almost universal cultivation of music in the sixteenth 
century, and of the great employment and encouragement of musicians, so many 
persons embraced music as a profession, that England overflowed with them. 
Many travelled, and some were tempted by lucrative engagements to settle abroad. 
Dowland, whose " touch upon the lute " was said to " ravish human sense," 
travelled through Italy, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, and about the 
year 1600 became lutenist to the King of Denmark. On Dowland's return to 
England in 1607, Christian IV. begged of Lady Arabella Stuart (thi-ough the 
Queen and Prince Henry) to allow Thomas Cutting, another famous lutenist, then 
in her service, to replace him. Peter Phillips, better known on the continent 
(where the greater part of his works were printed) as Pietro Philippi, accepted an 
engagement as organist to the Arch-duke and Duchess of Austria, governors of 
the Low Countries, and settled there. John Cooper spent much of his life in 
Italy, and was called Coprario, or Cuperario. There were few, if any, Italian 
composers or singers then in England,^ and the music of Italy was chiefly known 
by the Madrigal, for the sacred music, as being for the service of the Mass, was 
strictly prohibited. 

^ Among Henry the Eighth's instruments were "Git- voices in Cathedral Service. The base Cornet was of a 

teron Pipes of ivory orwood, called Comets." The Comet more serpentine form, and from four to five feet in length ; 

describedbyMersenne is of a bent shape, like the segment but Mersenne says, the Serpent (contorted to render it 

of a large circle, gradually tapering from the bottom to more easy of carriage, as its length was six feet one inch) 

the mouth-piece. The comet was of a loud sound, but was the genuine base of that instrument, 
in skilful hands could be modulated so as to resemble tlie ^ Alfonso Ferabosco, the elder, was bom, of Italian 

tones of the human voice. In Ben Jonson's Masque of parents, at Greenwich. As he was brought up and lived 

NcpUtne's Triumph, the instruments employed were five in England, he can scarcely be considered as an Italian 

Lutes and three Cornets. In several other Masques, Lutes musician. Nicholas Lanier was an Italian by birth, and 

and Comets were the only instruments used. At the came to England as an engraver. He settled liere, and 

Restoration, Cornets supplied the deficiency of boys' became an eminent musician. 



EEIGN OP JAMES I. 249 

Anthony k Wood tells the following story of Dr. John Bull: — While 
travelling incognito through France and Germany for the recovery of his health, 
he heard of a famous musician belonging to the Cathedral of St. Omer, and 
applied to him to see his works. The musician having conducted Bull to a vestry 
or music-school adjoining the Cathedi-al, shewed him a lesson or song of forty 
parts, and then made a vaunting challenge to any person in the Avorld to add one 
more part, supposing it so complete that it was impossible to correct or add to it. 
Dr. BuU having requested to be locked up for two or three houi-s, speedily added 
forty more parts, whereupon the musician declared that " he that added those 
forty parts must either be the devil or Dr. John Bull."" In 1613, Bull (to 
whom many offers of preferment at foreign coui'ts had been previously made) 
quitted England, and went to reside in the Netherlands, where he entered the 
service of the Archduke. 

The emigration of musicians was not confined to a few of the most eminent, for 
we hear, indirectly, of many in the employ of foreign courts, whose movements 
would not otherwise be recorded. Thus Taylor, the water-poet, who had just 
described the Lutes, Viols, Bandoras, Recorders, Sackbuts, and Organs, in the 
Chapel of the Graf (or Count) of Schomburg, says, "I was conducted an English 
mile on my way by certain of my countrymen, my Lord's musicians." 

We are indebted to foreign countries for the preservation of many of the works 
of our best musicians of this age, as well as of our popular tunes. Dr. Bull's 
music is chiefly to be found in foreign manuscripts.'' Dowland tells us that "some 
part of his poor labours " had been printed in eight cities beyond the seas, viz., 
Paris, Antwerp, Cologne, Nuremburg, Frankfort, Leipzig, Amsterdam, and Ham- 
burg. Much of the music printed in Holland in the seventeenth century was also 
by English Composers. The right of printing music in England was a monopoly, 
generally in the hands of one or two musicians," and therefore very little, and 
only such as they chose, could be printed. Hence the scarcity, as well as the 
frequent imperfection, of these early works. 

In London, each ward of the city had its musicians ; there was also the Fins- 
bury Music, the Southwark and the Blackfriars Music, as well as the Waits of 
London and Westminster. Morley thus alludes to the Waits, in the dedication 
of his Consort Lessons to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen : "As the ancient 
custom of this most honourable and renowned city hath been ever to retain and 
maintain excellent and expert musicians to adorn your honours' favours, feasts, 
and solemn meetings : to those, your Lordships' Wayts, I recommend the same." 
A " Wayte," in the time of Edward IV., had to pij>e watch four times in the 
night, from Michaelmas to Shrovetide, and three in the summer, as well as to 

» Such exercises of learned ingenuity were common in >> One foreign manuscript volume of Dr. Bull's works 
that day. Tallis wrote a Motet in forty parts, a copy of is now in my possession, and another in that of Mr. 
which is now before me. It is for eight choirs, each of Richard Clarke, who asserts tliat it contains " God save 
five voices ; the voices only coming together occasionally. the King," of which more hereafter. The contents of 
Dr. Buniey discredits Dr. Bull's feat as " impossihle," both are described in Ward's Lives of the Gresham Pro- 
hut I am assured by Dr. Rimbault and by Mr. Macfarren, fessors, 

who have seen this Motet, that whether the story be true = It was held by Tallis and Byrd from 1575 to 1596, then 

or not, it was quite possible. In all cases the anecdote by Morley and his assignee. See Introduction to Eim- 

raay be taken as a proof of the very high reputation Dr. bault's Bibliothica Madrigaliana, 8vo., 1847. 
Bull enjoyed. 



250 



ENGLISH SONG ANB BALLAD MUSIC. 



"make hon gayte^^ at every chamber door; but Morley's Consort Lessons^ as 
before mentioned, required six instruments to play them,^ and the city bands are 
commonly quoted as playing in six parts.^ 

After the act of the 39th year of Elizabeth, which rendered all " minstrels 
"wandering abroad" liable to punishment as "rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy 
beggars," all itinerant musicians were obliged to wear cloaks and badges, with the 
arms of some nobleman, gentleman, or corporate body, to denote in whose service 
they were engaged, being thereby excepted from the operation of the act. So in 
Ram Alley, 1611, Sir Oliver says — • 

" Musicians, on ! 

Lightly, lightly, and by my knighthood's spurs 

This year you shall have my protection, 

And yet not buy your livery coats yourselves," 
And as late as 1699, we find in Sistoria Sistrionica, " It is not unlikely that the 
lords in those days, and persons of eminent quality, had their several gangs of 
players, as some have now of fiddlers, to whom they give cloaks and badges." 

Musicians in the service of noblemen and gentlemen seem to have held a 
prescriptive right to go and perform to the friends and acquaintances of their 
masters, whenever they wanted money : such visits were received as compliments, 
and the musicians were rewarded in proportion to the rank of their masters. 
Innumerable instances of this will be found in early books of household expen- 
diture ; but, in James' reign, musicians not actually in employ presumed so far 
upon the license, that their intrusion into aU companies, and at all times, became 
a constant subject of rebuke. Ben Jonson's Club, the Apollo, which met at the 
Devil tavern, chiefly for conversation, was obliged to make a law that no fiddler 
should enter, unless requested.^ Nevertheless, they were generally welcome, and 
generally well paid ; more especially, at merry-makings where their services were 
ever required. In those days a wedding was of a much gayer character than 
now. There was first the hunt's-up, or morning song, to awake the bride ; then 



» A few specimens of the tunes of the waits of different 
towns will be given under the reign of Charles II. 

t So in Heywood's The English Traveller, last scene of 
act i., 1633— 

*' Riot. Fear not, you sliall have a full table. 
Young L. What, and music? 
Riot. The best consort in the city for six parts. 
Young L. We shall have songs, then? " 
c The rules of this club, in Latin, will be found in Ben 
Jonson's Works. The following translation is by one of 
his adopted poetical sons : — 

" Let none but guests, or clubbers, hither come;, 
Let dunces, fools, sad sordid men, keep home, 
Let learned, civil, merry men b'invited, 
And modest, too; nor be choice ladies slighted. 
Let nothing in the treat offend the guests ; 
More for delight than cost, prepare the feasts. 
The cook and purvey'r must our palates know, 
And none contend who shall sit high or low. 
Our waiters must quick-sighted be, and dumb, 
And let the drawers quickly hear and come. 
Let not our wine be mix'd, but brisk and neat, 
Or else the drinkers may the vintners beat. 



And let our only emulation be, 
Not drinking much, but talking wittily. 
Let it be voted lawful to stir up 
Each other with a moderate chirping cup ; 
Let not our company be, or talk too much ; 
On serious things, or sacred, let's not touch 
With sated heads and bellies. Neither may- 
Fiddlers unask'd obtrude themselves to play. 
With laughing, leaping, dancing, jests and songs. 
And whate'er else to grateful mirth belongs, 
Let's celebrate our feasts; and let us see 
That all our jests without reflection be. 
Insipid poems let no man rehearse. 
Nor any be compelled to write a verse. 
All noise of vain disputes must be forborn, 
And let no lover in a corner mourn. 
To fight and brawl, like Hectors, let none dare, 
Glasses or windows break, or hangings tear. 
Whoe'er shall publish what's here done or said. 
From our society must be banished. 
Let none by drinking do or suffer harm, 
And, wliile we stay, let us be always warm." 

Poems and Songs by Alexander Brome, Svo., 1661. 



EEIGN OF JAMBS I. 251 

the music to conduct lier to churcli (young maids and bachelors following with 
garlands in their hands) ; the same from church ; the music at dinner ; and 
singing, dancing, and merry-making throughout the evening. For those who had 
no talent to write a hunt's-up, there were songs ready printed (like " The Bride's 
Good-morrow," in the Roxburghe Collection), but the hunt's-up was not confined 
to weddings, it was a usual compliment to young ladies, especially upon their 
birthdays. The custom seems now to be continued only with princesses, and on 
the last bii'thday of the Princess Royal, the court newsman, at a loss how to 
describe this old English custom, gave it the name of a " Matinale." 

As to music at weddings, see the following allusions : — 

" Then was there a fair bride-cup of silver and gilt carried before her [the 
bride] , wherein was a goodly braunch of rosemarie gilded very faire, hung about 
with silken ribbonds of all colours; next there was a noyse'^ of musitians, that 
played all the loay before her ; after her came all the chiefest maydens of the 
countrie, some bearing great bride-cakes, and some garlands of wheat finely 
gilded, and so she past unto the church." — Deloney's Pleasant History of John 
Winchcomb, in his younger years called Jacke of Neivherie. 

" Come, come, we'll to church presently. Prythee, Jarvis, ivhilst the musich 
plays just upon the delicious close, usher in the brides." — Rowley's A Match at 
Midnight, 1633. 

In Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub, Tm-fe, the constable, "will let no music go afore 
his child to church," and says to his wife — 

"Because you have entertained [musicians] all from Highgate, 
To shew your pomp, you'd have your daughters and maids 
Dance o'er the fields like faies to church this frost. 
I'll have no rondels, I, in the queen's paths ! 
Let them scrape the gut at home, where they have fill'd it." 
And again, where Dame Turfe insists on having them to play at dinner, Clench 
adds — " She is in the right, sir, vor your wedding dinner 
Is starv'd without the music." 

Even at funerals musicians were in request : dirges were sung, and recorders the 
instruments usually employed. It appears that the Blue-Coat boys sang at City 
Funerals ;* being then taught music, as they shoidd be now. Music was not less 
esteemed as a solace for grief, than as an excitement to merriment. Peacham says, 
" the physicians will tell you that the exercise of music is a great lengthener of life, 
by stu-ring and reviving the spirits, holdmg a secret sympathy with them ; besides 
it is an enemy to melancholy and dejection of mind; yea, a curer of some dis- 
eases." {Qompleat Gentleman, 1622.) And Burton, " But I leave all declamatory 
speeches in praise of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject : 
besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign 
remedy against despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself." 
{Anatomy of Melancholy.) So, m Henry IV., Shakespeare says — 

* A noise of musicians means a company of musicians. "having authority to thrust into any man's room, only 

It is an expression frequently occurring : " those terrible speaking but this — 'Will you have any musicke?'" — 

noijses, with threadbare cloakes, that live by red lattices Dekker's Belman of London, 1608. 
and ivy-bushes" [that is by ale-houses and taverns], '' See Brome's Ci/y Tfi/, act iii. sc. 1. 



252 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

" Let there be no noise made, my gentle friends, 
Unless some slow and favourable hand 
Will whisper music to my weary spirit." 

Part II., act iv., sc. S). 

Shakespeare purchased his house in Blackfriars, in 1612, from Henry Walker, 
■who is described in the deed as " Citizen and Minstrel, of London." The price 
paid was £140,^ which, considering the difference in the value of money, is equal 
to, at least, £700 now. Of what class of " minstrel " Walker was, we know not, 
but there were very few of any talent who had not the opportunity of saving money, 
if so disposed. Even the itinerant fiddler who gave " a fytte of mirth for a groat," 
was well paid. The long ballads were usually divided into two or three "fyttes," 
and if he received a shilling per ballad, it would pui'chase as many of the neces- 
saries of life as five or six times that amount now. The groat was so generally his 
remuneration, whether it were for singing or for playing dances, as to be 
commonly called " fiddlers' money," and when the groat was no longer current, 
the term was transferred to the sixpence. 

It appears that in the reign of James, ballads were first collected into little 
miscellanies, called Garlands, for we have none extant of earlier date. Thomas 
Deloney and Richard Johnson (author of the still popular boys' book, called The, 
Seven Champions of Christendom) were the first who collected their scattered pro- 
ductions, and printed them in that form. 

Deloney's G-arland of Qood-ivill, and Johnson's Crown Garland of Golden Moses, 
were two of the most popular of the class. They have been reprinted, with some 
others, by the Percy Society, and the reader will find some account of the authors 
prefixed to those works. 

During the reign of Henry VHI., " the most pregnant wits " were employed 
in compiling ballads.'' Those in the possession of Captain Cox, described in 
Laneham's Letter from Kenilworth (1575), as " all ancient," ° could not well be 
of later date than Henry's reign ; and at Henry's death we find, with the list of 
musical instruments left in the charge of Philip van Wilder, "sondrie bookes and 
shrolles of songes and ballattes.^' hi the reign of James, however, poets rarely 
wrote in ballad metre ; ballad writing had become quite a separate employment, 
and (from the evidently great demand for ballads) I should suppose it to have 
been a profitable one. In Shakespeare's Senry IV., when Falstafi" threatens 
Prince Henry and his companions, he says, " An I have not ballads made on you 
all, and sung to filthy tunes, let a cup of sack be my poison ; " and after Sir 
John Colvile had surrendered, he thus addresses Prince John : " I beseech your 
grace, let it be booked with the rest of this day's deeds ; or by the Lord, I will 
have it in a particular ballad else, with mine own picture at the top of it, Colvile 
kissing my foot." 

To conclude this introduction, I have subjoined a few quotations to shew the 

a Shakespeare's autograph, attached to the counterpart « The list of Captain Cox's ballads has been so often re- 

of this deed, was sold by auction by Evans, on 24th May, printed, that I do not fliink it necessary to repeat it. The 

1S41, for .€155. reader will find it, with many others, in the introduction 

*> See The Nature ofihe Four Elements, written about to Kitson's Ancient Songs, as well as in more recently- 

1517. printed books. 



REIGN OF JAMES I. 253 

universality of ballads, as well as their influence upon the public mind ; but limit- 
ing myself to dramatists, to Shakespeare's contemporaries, and to one passage 
from each author. 

In Ben Jonson's Bartliolomew Fair, Avhen Trash, the gingerbread-woman, 
quarrels with Leatherhead, the hobby-horse seller, she threatens him — 

" 111 find a friend shall right me, and make a ballad of thee, and thy cattle all over." 
In Hey wood's A Ohallenge for Beauty, Valladaura says — 
" She has told all ; I shall be balladed — 
Sung up and down by minstrels." 
In Fletcher's Queen of Oorintli, Euphanes says — 

. " and whate'er he be 
Can with unthankfulness assoil me, let him 
Dig out mine eyes, and sing my name in verse, 
In ballad verse, at every drinking-liouse." 
In Massinger's Parliament of Love, Chamont threatens Lamira — 

. " I will have thee 
Pictured as thou art now, and thy whole story 
Sung to some villainous tune in a lewd ballad, 
And make thee so notorious in the world, 
That boys in the streets shall hoot at thee." 
In Chapman's Monsieur (T Olive, he says — 

"I am afraid of nothing but I shall be balladed." 
In a play of Dekker's (Dodsley, iii. 224) Matheo says — 

" Sfoot, do you long to have base rogues, that maintain a Saiut Anthony's fire in 
their noses by nothing but two-penny ale, make ballads of you V " 

In Webster's DeviPs Law Case, the officers are cautioned not to allow any to 
take notes, because — 

" We cannot have a cause of any fame. 
But you must have some scurvy pamphlets and lewd 
Ballads engendered of it presently." 
In Ford's Love''s Sacrifice, Fiormonda says — 

. . " Better, Duke, thou hadst been born a peasant ; 
Now Tjoys will sing thy scandal in the streets, — 
Tune ballads to thy infamy." 
In Marlow's Mheard 11. , Mortimer says to the King — 
" Libels are cast against thee in the street; 
Ballads and rhymes made of thy overthrow." 
In Machui's The Dumb Knight — 

" The slave will make base songs on my disgrace." 
In Middleton's Tlie Roaring Crirl — 

" 0, if men's secret youthful faults should judge 'em, 
'Tvvould be the general'st execution 
That e'er was seen in England ! 
, There would be few left to sing the ballads, 
There would be so much work." 
This is in allusion to the ballads on last dying speeches. 



254 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

In the academic play of Lingua, Phantastes says — 

" heavens 1 how am I troubled these latter times with poets — ballad-makers. Were 
it not that I pity the printers, these sonnet-mongers should starve for conceits for all 
Phantasies." 



The popular music of the time of Charles I. was so much like that: of James, 
as not to require separate notice. I have therefore included many ballads 
of Charles' reign in this division ; but reserved those which relate to the troubles 
and to the civil war, for the period of the Protectorate. 



UPON A SUMMER'S-DAY. 
In The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1665, and in MusicVs Delight on the 
Cithren, 1666, this is entitled " Upon a Summer' s-day ; " and in later editions of 
The Dancing Master, viz., from 1670 to 1690, it is called " The Garland, or a 
Summer's-day." 

The song, "Upon a Summer's-day" is in Merry Drollery Complete, 1661, 
p. 148. " The Garland " refers, in all probability, to a ballad in the Roxburghe 
Collection, i. 22, or Pepysian, i. 300; which is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, 
iv. 345 (1810), beginning, "Upon a Summer's time." It is more frequently 
quoted by the last name in ballads. In the Pepys Collection, vol. i., is a 
" Discourse between a Soldier and his Love ;" — 

" Shewing that she did hear a faithful mind, 
For land nor sea could make her stay behind. 

To the tune of Upon a Summer time." 
It begins, " My dearest love, adieu." And at p. 182 of the same volume, 
"I smell a rat: to the tune of Upon a Summer tide, or The Seminary Priest.'''' 
It begins, " I travell'd far to find." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, vol. i. 526, " The good fellow's advice," &c., to 
the tune of Upon a Summer time ; " the burden of which is — 
'' Good fellows, great and small, 
Pray let me you advise 
To have a care withall ; 

'Tis good to be merry and wise." 
And at p. 384 of the same volume, another by L.P., called " Seldom cleanely, or — 
A merry new ditty, wherein you may see 
The trick of a huswife in every degree ; 
Then lend your attention, while I do unfold 
As pleasant a story as ever was told. 

To the tune of Upon a Summer's tiTne." 
It begins- — " Draw near, you country girls. 

And listen unto me ; 
111 tell you here a new conceit, 
Concerning huswifry." 
I have chosen a song which illustrates an old custom, instead of the original 
words to this tune, because it is not desirable to reprint them. In Wit and 



REIGN OP JAMES I. 



255 



Mirth, 1707, the following song, entitled The Queen of May, is joined to an 
indifferent composition : — 

Slowly and smoothly. 



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danced In strife, to choose a Queen. Some home-lydress'd, some handsome. Some 



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But who excell'd in dancing, Must be the Queen of May. 



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Her carriage was so good. 

As did appear that day. 
That she was justly chosen 

To he the Queen of May. 

Then all the rest in sorrow, 

And she in sweet content. 
Gave over till the morrow. 

And homewards straight they went. 
But she, of all the rest, 

Was hinder'd by the way, 
For ev'ry youth that met her. 

Must kiss the Queen of May. 



From morning till the evening 

Their controversy held. 
And I, as judge, stood gazing on, 

To crown her that excell'd. 
At last when Phoebus' steeds 

Had drawn their wain away. 
We found and crown'da damsel 

To be the Queen of May. 

Full well her nature from her 

Face I did admire; 
Her habit well became her. 

Although in poor attire. 



THE HUNTER IN HIS CAEEER. 
This is one of the songs alluded to in Walton's Angler. Piscator. "I'll 
promise you I'll sing a song that was lately made at my request by Mr. William 
Basse, one that made the choice songs of ' The Hunter in his career,' and ' Tom 
of Bedlam,' and many others of note." The tune was translated from lute 
tablature by Mr. G. F. Graham, of Edinburgh. It is taken from the " Straloch 
Manuscript," formerly in the possession of Mr, Chalmers, the date of which is 
given in the original MS. from 1627 to 1629. It is also in the Skene MS., &c. 
A copy of the song is in the Pepys Collection, i. 452, entitled " Maister Basse 
his careere, or The Hunting of the Hare. To a new court tune." Printed for 



256 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



E[liz.] Apide]. On the same sheet is " The Faulconer's Hunting; to the tune 
of Basse his careere." The words are also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 
1682, p. 64, and in Old Ballads, second edition, 1738, iii. 196. 
With spirit. 

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fore the creak Of the crow and the break Of the day in the wel - kin seen, 
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Mounted he'd halloo. And cheerful - ly follow To the chace with his hu - gle clear. 



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Echo doth he make, And the moun-tains sbake,With the thunder of his ca - reer. 



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Swains their repast, 

And strangers their haste 
Neglect, when the horns they do hear ; 

To see a fleet 

Pack of hounds in a sheet, 
And the hunter in his career. 

Thus he careers, 

Over heaths, over meres. 
Over deeps, over downs, over clay ; 

Till he hath won 

The noon from the morn. 
And the evening from the day. 

His sport then he ends. 

And joyfully wends 
Home again to his cottage, where 

Frankly he feasts 

Himself and his guests, 
And carouses in his career. 



Now bonny hay 

In his foine waxeth gray ; 
Dapple-grey waxeth hay in his blood ; 

White-Lily stops 

With the scent in her chaps, 
And Black-Lady makes it good. 

Poor silly Wat, 

In this wretched state. 
Forgets these delights for to hear ; 

Nimbly she bounds 

From the cry of the hounds, 
And the music of their career. 

Hills, with the heat 

Of the gallopers' sweat 
Reviving their frozen tops, 

[And] the dale's purple flowers. 

That droop from the showers 
That down from the rowels drops. 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



257 



ONCE I LOVED A MAIDKN FAIR. 

A copy of this ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 360, printer! for the 
assigns of Thomas Symcock. The tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 
1698 ; in Playford's Introduction, 1664; in MnsicKs Delight on the Oithren, 1666; 
in ApoUo^s Banqtiet for the Treble Violin, 1670 ; in the Pleasant Companion for 
the Flageolet, 1680 ; &c. 

The first song in Patrick Carey's Trivial Poems, written in 1651 (" Fair one ! 
if thus kind you be"), is to the tune Once I lov'd a maiden fair. It is also 
alluded to in The Fool titrn\l Critic, 1678 — " We have now such tunes, such 
lamentable tunes, that would make me forswear all music. Maiden fair and Tlie 
King^s Delight are incomparable to some of these we have now." 

The ballad consists of twelve stanzas, from which the following are selected. 



Smoothly and in moderate time. 



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Once I lov'd a maiden fair, But she did de - ceive me; Slie witli Ve-nus 



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might compare In my mind, be - lieve me. She was young, And among Creatures of temp 



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Kiss for re - ere - a - tion 



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Three times I did make it known 

To the congregation, 
That the church should make us one. 

As priest had made relation. 
Married we straight must be. 

Although we go a begging ; 
Now, alas ! 'tis like to prove 

A very hopeless wedding. 



Happy he who never knew 

What to love belonged ; 
Maidens wavering and untrue 

Many a man have wronged. 
Fare thee well ! faithless girl, 

I'll not sorrow for thee; 
Once I held thee dear as pearl, 

Now I do abhor thee. 



258 



ENOLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



GATHERING PEASCODS. 

This beautiful air is contained in all editions of The Dancing Master, from 
1650 to 1690. The two first bars are the same as " All in a garden gi-een" (see 
p. Ill) ; but the resemblance continues no further, and that air is in phrases of 
eight, and this of six bars. 

Not having been able to discover the original words, the following lines were 
written to it by the late Mr. J. A. Wade ; retaining the pastoral character, which 
is indicated by its name. 

Moderate lime, and susta'med 

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all. 



•^ How i)lea-sant is it in the bios - som of the year, "'^ To 

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stray and find a nook, Where nought doth fill the hoi -low of the list'ning 



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ear, Ex - cept the mur-m'ring brook; Or bird in neighb'ring grove, That in 



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so - li-tude doth love To breathe his lone - ly hymn! Lost in the 



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min - gled song, I care-less roam a - long, From morn to twi - light dim 



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REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 259 

And as I wander in the blossom of the year, To shed then- bahiis around! — 

By crystal waters' flow, Thus from the busy throng-, 

Flow'rs sweet to gaze on, as the songs of birds I cai-eless roam along, 

Spring up where e'er I go! [to hear, 'Mid perfume and sweet sound. 

The violet agrees. 

With the honey-suckle trees, 

LULL ME BEYOND THEE. 

This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. 

In tlie Pepys Collection, i. 372, there is a black-letter ballad entitled " The 
Northern Turtle, Tvailing his unhappy fate in being deprived of his sweet mate : 
to a new Northern tune, or A health to Betty." This is not the air of A health of 
Betty, and therefore I suppose it to be the " new Northern tune." The first 
stanza is here arranged to the music. The same ballad is the Roxburghe Collec- 
tion, i. 319, as the second part to one entitled " The paire of Northerne Turtles: 
"VMiose love -was firm till cruel death 
Depriv'd them both of life and breath." 
That is also to " a new Northern tune," and printed " for F. Coules, dwelling in 
the Old Baily." Coules printed about 1620 to 1628. 

The following ballads are also to the tune : — 

Pepys, i. 390 — " A constant wife, a Idnd wife, 

Which gives content unto a man's life. 
To the tune of Lie lulling leyondtheey Printed for F. C[oules]. It begins — 
" Young men and maids, do lend me your aids." 

Pepys i., and Roxburghe, i. 156 — " The Honest Wooer, 
His mind expressing, in plain and few terms, 
By which to his mistris his love he confirms : " 
to the tune of IJulling beyond her, begins — 

" Fairest mistris, cease your moane. 
Spoil not your eyes with weeping, 
For certainly if one be gone. 

You may have another sweeting. 
I will not compliment with oaths, 

Nor speak you fair to prove you : 
But save your eyes, and mend your clothes. 
For it is I that love you." 
Roxbui'ghe, i. 416 — " The two fervent Lovers," &c., " to the tune of The two 
loving Sisters, or Lulling beyond thee." Signed L.P. 

Pepys, i. 427 — " A pleasant new ballad to sing both even and morn. 
Of the bloody murther of Sir John Barley-Come. 
To the tune of Shall I lie beyond thee." Printed at London for II[enry] G[osson]. 
It commences thus : — "As I went through the North country, 
I heard a merry greeting," &c. 
This excellent ballad has been reprinted by Evans (Old Ballads, iv. 214, 
ed. 1810), from a copy in the Roxburghe Collection, " printed for John Wright." 



260 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Smoothly and rather sloiv. 



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As I was walking all alone, I heard a youth la - ment - ing. 



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Under a hoi - low bush he lay, But sore he did re - pent him. A 



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-las! quoth he, my love is gone, Which caus- eth me to wan - der, 

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Yet merry will I ne - ver be. Till I lie lull-ing be-yond her. 



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COME, SHEPHERDS, DECK YOUR HEADS. 

This is also one of the songs mentioned by old Isaak Walton. 

Milkwoman, " What song was it, I pray? was it 'Come, shepherds, deck your 
heads;' or, 'As, at noon, Duleina rested;' or, 'Philida flouts me;' or. Chevy 
Chace ;' or, 'Johnny Armstrong ; ' or, ' Troy To"v\ti ? ' " * 

Izaak Walton was born in 1593, and married first Rachel Cranmer, niece of 
that distinguished prelate, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1624. 

The air is found, under its English name, in Bellerophoii, of Lust tot Wyshed^ 
Amsterdam, 1622 ; and in Gescmgh der Zeeden^ Amsterdam, 1662.** 

The words (which Ritson said " are not known ") will be found in the Pepys 
Collection, i. 366, entitled " The Shepherd's Lamentation : to the tune of 



* All will be found in this collection except "Johnny 
Armstrong" of which (although an English song, and of 
a Westmoreland man) I have not yet found the tune. The 
words are in Wit restored, 1658, and in Wit and Drollery, 
Jovial Poems, 1682, called "A Northern Ballet, " begin- 
ning— " There dwelt a man in fair Westmorland, 
Johnny Armstrong men did him call; 
He had neither lands nor rents coming in, 
Yet he kept eight score men in his hall." 



There is also a Scotch ballad about the same hero. 

*• There is another English tune under the same name, 
to be found in two other collections, Nederlandtsche Ge- 
denck-Clanck, 1626, and Friescke Lusl-Hof, 1634. I printed 
it in National English Airs, 1839, but think this rather 
more like a ballad-tune, and it is of somewhat earlier 
authority. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



261 



The plaine-dealing Woman." On the other half of the sheet is " The second part 
of The plaine-dealing Woman," beginning — 

" Ye Sylvan Nymphs, come skip it," &c. 
Imprinted at London for J. W. Sir Harris Nicolas prints the song, Come, 
shepherds, in his edition of Walton's Angler, from a MS. formerly in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Heber. A third copy will be found in MSS. Ashmole, No. 38, 
art. 164. 

■ ■ Moderate time. 



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Come, Shep-herds, deck your heads 



No more with bays but 



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All ye forsaken wooers, 

That ever care oppressed. 
And all you lusty dooers, 

That ever love distressed. 
That losses can condole, 

And altogether summon; 
Oh ! mourn for the poor soul 

Of my plain-dealing woman. 

Fair Venus made her chaste, 
And Ceres beauty gave her ; 

Pan wept when she was lost, 
The Satyrs strove to have her ; 



Yet seem'd she to their view 
So coy, so nice, that no man 

Could judge, but he that knew 
My own plain-dealing woman. 

At all her pretty parts 

I ne'er enough can wonder; 
She overcame all hearts, 

Yet she all hearts came under ; 
Her inward mind was sweet. 

Good tempers ever common ; 
Shepherd shall never meet 

So plain a dealing woman. 



262 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



THEEE WAS AN OLD FELLOW AT WALTHAM CEOSS. 

This is quoted as an old song in Brome's play, TJie Jovial Oreiu, Tvliicli waa 
acted at tlie Cock-pit in Drui-y Lane, in 1641—" T'other old song for that." 
It is also in the Antidote to MelancJioly, 1661. 

The Jovial Creiv was turned into a ballad-opera in 1731, and this song 
retained. The tune was then printed under the name of Tamiton Dean ; 
perhaps from a song commencing, " In Taunton Dean I was born and bred." 

The foui- last bars of the air are the prototype of Lillihurlero, and still often 
sung to the chorus, — "A very good song, and very well sung ; 
Jolly companions every one." 

The first part resembles Dargason (see p. 65), and an air of later date, called 
Country Qourtsldp (see Index). 

Boldly and moderate time. 



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cheer'd uphisheartwhenhisgoodswentto wrack,With a hem, hoys, hem, And a cup of old sack 



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OLD SIB SIMON THE KING. 

This tune is contained in Playford's MnsicFs Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 
1652 ; in MnsicFs Sandmaid for the Virginals, 1678 ; in Apollo's Banquet for 
the Treble Violin ; in Tlie Division Violin, 1685 ; in 180 Loyal Songs, 1684 
and 1694 ; and in the seventh and all later editions of TJie Dancing Master. 

It it also in JPills to purge Melancholy ; in the Musical Miscellany, 1721 ; in 
many ballad-operas, and other works of later date. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 263 

Some of the ballads written to the tune have the following burden, which 
appears to be the original : — 

" Says old Simon the ting, 
Says old Simon the king, 
With his ale-dropt hose, and his malmsey nose, 
Sing, hey ding, ding a ding, ding." 
From its last line, Kitson conjectured that the "Hey ding a ding" mentioned 
in Laneham's Leiicr from Ken ilworth, 1575, as one of the ballads "all ancient," 
then in the possession of Captain Cox, the Coventry mason, was Old Sir Simon 
under another name. So far as internal evidence can weigh, the tune may be of 
even much greater antiquity, but we have no direct proof. 

Mr. Payne Collier is of opinion that the ballad entitled Ragged and torn and 
true, was " first published while Elizabeth was still on the throne." (See Collier's 
Roxburghe Ballads, p. 26.) As it was sung to the tune of Old Simon tlie King, 
the latter necessarily preceded it. This adds to the probability of Ritson's con- 
jecture. But, although we have ballads printed during the reign of James I., to 
the tune of Old Simon, I have not succeeded in discovering one of earlier date. 

Sir John Hawkins, in the additional notes to his Historg of Music, says, " It is 
conjectured that the subject of the song was Simon Wadloe, who kept the Devil 
(and St. Dunstan) Tavern, at the time when Ben Jonson's Club, called the 
Apollo Club," met there." The conjecture rests upon two lines of the inscription 
over the door of the Apollo room — 

" Hang up all the poor hop-drinkeis, 
CriesOld Sym, the King of Skinkcrs." 
A skinker meaning one who serves drink. Sir John quotes the song in Pills to 
purge Melancholy, iii. 144. It has but one Une of burden, — 

" Says old Simon the King; " 
and instead of the Devil tavern, the Crowi is the tavern named in it. It appears 
to be of too late a date for the original song. The Simon Wadloe ^ whom Ben 
Jonson dubbed "King of Skinkers," was buried in March, 1627,'^ and more 
probably owed his title to having the same Christian name as the Simon of the 
earlier song. 

As there are two tunes, which differ considerably, it seems desirable, in the 
case of a song once so popular, to print both. The first is fi-om MusicKs 
Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 1652 ; and the viol was tuned to what was 
termed the " bagpipe tuning," to play it. To this I have adapted the song quoted 
by Hawkins, but completing the burden as the music requires. I have no doubt 
that "Old Simon the King" was changed to " Old Sir Simon the King," from 
the want of another syllable to correspond with accent of the tune. 

" For the excellent rules of this Cluh, see Note, p. 250. Jacob Henry Burn, 8vo., 1855. From the same book we learn 

>> A Latin " Epitaph upon Simon Wadloe, vintner, that John Wadlow was proprietor of the Devil Tavern at 

dwelling at the Signe of the Devil and St. Dunstan," will the Restoration. He is mentioned twice in Pepys' Diary 

be found in MS. Ashmole, No. 38 fol., art. 328; and in (22nd April, 1661, and 25th Feb., 1664-5). The second 

Camden's Remains. It commences thus : — time as having made a fortune— gone to live like a prince 

" Apollo et cohors Musarum in the country,— there spent almost all he had got, and 

Bacchus vini et uvaruni," &'c. finally returned to his old trade again. 

« Sec Descriptive Catalogue of the Beaul'oy Tokens, by 



264 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



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Cheerfully. 



First Tune. 



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In a humour I was of late, As many good fellows may be, To 
That best might suit my mind. So I tra - vell'd up and down, No 



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, . , f no matters of state, But to seek for good com - pa - ny. 
thmk ot J could find, Till I came to the sight of the Crown. •* 

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hostess 
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was sick of the mumps, The maid was ill 
[Sir] Si - mon the king, [Says old Sir Si 



at her ease. The 
mon the king. With his 



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tapster 
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was drunk in his dumps, They were all of one dis - ease, 

dropt hose, and his Malm - sey nose, Sing hey ding ding a ding, ding.] 



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Considering in my mind, 

I thus began to think : 
If a man be full to the throat, 

And cannot take off his drink, 
If his drink will not go down. 

He may hang up himself for shame, 
So the tapster at the Crown ; 

Whereupon this reason I frame : 
Drink will make a man drunk, 

Drunk will make a man dry, 
Dry will make a man sick. 

And sick will make a man die, 
Says Old Simon the King. 

If a man should be drunk to-night. 
And laid in his grave to-morrow. 

Will you or any man say 

That he died of care or sorrow ? 

Then hang up all sorrow and care, 
'Tis able to kill a cat, 



And he that will drink all right. 

Is never afraid of that; 
For drinking will make a man quaff. 

And quaflnng will make a man sing, 
And singing will make a man laugh. 

And laughing long life doth bring, 
Says Old Simon the King. 

If a Puritan skinker do cry, 

Dear brother, it is a sin 
To drink unless you be dry. 

Then straight this tale I begin : 
A Puritan left his can, 

And took him to his jug, 
And there he played the man 

As long as he could tug j 
And when that he was spied, 

Did ever he swear or rail ? 
No, truly, dear brother, he cried. 

Indeed all flesh is frail. 

Says Old Simon the King. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 265 

The above song dates before the Restoration, because there is a political parody 
upon it among the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus., dated January 19th, 1659, 
commencing thus : — " In a humour of late I was 

Ycleped a doleful dump ; 
Thought I, we're at a fine pass, 

Not a man stands up for the Rump," &c. 
I suppose it to have been written only a short time before the return of Charles, 
and that this Old Simon the King is the same person alluded to in one of the 
Catches in the Antidote to Melancholy, 4to, 1661, beginning — 
" Good Symon, how comes it your nose is so red, 
And your cheeks and your lips look so pale ? 
Sure the heat of the toast your nose did so roast 
When they were both soused in ale," &c. 
And perhaps also in " An Epitaph on an honest citizen and true friend to all 
claret drinkers," contained in part ii. of Playford's Pleasant Musical Qompanion, 
4to, 1687 — "Here lyeth Simon, cold as clay, 

"VMio whilst he liv'd cried Tip away," &c. 
At the end of this epitaph it is said — 

" Now although this same epitaph was long since given. 
Yet Simon's not dead more than any man living." 
He was, perhaps, an old man whose death had been long expected. 

The tune was in great favour at, and after, the Restoration. Many of the 
songs of the Cavaliers were sung to it; many by Martin Parker, and other 
ballad-writers of the reigns of James and Charles ; several by Wilmott, Earl of 
Rochester ; and others of still later date. 

Penkethman, the actor, wrote a comedy called Love without Interest, or 
The Man too hard for the Master (1699), in which one of the characters says 
satu-ically, " Who? he! why the newest song he has is Tlie Children in the Wood, 
or The London Prentice, or some such like ditty, set to the netv modish tune of 
Old Sir Simon the King." 

The name of the tune. Old Simon the King, is printed in much larger letters 
than any other of the collection, on the title-page of "A Choice Collection of 
Lessons, being excellently sett to the Harpsichord, by the two great masters, 
Dr. John Blow, and the late Mr. Henry Purcell," printed by Henry Playford in 
1705 : it was evidently thought to be the great attraction to pui-chasers. 

Fielding, in his novel of Tom Jones, makes it Squire Western's favorite tune. 
He tells us, " It was Mr. Western's custom every afternoon, as soon as he was 
drunk, to hear his daughter play upon the harpsichord. . . . He never relished 
any music but what was light and airy ; and, indeed, his most favorite tunes were 
Old Sir Simon the King, St. George he was for England, and some others. . . . The 
Squire declared, if she would give him t'other bout of Old Sir Simon, he would 
give the gamekeeper his deputation the next morning. Sir Simon was played 
again and again, till the charms of music soothed Mr. Western to sleep." — i. 169. 
It was the tune rather than the words, that gave it so lengthened a popularity. 
I have found the air commonly quoted under five other names; viz., as Ragged 



266 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

and torn, and true ; as The Golden Age ; as Til ne'er he drunh again ; as When 
this old cap was new ; and as liound about our coal-fire. The first is from the 
ballad called " Ragged and torn, and true ; or The Poor Man's Resolution : to 
the tune of Old Simon the King.'''' See Roxburghe Collection, i. 352 ; or Payne 
Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 26. 

The second from " The Neivmarket Song, to the tune of Old Simon the King ; " 
and beginning with the line, " The Golden Age is come." See 180 Loyal Songs, 
4th edition, 1694, p. 152. 

The third from a song called " The Reformed Drmker ; " the burden of which 
is, "And ne'er be drunk again." See Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 47, 1707, or 
iv. 47, 1719 ; also Ritson's Knglish Songs, ii. 59, 1813. 

The fourth from one entitled " Time's Alteration : 

" The old man's rehearsal what brave things lie knew, 
A great while agone, when this old cap was new ; 
to the tune of lie nere he drunJce againe.^' Pepy's Collection, i. 160 ; or Evans' 
Old Ballads, iii. 262. (The name of the tune omitted, as usual, by Evans.) 

The fifth is the name commonly given to it in collections of country dances,- 
printed during the last century. 

One of the best political songs to the tune is " The Sale of Rebellion's 
Household Stufi";" a triumph over the downfall of the Rump Parliament, 
beginning — " Rebellion hath broken up house, 

And hath left me old lumber to sell ; 
Come hither and take your choice, 

I'll promise to use you well. 
Will you buy the old Speaker's chair, 

Which was warm and pleasant to sit in ? " &c. 

This song has the old burden at full length. The auctioneer, finding no pur- 
chasers, offers, at the end, to sell the whole " for an old song." It has been re- 
printed in Percy's Reliques of Ancie?it Poetry. 

I have seen a song beginning — 

" To old Sir Simon the King, 
And young Sir Simon the Squire," 
but have mislaid the reference. The tune is called " To old Sir Simon the King," 
in the first edition of the Beggars^ Opera, 1728. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 468, one of the ballads by Martin Parker, to 
the tune of Bagged and torn, and true, is entitled "Well met, Neighbour, or — 
" A dainty discourse, between Nell and Sis, 
Of men that do use their wives amiss." 
This might be revived with some benefit to the lower classes at the present day, 
especially if the last line of the burden could be impressed upon them — 
" Heard you not lately of Hugh, 

How soundly his'wife he bang'd? 
He beat her all black and blue : 

Oh ! such a rogue should be hang'd." 



EEIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



267 



Farquhar's song in the Beaux^s Stratagem, beginning — 
" A trifling song you shall hear, 
Begun with a trifle and ended; 
All trifling people draw near, 
And I shall be nobly attended," 
was written to this tune, and is printed to it in The Musical Qompanion, or Lady's 
Magazine, 8vo., 1741. 

" The praise of St. David's day ; shewing the reason why the Welshmen honour 
the leek on that day." Beginning — 

" Who list to read the deeds 

By valiant Welshmen done," &c., 
is also to the tune, under the name of Wlien this old cap was new. ■ ■ ■ 

The following is the ballad of "Ragged and torn, and true; or The Poor Man's 
Resolution," set to the tune as it is found in Tlie Dancing Master, and other 
violin copies, but omitting the variations. 

Second Tune. 



Cheerfally. 



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I am a poor man, God knows, And all my neighbours can tell, I' 



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live wond' 



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want both money and clothes. And yet I 



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I have a con - tent - ed mind. And a heart to bear out all. Though 
Then hang up sor- row and care, It never shall make me rue; What 



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for - tune being un - kind Hath giv'n me sub - stance small, 
though my back goes bare, I'm ragged and torn and true. 



268 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I scorn to live by the shift, 

Or by any sinister dealing ; 
I'll flatter no man for a gift, 

Nor will I get money by stealing. 
I'll be no knight of the post. 

To sell my soul for a bribe ; 
Though all my fortunes be cross'd. 

Yet I scorn the cheater's tribe. 
Then hang up sorrow and care, 

It never shall make me rue ; 
What though my cloak be threadbare, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

A boot of Spanish leather 

I've seen set fast in the stocks, 
Exposed to wind and weather, 

And foul reproach and mocks ; 
While I, in my poor rags, 

Can pass at liberty still — 
O, fie on these brawling brags, 

When money is gotten so ill ! 
O, fie on these pilfering knaves ! 

I scorn to be of that crew ; 
They steal to make themselves brave — 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

I've seen a gallant go by 

With all his wealth on his back ; 
He looked as loftily 

As one that did ilothing lack. 
And yet he hath no means 

But what he gets by the sword. 
Which he consumes on queans. 

For it thrives not, take my word. 
O, fie on these highway thieves ! 

The gallows will be their due — 
Though my doublet be rent i' th' sleeves, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

Some do themselves maintain 

With playing at cards and dice ; 
O, fie on that lawless gain. 

Got by such wicked vice ! 
They cozen poor country-men 

With their delusions vilde ; [vile] 
Yet it happens now and then 

That they are themselves beguil'd; 
For, if they be caught in a snare, 

The pillory claims its due ; — 
Though my jerkin be worn and bare, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 



I have seen some gallants brave 

Up Holborn ride in a cart. 
Which sight much sorrow gave 

To every tender he^rt ; 
Then have I said to myself 

What pity is it, for this. 
That any man for pelf 

Should do such a foul amiss. 
O, fie on deceit and theft ! 

It makes men at the last rue ; 
Though I have but little left, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

The pick-pockets in a throng. 

Either at market or fair, 
Will try whose purse is strong. 

That they may the money share ; 
But if they are caught i' th' action. 

They're can'ied away in disgrace. 
Either to the House of Correction, 

Or else to a worser place. 
O, fie on these pilfering thieves? 

The gallows will be their due ; 
What need I sue for reprieves ? 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

The ostler to maintain 

Himself with money in's purse, 
Approves the proverb true, 

And says, Grammercy horse ; 
He robs the travelling beast. 

That cannot divulge his ill. 
He steals a whole handful, at least, 

From every half-peck he should fill. 
O, fie on these cozening scabs, 

That rob the poor jades of their due ! 
I scorn all thieves and drabs — 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

'Tis good to be honest and jusi. 

Though a man be never so poor ; 
False dealers are still in mistrust. 

They're afraid of the officer's door : 
Their conscience doth them accuse. 

And they quake at the noise of a bush ; 
WhUe he that doth no man abuse. 

For the law needs not care a rush. 
Then well fare the men that can say, 

I pay every man his due ; 
Although I go poor in array, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 269 

The following is the before-mentioned song, " The Reformed Drinker, or I'll 
ne'er be drunk again," also to the tune of Old Sir Simon the King. 

Come, my hearts of gold, When with good fellows we meet. 

Let us be merry and wise ; A quart among three or four, 

It is a proverb of old, 'Twill make us stand on our feet, 

Suspicion hath double eyes. While others lie drunk on the floor. 

Whatever we say or do, Then, drawer, go fill us a quart. 

Let's not drink to disturb the brain ; And let it be claret in grain ; 

Let's laugh for an hour or two, 'Twill cherish and comfort the heart — 

And ne'er be drunk again. But we'll ne'er be drunk again. 

A cup of old sack is good Here's a health to our noble King, 

To drive the cold winter away ; And to the Queen of his heart; 

'Twill cherish and comfort the blood Let's laugh and merrily sing, 

Most when a man's spirits decay : And he's a coward that will start. 

But he that drinks too much, Here's a health to our general. 

Of his head he will complain ; And to those that were in Spain ; 

Then let's have a gentle touch, And to our colonel — 

And ne'er be drunk again. And we'll ne'er be drunk again. 

Good claret was made for man. Enough's as good as a feast. 

But man was not made for it ; If a man did but measure know ; 

Let's be merry as we can, A drunkard's worse than a beast. 

So we drink not away our wit ; For he'll drink till he cannot go. 

Good fellowship is abus'd, If a man could time recall, 

And wine will infect the brain: In a tavern that's spent in vain, 

But we'll have it better us'd. We'd learn to be sober all, 

And ne'er be drunk again. And we'd ne'er be drunk again, 

THE BEGGAR BOY. 

This tune is contained in TJie Dancing Master, from 1660 to 1690. 
The following ballads were sung to it : — 

Roxburghe Collection, i. 528 — " Trial brings Truth to light ; or — 
The proof a pudding is all in the eating ; 
A dainty new ditty of many things treating : 
to the tune of The Beggar Boy,^'' by Martin Parker ; and beginning — 
" The world hath allurements and flattering shows. 
To purchase her lovers' good estimation ; 
Her tricks and devices he's wise that well knows — 

The learn'd in this science are taught by probation," &c. 
The burden is, " The proof of the pudding is all in the eating." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 542 — " The Beggar Boy of the North — 
Whose lineage and calling to the world is proclaim'd, 
Which is to be sung to the tune so nam'd ; " 
beginning — "From ancient pedigree, by due descent, 

I well can derive my generation," &c. ; 
and the burden, " And cry, Good, your worship, bestow one token." 

In the Roxburghe, i. 450, and Pepys, i. 306 — " The witty "Western Lasse," &c., 
" to a new tune called The Beggar Boy:" subscribed Robert Guy. This begins, 
" Sweet Lucina, lend me thy ayde; " and in the Pepys Collection, i. 310, there is 



270 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



a ballad to the tune of Lucina, entitled " A most pleasant Dialogue, or a merry 
greeting between two Lovers," &c. ; beginning, " Good morrow, fair Nancie, 
whither so fast; " which I suppose to be also to the tune. It is subscribed C.R. 
Printed at London for H[enry G[osson.] 

The following is also from the Roxburghe Collection (i. 462) , and is reprinted 
in Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 7. 

Slow Sf very smoothly. _ 



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THE BOATMAN. 



This is a bagpipe tune, and might be harmonized with a drone base. In 
MusicVs Recreation on the Viol, Lyra-ioay, 1661, the viol is strung to the " bag- 
pipe tuning," to play it. It is to be found in every edition of The Dancing Master, 
from the first to that of 1698. I have not discovered the song of The Boatman, 
but have adapted a stanza from Coryat's Orambe, 1611, to the air. It resembles 
Trip and go (see p. 131), and the same words might be sung to it. The accent 
of the tune seems intended to imitate the turning of the scull in boating. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 496, is a ballad entitled " The wanton wife of 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



271 



Castle-gate, or The Boatman's Delight: to its own proper new tune;" but it 
appears, from the following, which is the fii'st stanza, that this air cannot have 
been intended. 

" Farewell both liawk and hind, Farewell, my best beloved, 

Farewell both shaft and bow, In whom I put my trust ; 

Farewell all merry pastimes. For its neither grief nor sorrow 

And pleasures in a row : Shall harbour in my breast." 

There is an air in Thomson's Orpheus Caledonius called The Boatman, but wholly 
different from this. 
In rowing time. 



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round games with fine Sim and Sis A - bout the May-pole dan - cing. 

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Ye nim-ble joints, that with red points and rib - bons deck the bri - dal. Lock 

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up your pumps, and rest your stumps, For you are now down - cried all. 



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SIR LAUNCELOT DU LAKE. 
This second tune to the ballad, " When Arthur first in court began " (which 
the black-letter copies. The Grarland of Groocl-will, &c., dh-ect to be sung to the 
tune of Flying Fame — see p. 199), was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault, from the fly- 
leaf of a rare book of Lessons for the Virginals, entitled Parthenia Inviolata. 

The ballad is quoted by Shakespeare, by Beaumont and Fletcher, by Marston, 
&c. It is founded on the romance of Sir Launcelot du Lake, than which none 
was more popular. Chaucer, in " The Nonne Prest his tale," says — 
' This story is al so trewe, I undertake, 
As the book is of Launcelot the Lake ; " 



272 



ENGLISH SONS AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



and Churchard, in his " Eeplication to Camel's objection," says to him — 
" The most of your study hath been of Robyn Hood : 
And Bevis of Hampton and Syr Launcelet de Lake 
Hath taught you, full oft, your verses to make." 
The ballad, entitled " The noble acts of Arthur of the Round Table, and of Sir 
Launcelot du Lake," is printed in Percy's Beliques of Ancient Poetry. 
Boldly and slow 






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THE SPANISH GIPSY. 
This is in every edition of The Dancing Master, and in MusicFs Delight on 
the Cithren, 1666. 

It is found in the ballad-operas, such as The Bays' Opera, 1730, and The 
Fashionahle Lady, 1730, under the name of Qome,folloio, follow me. 

The name of The Spanish Gipsy is probably derived from a gipsies' song in 
Rowley and Middleton's play of that name. It begins, " Come, follow your 
leader, follow," and the metre is suitable to the air. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 544, is a black-letter ballad, entitled " The 
brave English Jipsie: to the tune of The Spanish Jipsie. Printed for John 
Trundle," &c. It consists of eighteen stanzas, and commencing — 
" Come, follow, follow all, 
'Tis English Jipsies' call." 

And in the same volume, p. 408, one by M[artin] P[arker], called " The three 
merry Cobblers," of which the following are the first, eighth, fourteenth, and last 
stanzas. (Printed at London for F. Grove.) 



Come, follow, follow me, 

To the alehouse we'll march all three. 

Leave awl, last, thread, and leather. 

And lot's go all together. 
Our trade excels most trades i'the land, 
For. we are still on the mending hand. 

Whatever we do intend. 

We bring tti a perfect end ; 

If any offence be past. 

We make all well at last. 
We sit at work when others stand. 
And still we are on the mending hand. 



All day we merrily sing, 

And customers to us do bring 

Or unto us do send 

Their boots and shoes to mend. 
We have our money at fii;st demand; 
Thus still we are on the mending hand. 

We pray for dirty weather, 
And money to pay for leather. 
Which if we have, and health, 
A fig for worldly wealth. 
Till men upon their heads do stand, 
We still shall be on the mending hand. 



BEIQNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I, 



273 



The most popular song to this tune was — 

" Come, follow, follow mo, 
Ye fairy elves that be," &c. 
It is the first in a tract entitled " A Description of the King and Queene of 
Fayries, their habit, fare, abode, pompe, and state: being very delightful to the 
sense, and full of mirth. London : printed for Richard Harper, and are to be 
sold at his shop at the Hospitall Gate, 1635 ; " and the song was to be " sung 
like to the Spanish Gipsie." 

The first stanza is here printed to the tune. The song will be found entire in 
Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, or Ritson's English Songs. 
Lightly, and in moderate time. 






Come fol - low, fol - low me, Ye fai - ry elves that be, Which 



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cir - cle on the green, Come fol - low Mab, your queen. . . 



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Hand in hand let's dance a-round, 



For this place is fai - ry ground. 



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THE FEIAE IN THE WELL. 

In Anthony Munday's Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington (written in 
1597), where Little John expresses his doubts of the success of the play; 
saying — " Methinks I see no jests of Robin Hood ; 

No merry Morrices of Friar Tuck ; 
No pleasant skippings up and down the wood ; 
No hunting songs," &c. 
The Friar answers, that " merry jests" have been shewn before, such as — ■ 
" How the Friar fell into the well. 
For love of Jenny, that fair, bonny belle," &c. 
The title of this ballad is " The Fryer well fitted; or— 
A pretty jest that once befell ; 
How a maid put a Fryer to cool in a well : 
to a merry tune." 



274 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The tune is in The Lancing Master, from 1650 to 1686, entitled The Maid 
peept out at the ivindow, or The Frier in the Well. 

The ballad is in the Bagford Collection; in the Koxburghe (ii. 172) ; the 
Pepys (iii. 145) ; the Douce (p. 85) ; and in Wit and Mirth, an Antidote to 
Melancholy, 8vo., 1682. Also, in an altered form, in Fills to purge Melancholy, 
1707, i. 340 ; or 1719, iii. 325. Eut not one of these contains the line, " The 
maid peept out of the window." I suppose, therefore, that the present has been 
modelled upon some earlier version of the ballad, which I have not seen. The 
story is a very old one, and one of the many against monks and friars, in which, 
not only England but all Europe delighted. 






Gracefully. 



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As I lay mus-ing all a - lone, Fa la, la la la, A 



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Then listen a -while, And I will tell Of a Friar that lov'd a honny lass well, 

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The story of the ballad may be told, with slight abbreviation. Firstly, the 
Friar makes love to the Maid :— 

" But she denyed his desire, 
And told him that she fear'd Hell-fire. 
Tush, quoth the Friar, thou needst not doubt, 
If thou wert in Hell, I could sing thee out." 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 275 

The Maid pretends to be persuaded by his arguments, but stipulates that he shall 
bring her an angel of money. 

"Tush, quoth the Friar, we shall agree, While he was gone (the truth to tell), 

No money shall part my love and me ; She hung a cloth before the well. 

Before that I will see thee lack, The Friar came, as his covenant was, 

I'll pawn my grey gown from my back. With money to his bonny lass. [quoth he. 

The Maid bethought her of a wile. Good morrow, fair Maid, good morrow, 

How she the Friar might beguile ; Here is the money I promised thee." 

The Maid thanks him, and takes the money, but immediately pretends that her 
father is coming. 

" Alas ! quoth the Friar, where shall I run. Quoth he, for sweet St. Francis' sake, 

To hide myself till he be gone ? On his disciple some pity take ; 

Behind the cloth run thou, quoth she, Quoth she, St. Francis never taught 

And there my father cannot thee see. His scholars to tempt young maids to naught. 

Behind the cloth the Friar crept. The Friar did entreat her still 

And into the well on a sudden he leapt. That she would help him out of the well ; 

Alas! quoth he, I am in the well ; She heard him make such piteous moan. 

No matter, quoth she, if thou wert in Hell : She help'd him out, and bid him begone. 

Thou sayst thou couldst sing me out of Hell, Quoth he, shall I have my money again. 

Now, prythee, sing thyself out of the well. Which from me thou hast before-hand ta'en? 

The Friar sung on with a pitiful sound. Good sir, quoth she, there's no such matter, 

help me out! or I shall be drown'd. I'll make you pay for fouling the water. 

1 trow, quoth she, your courage is cool'd ; The Friar went all along the street. 
Quoth the Friar, I never was so fool'd; Dropping wet, like a new-wash'd sheep; 

I never was served so before. [no more ; Both old and young commended the Maid 

Then take heed, quoth she, thou com'st here That such a witty prank had play'd." 



SIE EGLAMORE. 

This " merry tune " is another version of The Friar in the Well (see the pre- 
ceding). The ballad of Sir Eglamore is a sath-e upon the narratives of deeds 
of chivalry in old romances. It is contained in Tlie Melancholie Knight, by 
S[amuel] R[owlands], 1615 ; in the Antidote to Melancholy, 1661; in Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 ; in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv. 104; in the Bagford 
and Roxburghe Collections of Ballads ; in Ritson's Ancient Songs ; Evans' Old 
Ballads; &c., &c. 

It appears, with music, in part ii. of Playford's Pleasant Musical Companion, 
1687 ; in Pills to purge Melancholy; in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua; and the 
tune, with other words, in 180 Loyal Songs, &c. 

The title of the ballad is, " Courage crowned with Conquest; or A brief rela- 
tion how that valiant Knight, and heroic Champion, Sir Eglamore, bravely fought 
with and manfully slew a terrible, huge, great, monstrous Dragon. To a pleasant 
new tune." There are many variations in the copies from different presses. 

The following songs were sung to Sir Eglamore: — 

" Sir Eglamore and the Dragon, or a relation how General Monk slew a most 
cruel Dragon, Feb. 11, 1659." See Loijcd Songs written against the Rump 
Parliament. 



276 



ENGLISH SONG ANS' BALLAD MUSIC, 



'' Ignoramus Justice ; or — 

The English laws turn'd into a gin, 
To let knaves out and keep honest men in : 
to the tune of Sir Ugkdemore." London : printed for Allen Bancks, 1682. 
" The Jacobite toss'd in a Blanket," &c. (Pepys Coll., ii. 292) ; beginning- 
" I pray, Mr. Jacobite, tell me why, Fa la, &c.. 
You on our government look awry. Fa la, &c. 
With paltry hat, and threadbare coat, 
And jaws as thin as a Harry groat. 
You've brought yourselves and your cause to nought. 
Fa-la, fa-la-la-la. Fa-la, lanky down dilly." 
In Rowland's Melancliolie Knight, the ballad is thus prefaced : — 
" But tj>at I turn, and overturn again. 
Old bo"6kB, wherein the worm-holes do remain ; 
Containing acts of ancient knights and squires 
That fought with dragons, spitting forth wild fires. 
The history unto you shall appear. 
Even by myself, verbatim, set down here." 
Gracefully. Chorus. 




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And as he rode o'er hill and dale. All arni'd up-on his shirt of mail, 

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REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 277 

A Dragon came out of his den. The Dragon had a plaguey hide, 

Had slain, God knows how many men : And could the sharpest steel abide; 

When he espied Sir Eglamore, No sword would enter him with cuts, 

Oh ! if you had but heard him roar ! Which vext the Knight unto the guts ; 

Then the trees began to shake, But, as in choler he did burn. 

The Knight did tremble, horse did quake ; He watched the Dragon a good turn, 

The birds betake them all to peeping, And as a yawning he did fall, 

It would have made you fall a weeping. He thrust the sword in, hilt and all. 

But now it is vain to fear. Then like a coward he [did] fly 

For it must be fight dog, fight bear ; Unto his den that was hard by, 

To it they go, and fiercely fight And there he lay all night and roar'd : 

A live-long day, from morn till night. The Knight was sorry for his sword ; 

But riding thence, said, I forsake it, 
He that will fetch it, let him take it." 

Instead of the two last lines, in many of the copies, are the three following 
stanzas : — 

The sword, that was a right good blade, ^or he was so hot with tugging with the 

As ever Turk or Spaniard made, ° ' L S > 

I, for my part, do forsake it, That nothing would quench him but a whole 

And he that will fetch it, let him take it. Now God preserve our King and Queen, 

And eke in London may be seen 
When all was done, to the alehouse he went, As many knights, and as many more, 
And by and by his two-pence he spent ; And all so good as Sir Eglamore. 

THE COBBLER'S JIGG. 

This tune first appears in The Dancing Master, in the seventh edition, printed 
in 1686. It is there entitled Tlie Colhler's Jigg. More than sixty years before 
it had been published in Holland, as an English song-tune, in Bellerophon, 1622 ; 
and in Nederlandtsche Q-edenck-Clanch, 1626. In the index to the latter, among 
the "Engelsche Stemmen," it is entitled " Cobbeler, of: Het Engelsch Lapper- 
ken." All the English airs in these Dutch books have Dutch words adapted to 
them; but as I do not know the English words which belong to this, I have 
adapted an appropriate song from Tlie Shoemaker'' s Holiday, 1600. 

In the Pepys Collection of Ballads, vol. i.. No. 227, is one entitled " Round, 
boyes, indeed ! or The Shoomaker's Holy-day : 

Being a very pleasant new^ ditty, 
To fit both country, towne, and cittie, &c. 
To a pleasant new tune." It is signed L.P. (Laurence Price?), and printed 
for J. Wright, who printed about 1620. This may prove to be the ballad. 
I noted that it was in eighteen stanzas, but omitted to copy it. 

Shoemakers called their trade " the gentle craft," from a tradition that King 
Edward IV., in one of his disguises, once drank with a party of shoemakers, and 
pledged them. The story is alluded to in the old play, Greorge a Greene, the 
Pinner of Wakefield (1599), when Jenkin says — 

" Marry, because you have drank with the King, 
And the King hath so graciously pledg'd yon, 
You shall no more be called shoemakers ; 
But you and yours, to the world's end, 
Shall be called the trade of the gentle graft." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, v. iii., ]). 45. 



278 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" Would I had been created a shoemaker," (says the servant in a play of Dekker's) 
" for all the gentle craft are gentlemen every Monday by their copy, and scorn 
then to work one true stitch." — Dodsley's Old Flays, v. iii., p. 282. 

Cobblers, too, were proverbially a meri'y set. In the opening scene of Ben 
Jonson's play, TJie case is altered, Juniper, the cobbler, is discovered sitting at 
work in his shop, and singing ; and Onion, who is sent for him, has great diffi- 
culty in stopping his song. When told that he must slip on his coat and go to 
assist, because they lack waiters, he exclaims, " A pityful hearing ! for now must I, 
of a merry cohhler, become a mourning creature." (The family were in moui-ning). 
Juniper is also represented as a small poet ; and when, in the third act. Onion 
goes to him again (the cobbler being in his shop, and singing, as usual), and 
explains his distress because Valentine had not written the ditty he ordered of 
him. Juniper says, "No matter, I'll hammer out a ditty myself." 
Jovially, and in moderate time. 



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Hey down a down, hey down a down, Hey der-ry der-ry down a down. 



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And here, kind mate, to thee ! 
Let's sing a dirge for Saint Hugh's soul, 
And down it merrily. 

Hey down a down, hey down a down. 

Hey derry, derry, down a down ; 
Ho ! well done, to me let come. 
Ring compass, gentle joy. 



EEIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 279 

DOWN IN THE NORTH COUNTRY. 

This tune was formerly very popular, and is to be found under a variety of 
names, and in various shapes. In the second vol. of The Dancing Master it is 
entitled Tlie Merry Milkmaids. In The Merry Musician, or a Cure for the 
Spleen, i. 64, it is printed to the ballad, " The Farmer's Daughter of merry 
Wakefield." That ballad begins with the line, " Down in the North Country ; " 
and the air is so entitled in the ballad-opera, A Cure for a Scold, 1738. In 
180 Loyal Songs, thii-d and fourth editions, 1684 and 1694, there are two songs, 
and the tune is named Philander. The first of the songs begins, " Ah, cruel 
bloody fate," and the second is " to the tune of Ah, cruel Uoody fate ; " by which 
name it is also called in The Q-enteel Comjoaniou for the Recorder, 1683, and 
elsewhere. 

One of M[artin] P[arker's] ballads is entitled " Take time while 'tis ofiier'd; " 
" For Tom has broke his word with his sweeting, 
And lost a good wife for an hour's meeting ; 
Another good fellow has gotten the lass, 
And Tom may go shake his long ears like an ass." 
to the tune Within the North OountryP (Roxburghe, i. 396.) It begins with 
the line, " When Titan's fiery steeds," and the last stanza is — 
" Thus Tom hath lost liis lass, 
Because he broke his vow ; 
And I have raised my fortunes well — 
The case is alter' d notv." 
There are many ballads to the tune The case is altered, and probably this is 
intended. 

In the Bagford Collection is " The True Lover's lamentable Overthrow ; or 
The Damosel's last Farewell," &c. : "to the tune of Cruel Uoody fate;'''' 
commencing — " You parents all attend 

To what of late befell ; 
It is to you I send 
These lines, my last farewell." &c. 
In the Douce Collection, p. 245, " The West Country Lovers — 
See here the pattern of true love, 

Amongst the country blades. 
Who never can delighted be, 
But when amongst the maids : 
tune oi Philander." 

The last is in black-letter, printed by J. Bonyers, at the Black Raven in Duck 
Lane. A former possessor has written " Cruel bloody fate " under " Philander," 
as being the other name of the tune. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 105, — " The Deceiver Deceived ; or The 
Virgin's Revenge : to the tune of Ah, cruel Uoody fate," begins, " Ah, cruel maid, 
give o'er." 

In A Cabinet of CJioice Jewels, 1688 (Wood's Library, Oxford) — a " Carol for 
Innocents' Day: tune oi Bloody fate." 



280 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The Bong of Philander is in Pills to pmge Melancholy, ii. 252 (1707), or 
iv. 284 (1719) ; in Wit and Drollery, 1682 ; and a black-letter copy in the 
Douce Collection, p. 74, entitled " The Faithfull Lover's Downfall; or The 
Death of fair Phillis, who killed herself for the loss of her Philander," &c. : to a 
pleasant new play-house tune, or cruel bloody fate." (Printed by T. Vere, at 
the Angel in Giltspur Street.) 

Smoothli), and in moderate time. 



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Ah, cru - el bloody fate, What ^ canst thou now do 



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Her poniard then she took, and graspt it in her hand. 

And with a dying look, cried, Thus I fate command : 

Philander, ah, my love ! I come to meet thy shade below ; 

Ah, I come ! she cried, with a wound so wide, to need no second blow. 

In pui-ple waves her blood ran streaming down the floor ; 
Unmov'd she saw the flood, and bless'd her dying hour : 
Philander, ah Philander, still tlie bleeding Phillis cried; 
She wept awhile, and forc'd a smile, then clos'd her eyes and died. 

The following is the version called "Down in the North Country," of which 
there are also copies in Halliwell's Collection (Cheetham Library, 1850), and in 
Dr. Burney's Collection, Brit. Mus. 



KEIQNS OP JAMES I. AND CUARLE6 I. 



281 



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The following is the version of the same tune, which is entitled Tlie Merry Milk- 
maids in the second Yolume of The Dancing Master. It was formerly the custom 
for milkmaids to dance before the houses of their customers in the month of May, 
to obtain a small gratuity ; and probably this tune, and The Merry Milkmaids in 
green, were especial favorites, and therefore named after them. To be a milkmaid 
and to be merry were almost synonymous in the olden time. Sir Thomas 
Overbury's Character of a Milkmaid, and some allusions to their songs, will be 
found with the tune entitled The Merry Milkmaids in green. The following 
quotations relate to their music and dancing. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's play, The Coxcomb, Nan, the milkmaid, says — 
" Come, you shall e'en home with us, and be our fellow ; 

Our house is so honest ! 

And we serve a very good woman, and a gentlewoman ; 

And we live as merrily, and dance o' good days 

After even-song. Our wake shall be on Sunday : 

Do j'ou know what a wake is ? — we have mighty cheer then," &c. 
Pepys, in his Diary, 13th Oct., 1662, says, " With my father took a melan- 
choly walk to Portholme, seeing the country-maids, milking their cows there, 
they being there now at grass ; and to see with what mirth they come all home 
together in pomp with their milk, and sometimes they have music go before them." 



282 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Again, on the 1st May, 1667, " To Westminster ; on the -way meeting many 
milkmaids with theii- garlands upon their pails, dancing -with a fiddler before 
them; and saw pretty Nelly" [Nell G Wynne] "standing at her lodgings' door in 
Drury Lane, in her smock sleeves and bodice, looking upon one : she seemed a 
mighty pretty creature." 

In a set of prints, called Tempesfs Qryes of London, one is called " The Merry 
Milkmaid, whose proper name was Kate Smith. She is dancing with her milk- 
pail on her head, decorated with silver cups, tankards, and salvers, borrowed for 
the purpose, and tied together with ribbands, and ornamented with flowers. Of 
late years, the plate, with other decorations, were placed in a pyramidical form, 
and carried by two chainnen upon a wooden horse. The mikmaids walked before 
it, and performed the dance without any incumbrance. Strutt mentions having 
seen " these superfluous ornaments, with much more propriety, substituted by a 
cow. The animal had her horns gilt, and was nearly covered with ribbands of 
various colours, formed into bows and roses, and interspersed with green oaken 
leaves and bunches of flowers." Sports and Pastimes, edited by Hone, p. 358. 



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The Milkmaids' Dance. 



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EEIQNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



283 



MORRIS DANCE. 

This is entitled Migelsche Kloche-Dans in tliree of the Collections published in 
Holland : viz., in Belleroplion (Amsterdam, 1622) ; Nederlandtsche GfedencJc- 
Clanck (Haerlem, 1626) ; and Friesche Lust-Hof (Amsterdam, 1634.) 

As "kick" signifies "bell," and bells were worn in the morris, I suppose it to 
have been a morris-dance. In the above-named collections, Dutch songs are 
adapted to it, but I have no clue to the English words. 

Moderate time. 



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AMARILLIS TOLD HER SWAIN. 

This is found, under the name of Amarillis, among the violin tunes in Tfie 
Dancing Master of 1665, and in all later editions ; in MusicKs Delight on the 
Oithren, 1666 ; in Apollo's Banquet, 1670 ; in the Pleasant Companion for the 
Flageolet, 1680 ; &c. 

The song, "Amarillis told her swain," is in Memj Drollery complete, 1670 (p. 3). 

The air is sometimes referred to as " Phillis on the new-made hay," from a 



284 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



ballad entitled " The coy Shepherdess; or Phillis and Amintas ; " -which was sung 

to the tune of Amarillis. See Roxbui-ghe Collection, ii. 85. 
Among the ballads to the air, are also the following : — 
" The Rojal Recreation of Jovial Anglers ; " beginning — 

"Of all the recreations which 
Attend on human nature," &c. 

Eoxburghe Collection. 
Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 232 ; and Merry Drollery complete, 1661 and 
1670. It is also in Fills to furge Melancholy ; but there set to the tune of 
My father ivas lorn before me. 

" Love in the blossom ; or Fancy in the bud : to the tune Amarillis told her 
swain." Roxburghe, ii. 315. 

" Fancy's Freedom ; or true Lovers' bliss : tune of Amarillis, or Phillis on the 
new-made hay." Roxburghe, iii. 114. 

" The true Lovers' Happiness ; or Nothing venture, nothing have," &c. : tune 
of Amintas on the new-made hay ; or Tlie Loyal Lovers." Douce Collection, and 
Roxbm-ghe, ii. 486. 

" The Cotsall Shepherds : to the tune of Amarillis told her swain" in Folly in 
'print, or a Booh of Rhymes, 1667. 

The following stanza, set to the tune, is the first of the above-named ballad, 
" The coy Shepherdess ; or Phillis and Amintas :" — 

Smoothly, and in moderate time. 



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Phil - lis on tlie new-made hay, On a plea - sant summer's day. 



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In 're - clin - ing' pos - ture lay. And thought no shep - herd nigh her; 



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Till A-min - tas 



came that way. And threw him - self down by her. 



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Ef 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



285 



CHEERILY AND MERRILY. 

In Tlie Dancing Master of 1652, this is entitled Mr, Webb's Fancy ; and in 
later editions Gherrily and merrily. 

In vol. xi. of the King's Pamphlets, folio, there is a copy of a ballad written on 
the violent dissolution of the Long Parliament by Cromwell, entitled " The Par- 
liament routed ; or Here's a house to be let : 

I hope that England, after many jarres, 
Shall be at peace, and give no way to warres : 
Lord, protect the general!, that he 
May he the agent of our unitie : 
to the tune of Lucina, or Merrily and cherrily." [June 3, 1653.] It has been 
reprinted in Political Ballads, Percy Society, No. 11, p. 126. The first stanza 
is as follows : — " Cheer up, kind countrymen, he not dismay'd. 

True news I can tell ye concerning the nation : 
Hot spirits are quenched, the tempest is layd, 
And now we may hope for a good reformation." 
The above is more suited to the tune of Lucina (i.e., The Beggar Boy, p. 269) 
than to this air ; I have therefore adapted a song from Universal Harmony, 1746, 
an alteration of the celebrated one by George Herbert. 
Smootlily, and in moderate time. 



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Sweet day. 



so cool. 



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so calm, 



so bright, The 



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bri - dal of the earth and sky, The dews shall weep thy 



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fall 



to - night, For thou, with all thy sweets, must die 



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Sweet rose, so fragrant and so brave, 
Dazzling the rash beholder's eye. 

Thy root is ever in its grave. 

And thou, with all thy sweets, must die. 

Sweet Spring, so beauteous and so gay. 
Storehouse where sweets unnumber'd lie, 



Not long thy fading glories stay, 

But thou, with all thy sweets, must die. 

Sweet love, alone, sweet wedded love. 
To thee no period is assign'd ; 

Thy tender joys by time improve, 
In death itself the most refin'd. 



286 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

ST. GEORGE FOR ENGLAND. 

There are black-letter copies of this ballad in the Pepys and Bagford Collec- 
tions. It is also in An Antidote to Melmicholy, 1661 ; in part ii. of Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670; m Wit and Drollery, 1682; Pills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707 and 1719; &c. 

It is one of those offered for sale by the ballad-singer in Ben Jonson's 
comedy of Bartholomew Fair. 

Pepys, in his Diary, tells us of " reading a ridiculous ballad, made in praise of 
the Duke of Albemarle, to the tune of St. G-eorge — the tune being printed too;" 
and adds, " I observe that people have great encouragement to make ballads of 
him, of this kind. There are so many, that hereafter he will sound like Guy of 
Warwick." (6th March, 1667.) 

Fielding, in his novel of Tom Jones, speaks of St. George he toas for Migland 
as one of Squire Western's favorite tunes. 

The ballad in the Pepys Collection (i. 87) is entitled " Saint George's Com- 
mendation to all Souldiers ; or Saint George's Alarum to all that profess martiall 
discipline, with a memoriall of the Worthies who have been borne so high on the 
wings of Fame for their brave adventures, as they cannot be buried in the pit of 
oblivion : to a pleasant neio tuneP It was " imprinted at London, by W. W.," in 
1612, and is the copy from which Percy printed, in his Reliques of Ancient 
Poetry. It begins — " "ViTiy do we boast of Arthur and his Knigbtes." 

In Anthony Wood's Collection, at Oxford, No. 401, there is a modernization 
of this ballad, entitled — 

" St. George for England, and St. Dennis for France; 
O hony soite qui mal y pance : 
to an excellent new tune." (Wood's Ballads, ii. 118.) It is subscribed S. S., and 
" printed for W. Gilbertson, in Giltspur Street ; " from which it may be dated 
about 1659. 

As a specimen of the comparative modernization, I give the first stanza : — 
" What need we brag or boast at all Sir Tarquin, that great giant, 

Of Arthur and his Knights, His vassal did remain ; 

Knowing how many gallant men But St. George, St. George, 

They have subdued in fights. The Dragon he hath slain. 

For bold Sir Launcelot du Lake St. George he was for England, 

Was of the table round ; St. Dennis was for France ; 

And fighting for a lady's sake, O hony soite qui mal y pance." 

His sword with fame was crown'd ; 

A copy of the old ballad in the Bagford Collection is entitled " A new ballad 
of St. George and the Dragon," but there is also another of St. George and the 
Dragon, which Percy has printed in the Reliques. 

In 180 Loyal Songs, 1685 and 1694, there is " a new song on the instalment of 
Sir John Moor, Lord Mayor of London : tune, St. George for England.^'' And in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 20 (1707), "A new ballad of King Edward and 
Jane Shore," to the same. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



287 



As the ballad is contained in Percy's Heliques, as well as a witty second part, 
written by John Grubb, and published in 1688, the first stanza only is here 
printed with the music. 
Moderate time. 






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Why should we boast of Ar-thur and his knights, Knowing well how many men 



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have en-du-red^ights? For be -sides King Ar - thur and Lance - lot du Lake, Or Sir 



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Tris - tram de Li - o - nel, that fought for La-dies' sake, Read in old his - to - ries and 



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there you shall see. How St. George, St. George the Dragon made *" ^^^- Saint 
-i fi ■ ■ • • »—. 



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George he was for England, St. Den - nis was for France, Sing 



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pense. 



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288 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



THE HEALTHS. 

This tune is in The Dancing Master, fi'om 1650 to 1690, and in Mustek's 
Delight on the Cithren, 1666. 

In the first editions of Tlie Dancing Master it is entitled Tlie Health ; in the 
seventh and eighth, The Healths, or Tlie Merry Wassail. 

The following song, " Come, faith, since I'm parting," was written by Patrick 
Carey, a loyal cavalier, on bidding farewell to his hospitable entertainers at Wick- 
ham, in 1651. It is " to the tune of The Healths." 

Moderate time. 



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Come, faith, since I'm part-ing, And that God knows when The 



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walls 



of sweet Wick - ham 



I shall see 



cres.\ - 
gain, 



Let's 



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e'en have 



fro - lie. 



And drink like tall men. Till 

bold 



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heads with healths go round. 



Till heads with healths go round. 



ISS 



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Wn 



And first to Sir William, I'll take't on my 

knee; 
He well doth deserve that a brimmer it be : [he : 
More brave entertainments none ere gave than 
Then let his health go round. 

Next to his chaste lady, who loves him as life; 
And whilst we are drinking to so good a wife. 
The poor of the parish will pray for her life ; 
Be sure her health go round. 



And then to yoimg Will, the heir of this place ; 
He'll make a brave man, you may see't in his 

face ; 
I only could wish we had more of the race ; 
At least let his health go round. 

To well-grac'd Victoria the next room we owe ; 
As virtuous she'll prove as her mother, I trow, 
And somewhat in huswifry more she will know; 
O let her health go round! 



RKIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 289 

To plump Bess, her sister, I drink down this Hot Coles is on fire, and fain would be 

cup: [up; quench'd; [drench 'd: 

Birlackins, my masters, each man must take't As well as his horses, the groom must be 

'Tis foul play, I bar it, to simper and sup. Who's else? let Wm speak, if his thirst he'd 

When such a health goes round. have stench'd. 

Or have his health go round. 
And now, helter-skelter, to th'rest of the house: 

The most are good fellows, and love to carouse ; -^"'^ """' '° ^^ women, who must not be coy : 

Who's not, may go sneck-up ; ^ he's not worth a A glass, Mistress Gary, you know's but a toy; 

louse Come, come, Mistress Sculler, no perdonnex 

That stops a health i' th' round. ^^V' 

It must, it must go round. 

To th' clerk, so he'll learn to drink in the morn ; [sop ; 

To Heynous, that stares when he has quaft up Dame Nell, so you'll drink, we'll allow you a 

his horn ; Up with't, Mary Smith, in your draught never 

To Philip, by whom good ale ne'er was forlorn ; stop ; [drop, 

These lads can drink a round. Law, there now. Nan German has left ne'er a 

And so must all the round. 
John Chandler! come on, here's some warm 

beer for you ; Jane, Joan, Goody Lee, great Meg, and the 

A health to the man that this liquor did brew : less, 

Why Hewet ! there's for thee ; nay take't, 'tis Youmustnotbe squeamish, but do as did Bess : 
thy due, How th' others are nam'd, if I could but guess, 

But see that it go roiuid. I'd call them to the round. 

And now, for my farewell, I drink up this quart. 
To you, lads and lasses, e'en with all my heart ; 
May I find you ever, as now when we part. 
Each health still going round. 

MALL PEATLY. 

This tune is contained in Bellerophon, of Lust tot Wyshed, Amsterdam, 1622 ; 
in the seventh and later editions of The Dancing Master ; in Apollo's Banquet ; 
and in several of the ballad-operas. 

In Bellerophon, the first part is in common time, and the second in triple, like 
a cushion dance ; but it is not so in any of the above-named English copies, 
which, however, are of later date. 

D'Urfey wrote to it a song entitled Gillian of Croydon (see Pills to purge 
Melancholy, ii. 46), and it is to be found under that name in some of the ballad- 
operas, such as The Fashionable Lady, or Harlequin^ s Opera, 1730 ; Sylvia, or 
The Country Burial, 1731; The Jealous Cloim, 1730; &c. There are also several 
songs to it in the Collection of State Songs sung at the Mug-houses in London and 
Westminster, 1716. In Apollo's Banquet, the tune is entitled The Old Marinett, 
or Mall Peatly ; in Gay's Achilles, Moll Peatly. 

Mall is the old abbreviation of Mary. (See Ben Jonson's Miglish Grammar.) 

In Bound about our coal-fire, or Christmas Entertainments (7th edit., 1734), it 
is said, in allusion to Christmas, " This time of year bemg cold and frosty, 

" Sir Walter Scott prints this "sneake-up:" I sup- equivalent to "go and be hanged." 
pose it should be "snecke-up" — a common expression, 



290 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



generally speaking, or when Jack-Frost commonly takes us by the nose, the 
diversions are within doors, either in exei'cise or by the fire-side. Dancing is one 
of the chief exercises — Moll Peatly is never forgot ; — this dance stirs the blood 
and gives the males and females a fellow-feeling for each other's activity, ability, 
and agility : Cupid always sits in the corner of the room where these diversions 
are transacting, and shoots quivers full of arrows at the dancers, and makes his 
o'wn game of them." 
Gaily. 



^^^^^^^^ 



One Iio-li - day, last summer, From four to seven, by Croy-don chimes, 



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Three lass-es to - ping rummers Were set a pra - ting of the times. 



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A wife call'd Joan of the Mill, And a maid they call'd brown Nell: Take 



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off your glass, said Gillian of Croy-don, A health to onr Mas - ter Will. 



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BOBBING JOE, oe BOBBING JOAN. 

The tune of Bohhing Joe will be found in every edition of TJie Lancing Master; 
in Mustek's Delight on the Githren, 1666 ; &c. 

It is sometimes entitled Bohhing Joan, as by Carey in his Ballades (1651) ; in 
Polly, 1729 ; in The Bay's Opera, 1730 ; The Mad Mouse, 1737 ; A Cure for a 
Scold, 1738 ; &c. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



291 



" New Bob-in- Jo " is mentioned as a tune in No. 38 of Mercurius Democritiis, 
or a True and Perfect Nodurnall, December, 1652. (See King's Pamphlets, 
Brit. Mus.) 

The song, " My dog and I," is to the tune of My dog and I, or Bobbing Joan. 
(A copy in Mr. Halliwell's Collection.) 

The following is the ballad by Patrick Carey, " to the tune of Bobbing Joane." 

Cheerfully. 



1 



P= ?f^ 



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I ne'er yet saw a love - ly crea-ture, Were she widow, maid, or wife. But 



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straight with -in my breast her feature Was paint- ed, strangely to the life: 

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If out of sight, Tho' ne'er so bright, I straightway lost her pic - ture quite. 



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It still was mine and others' wonder 

To see me court so eagerly ; 
Yet, soon as absence did me sunder 
From those I lov'd, quite cured was I. 
The reason was, 
That my breast has. 
Instead of heart, a looking-glass. 

And as those forms that lately shined 
I' th' glass, are easily defac'd ; 

Those beauties so, which were enshrined 
Within my breast, are soon displac'd : 



Both seem as they 
Would ne'er away ; 
Yet last but while the lookers stay. 

Then let no woman think that ever 

In absence J shall constant prove ; 
Till some occasion does us sever 
I can, as true as any, love : 
But when that we 
Once parted be. 
Troth, I shall court the next I see. 



WHEN THE STOEJIY WINDS DO BLOW. 



The ballad, now known as You Gentlemen of England, is an alteration of one 
by M[artin] P[arker], a copy of which is in the Pepys Collection, i. 420; printed 
at London for C. Wright. It is in black-letter, and entitled " Saylers for my 
money: a new ditty composed in the praise of Saylers and Sea Affaires; briefly 
shewing the nature of so worthy a callmg, and effects of their industry : to the 



292 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

tune of The Joviall Cobler." Instead of " You gentlemen of England," it begins, 
" Countriemen of England," &c. 

Ritson prints from a copy entitled "Neptune's raging fury; or The Gallant 
Seaman's Sufferings. Being a relation of their perils and dangers, and of the 
extraordinary hazards they undergo in their noble adventures : together -with 
their undaunted valour and rare constancy in all their extremites ; and the 
manner of their rejoycing on shore, at their return home. Tune of When the 
stormy tvinds do blow" (the burden of the song). A black-letter copy of this 
version is in the Bagford Collection, printed by W. 0[nley], temp. Charles 11. ;- 
and in one of the volumes of the Douce Collection, p. 168, printed by C. Brown 
and T. Noi'ris, and sold at the Looking Glass on London Bridge. A third in the 
Roxburghe Collection, ii. 543. " Stormy ivinds " is also in the list of ballads 
printed by W. Thackeray, about 1660. 

On the accession of Charles IL, we have, " The valiant Seaman's Congratu- 
lation to his Sacred Majesty King Charles the Second," &c. : to the tune of 
Let us drink and sing, and merrily troul the howl, or The stormy ivinds do blow, or 
Hey, ho, my honey."" (Black-letter, twelve stanzas ; F. Grove, Snow Hill.) 
It commences thus : — " Great Charles, your English seamen. 

Upon oxir bended knee, 
Present ourselves as freemen 

Unto your Majesty. 
Beseeching God to bless you 

\Miere ever that you go ; 
So we pray, night and day, 

When the stormy winds do blow." 
Although the option of singing it to three tunes is given, it is evident, from the 
two last lines, that it was written to this. 

Among the other ballads to the tune are, " The valiant Virgin, or Philip and 
Mary : In a description of a young gentlewoman of Worcestershire (a rich gentle- 
man's daughter) being in love with a farmer's son, which her father despising, 
because he was poor, caus'd him to be press'd for sea: and how she disguised 
herself in man's apparel and follow'd him," &c. "To the tune of Wlien the stormy 
winds do blow;" (Roxbm-ghe, ii. 546) beginning — 
" To every faithful lover 

That's constant to her dear," &c. 
In Poems by Ben Jonson, junior, 8vo., 1672, is " The Bridegroom's Salutation: 
to the tune Wlien the stormy ivinds do blow ; " beginning — 
" I took thee on a suddain, 

In all thy glories drest," &c. 
In 180 Loyal Songs, 1686 and 1694, a bad version of the time is printed to 
" You Calvinists of England." 

There are fourteen stanzas in the copy of "You gentlemen" printed by Ritson, 
in his Miglish So7igs. The following shorter version is from one of the broadsides 
with music, compared with another copy in Uarly Naval Ballads (Percy Society, 
No. 8, p. 34.) 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



293 



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Boldly. 



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You Gen -tie-men of Eng-land, That live at home at ease, How 



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lit - tie do you think up - on The dan - gers of the seas, Give 



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mar - i - ners. And they will plain - ly show. All the 
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ear un - to the 



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When the 



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storm - y winds do blow 



cares 



and the 



fears 



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3 t f a f 

The sailor must have courage. 

No danger he must shun ; 
In every kind of weather 

His course he still must run ; 
Now mounted on the top-mast. 

How dreadful 'tis below : 
Then we ride, as the tide, 

When the stormy winds do blow. 

If enemies oppose us. 

And England is at war 
With any foreign nation. 

We fear not wound nor scar. 
To humble them, come on, lads, 

Their flags we'll soon lay low; 
Clear the way for the fray, 

Tho' the stormy winds do blow. 



Sometimes in Neptune's bosom 

Our ship is toss'd by waves, 
And every man expecting 

The sea to be our graves ; 
Then up aloft she's mounted. 

And down again so low, 
In the waves, on the seas. 

When the stormy winds do blow. 

But when the'danger's over. 

And safe we come on shore, 
The horrors of the tempest 

We think of then no more ; 
The flowing bowl invites us, 

And joyfully we go. 
All the day drink away, 

Tho' the stormy winds do blow. 



294 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MTTSIC. 



EED BULL. 

This tune is named after the Red Bull Playhouse, which formerly stood in 
St. John Street, Clerkenwell. It was in use throughout the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I., and perhaps before. At the Restoration, the King's actors, under 
Thomas Killigrew, played there until they removed to the new Theatre in Drui'y 
Lane ; and when Davenant produced his Playliouse to he Let, in 1663, it was 
entirely abandoned. (See Collier's Annals of the Stage.) 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 246, is a ballad entitled " A mad kind of 
wooing ; or A Dialogue between Will the simple, and Nan the subtle, with their 
loving agreement : to the tune of The new Dance at the Bed Bull Playhouse." 
It is black-letter, printed for the assigns of T. Symcocke, whose patent for 
"printing of paper and parchment on the one side" was granted in 1620, and 
assigned in the same year. Another copy of the ballad will be found in the 
Pepys Collection, i. 276, " printed for H[emy] G[osson] on London Bridge. 

The tune is contained in Apollo'' s Banquet for the Treble Violin, entitled T/ie 
BamseWs Bance ; and in Tlie Dancing Master (1698), Bed Bidl. 
Rather sloiv. 



/ fun p > 



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do 



^ 



Sweet Nan - cy, I 

J . J J .J 



love 



thee dear, Be - lieve 



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if thou can, And shall, I firm - ly do declare, While thy name is Nan. I 



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can - not court with el - o-quence As ma - 



ny 



cour - tiers do. But 



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I do love en - t ire - ly thee. Then love me dear - ly, too. 

J ■ J ■ . 1.-1 



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The last eight bars are repeated for four more lines in the stanza. The whole 
is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 312 (1810). 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 295 

THE MERRY MILKMAIDS IN GREEN. 

This is evidently the same air as And will he not come again, one of the snatches 
sung by Ophelia in Hamlet, but in a difierent form (see p. 237) . It is contained 
in every edition of The Dancing Master. In the eighteenth edition it is entitled 
" The merry Milkmaids in green^^ to distinguish it from another air of similar 
name. 

In Su' Thomas Overbury's Character of a Milkmaid, he says, " She dares go 
alone, and unfold her sheep in the night, and fears no manner of ill, because she 
means none : yet, to say truth, she is never alone, she is still accompanied ivith old 
songs, honest thoughts, and prayers, but short ones." 

In the " Character of a Ballad-monger," in WJiimzies, or a new Cast of 
Characters, 12mo., 1631, we find, " Stale ballad news, cashiered the city, must 
now ride post for the country, where it is no less admired than a giant in a 
pageant : till at last it grows so common there too, as every poor milkmaid can 
chant and chirp it under her coiv, which she useth, as a harmless charm, to make 
her let down her milk." 

Maudlin, the milkmaid, in Walton's Angler, sings (among others) portions of 
two ballads by Martin Parker, a well-known ballad- writer of the latter part of the 
reign of James I., and during that of Charles and the Protectorate, and both are 
to this tune. The first is — 
" The Milkemaid's Life ; or— 

A pretty new ditty, composed and pen'd 
The praise of the milking paile to defend : 
to a cuiious new tune, called The Milkemaid's Dumps." (Roxburghe Coll., i. 244, 
or Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, 243.) Mr. Payne Collier remarks that the last 
stanza but one proves it to have been written before " the downfall of May- 
games " under the Puritans. 

You rural goddpsses. Their courages never quail ; 

That woods and fields possess, In wet and dry, 

Assist me with your skill. Though winds be high, 

That may direct my quill And dark's the sky, 

More jocundly to express They ne'er deny 

The mirth and delight. To carry the milking pail. 

Both morning and night, 
On mountain or in dale, Tj^^jj, j^^^^.^^ ^^^ f^^^ f^.^^^ ^^^^^ 

Of those who choose They never will despair; 

This trade to use. Whatever may befaU, 

And through cold dews They bravely bear out all. 

Do never refuse ^„j Fortune's frowns out-dare. 

To carry the milking pail. They pleasantly sing 

The bravest lasses gay To welcome the Spring — 

Live not so merry as they ; 'Gainst heaven they never rail ; 

In honest civil sort ' If grass well grow. 

They make each other sport. Their thanks they show ; 

As they trudge on' their way. And, frost or snow. 

Come fair or foul weather. They merrily go 

They're fearful of neither — Along with the milking pail. 



296 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Bad idleness they do scorn ; 
They rise very early i' th' morn. 

And walk into the field, 

Where pretty birds do yield 
Brave music on ev'ry thorn : 

The linnet and thrush 

Do sing on each hush. 
And the dulcet nightingale 

Her note doth strain 

In a jocund vein, 

To entertain 

That worthy train 
Which carry the milking pail. 

Their labour doth health preserve. 
No doctors' rules they observe ; 

While others, too nice 

In taking their advice, [starve ; 
Look always as though they would 

Their meat is digested. 

They ne'er are molested, 
No sickness doth them assail ; 

Their time is spent 

In merriment ; 

While limbs are lent. 

They are content 
To carry the milking pail. 

Those lasses nice and strange, 
That keep shops in the Exchange, 

Sit pricking of clouts. 

And giving of flouts ; 
They seldom abroad do range : 

Then comes the green sickness 

And changeth their likeness, 
AH this for want of good sale ; 

But 'tis not so, 

Aa proof doth show, 

By those that go 

In frost and snow 
To carry the milking pail. 



If they any sweethearts have 
That do affection crave. 

Their privilege is this. 

Which many others miss : — 
They can give them welcome brave. 

With them they may walk, 

And pleasantly talk. 
With a bottle of wine or ale; 

The gentle cow 

Doth them allow, 

As they know how. 
God speed the plough. 
And bless the milking pail. 

Upon the first of May, 

With garlands fresh and gay ; 

With mirth and music sweet, 

For such a season meet. 
They pass their time away : 

They dance away sorrow, 

And all the day thorom, 
Their legs do never fail ; 

They nimblely 

Their feet do ply. 

And bravely try 

The victory, 
In honour o' th' milking pail. 

If any think that I 
Do practice flattery, 

In seeking thus to raise 

The merry milkmaids' praise, 
I'll to them thus reply : 

It is their desert 

Inviteth my art 
To study this pleasant tale ; 

In their defence, 

Whose innocence 

And providence 

Gets honest pence 
Out of the milking pail. 



There is another version of the above ballad in the Roxburghe Collection 
(ii. 230), entitled "The innocent Counti-y Maid's Delight; or a Description of 
the lives of the Lasses of London : set to an excellent Country Dance." It com- 
mences with the lines quoted by the milkmaid from the above sixth stanza : 
" Some lasses are nice and strange 
That keep shop in the Exchange." 



BEIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



297 



The second balla'd quoted by Maudlin is entitled " Keep a good tongue in your 
head ; or — Here's a good woman, in every respect, 

But only her tongue breeds all her defect : 
to the tune of The Milkmaids," &c. (Roxburghe Coll., i. 510, or Collier's Box- 
hurghe Ballads, 237.) Fronx this I have selected a few stanzas to print with the 
tune. It is sometimes referred to under its name, as in the following : — 
" Hold your hands, honest men : for — 

Here's a good wife hath a husband that likes her. 

In every respect, but only he strikes her ; 

Then if you desire to be held men complete. 

Whatever you do, your wives do not beat. 
To the tune of Keepe a good tongue," &c. (Roxburghe, i. 514.) The following 
song by D'Urfey, entitled The Bonny Milkmaid, was also wi'itten to the tune, but 
had afterwards music composed to it for his play of Bon Quixote, and is so printed 
in both editions of Bills to purge Melancholy, and in The Merry Musician, or 
A Gure for the Spleen, ii. 116. It is a rifacimento of Martin Parker's song 
printed above. 



Ye nymphs and sylvan gods, 
That love green fields and woods, 

\Miere Spring, newly blown. 

Herself does adorn 
With flow'rs and blooming buds : 

Come sing in the praise, 

Whilst flocks do graze 
In yonder pleasant vale. 

Of those that choose 

Their sleep to lose. 

And in cold dews, 

With clouted shoes, 
Do carry the milking pail. 

The goddess of the morn 
With blushes they adorn. 

And take the fresh air. 

Whilst linnets prepare 
A concert in each green thorn. 

The blackbird and thrush 

On every bush, 
And charming nightingale, 

In merry vein 

Their throats do strain 

To entertain 

The jolly train 



When cold bleak winds do roar 
And flow'rs can spring no more, 

The fields that were seen 

So pleasant and green 
By Winter all candied o'er : 

Oh ! how the town lass 

Looks, with her white face 
And lips so deadly pale ; 

But it is not so 

With those that go 

Through frost and snow. 

With cheeks that glow, 
To carry the milking pail. 

The country lad is free 
From fear and jealousy. 

When upon the green 

He is often seen 
With a lass upon his knee ; 

With kisses most sweet 

He does her greet. 
And swears she'll ne'er grow stale ; 

W'hUe the London lass, 

In every place. 

With her brazen face, 

Despises the grace 
Of those with the milking pail. 

was one of the ballads printed by 



That carry the milking pail. 

"The Merry Milkmaid's Delight" 
W. Thackeray, in the time of Charles IT. 

The following stanzas are selected from the ballad above-mentioned, " Keep 
a good tongue in your head." 



298 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 




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Her cheeks are red as the rose 
Which June for her glory shows ; 

Her teeth in a row 

Stand like a wall of snow 
Between her round chin and her nose ; 

Her shoulders are decent. 

Her arms wliite and pleasant. 
Her fingers are small and long. 

No fault I find, 

But, in my mind, 

Most womenkind 

Must come behind ; 
O that she could rule her tongue ! 



With elcquence she will dispute ; 

Few women can her confute. 
She sinffs and she plays, 
And she knows all the keys 

Of the vial de gamho, or lute. 
She'll dance with a grace, 
Her Measures she'll trace 

As doth unto art belong; 
She is a gii'l 
Fit for an earl, 
Not for a chm-1 : 
She were worth a pearl. 

If she could but rule her tongue. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



299 



Her needle she can use well, 
In that she doth most excel ; 

She can spin and knit, 

And every thing fit, 
As all her neighhours can tell. 

Her fingers apace 

At weaving bone-lace 
She useth all day long. 

All arts that he 

To women free. 

Of each degree, 

Performeth she : 
O that she could rule her tongue ! 



For huswifery she doth exceed ; 
She looks to her business with heed ; 

She's early and late 

Employ'd, I dare say't. 
To see all things well succeed. 

She is very wary 

To look to her dairy. 
As doth to her charge belong ; 

Her servants all 

Are at her call. 

But she'll so brawl 

That still I shall 
Wish that she could hold her tongue. 



THE QUEEN'S OLD COURTIER. 



This ballad, whicli obtained a long and extensive popularity, seems to have 
been first printed in the reign of James I. (by T. Symcocke). 

Pepys thus refers to it in his Diary, under the date of 16th of June, 1668. 
" Came to Newbery, and there dined, and music : a song of the Old Courtier of 
Queen Elizabeth's, and how he was changed upon the coming in of the King, did 
please me mightily, and I did cause W. Hewer to write it out." There are many 
other versions of the ballad (sometimes entitled " The Old and New Courtier"), 
and some are of greater length than others. Besides those in the great collections, 
copies will be found in Le Prince d' Amour, 1660 ; Antidote to Melanclioly, 1661 ; 
Wit and Drollery, 1682 ; Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv., 108 (1716), &c. 

In Le Prince d'' Amour, and in Merry Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670, there 
is a song of " An old Soldier of the Queen's ;" commencing — 
" Of an old Soldier of the Queen's, 
With an old motley coat and a malmsey nose," 
and in Wit and Drollery, 1682, p. 165, one entitled " Old Soldiers;" commencing — 
" Of old soldiers the song you would hear, 
And we old fiddlers have forgot who they were," 
and at p. 282, " The new Soldier" (" With a new beard," &c.). 

A ballad, written on the occasion of the overthrow of the Rump Parliament, 
by General Monck, and dated Feb. 28, 1659, is amongst the King's Pamphlets, 
Brit. Mus. (folio broadsides, vol. xvi.). It is entitled " Saint Geoi-ge and the 
Dragon, anglice Mercurius Poeticus." To the tune of " The old Soiddier of the 
Queen's;" commencing — 

" News, news, — here's the occurrences and a new Mercurius, 
A dialogue between Haselrigg the baffled, and Arthur the furious. 
With Ireton's readings upon legitimate and spurious, &c." 

It is reprinted in Wright's Political Ballads (Percy Soc, No. 11). 

In the reign of Charles IL, " T. Howard, Gent.," wrote and published " An 
old song of the Old Courtiers of the King's, with a new song of a New Courtier of 



800 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



the King's : to the tune of The Queeii's Old Courtier.'''' A copy of this latter, 
" printed for F. Coles," is among the Roxburghe Ballads. 

Dr. King, in his " Preface to the Art of Cookery, in imitation of Horace's Art 
of Poetry," declares his love " to the old British Hospitality, charity and valour, 
when the arms of the family, the old pikes, muskets, and halberts, hung up in 
the hall over the long table, and Chevy Chase, and The Old Courtier of the QueerCs 
were placed over the carved mantle-piece, and beef and brown bread were carried 
every day to the poor." (Dr. King's Works, vol. iii.) 

About the middle of the last century the ballad was revived and sung by 
Mr. Vernon in Shad well's comedy. The Squire of Alsatia, the burden being altered 
to " Moderation and Alteration," and, when comparing the young courtier to 
the old, to — " Alteration, alteration, 

'Tis a wonderful alteration." 

Finally, it has been again revived, with further " alteration," in the present 
century, under the title of " The old English Gentleman." 

The ballad is to be chanted, ad libitum, upon one note, except the final syllable 
of each stanza, and the burden " Like an old Courtier," &c. 



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To he sung ad. lib. upon one noie. 



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With an old song, made by an old ancient pate. 
Of an old worshipful gentleman, who had a great estate, 
Which kept an old house at a bountiful rate, , • 

And an old porter to relieve the poor at his 



gate. 



Like an 



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With an old lady whose anger a good word With an old study fill'd full of learned old books, 



assuages, [wages. 

Who every quarter pays her old servants their 
Who never knew what belonged to coachman, 

footmen, nor pages ; 
But kept twenty old fellows with blue coats and 

badges. Like an old Courtier, &c. 



With an old reverend parson, you may judge 
him by his looks. [hooks, 

With an old buttery hatch worn quite off the 
And an old kitchen, that maintains half-a- 
dozen old cooks. Like an old, &c. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



301 



With an old hall hung about with guns, pikes, 

and bows, [many shrewd blows, 

With old swords and bucklers that have stood 
And an old frieze coat to cover his worship's 

trunk hose. 
And a cup of old sherrj' to comfort his copper 

nose. Like an old, &c. 

With an old fashion when Christmas was come. 
To call in his neighbours with bagpipe and drum ; 
And good cheer enough to furnish every old 

room. 
And old liquor able to make a cat speak and 

a man dumb. Like an old, &c. 

With an old huntsman, a falconer, and a kennel 

of hounds; [grounds; 

Which never hunted nor hawked but in his own 
Who like an old wise man kept himself within 

his own bounds, 
And when he died, gave every child a thousand 

old pounds. Like an old, &c. 

But to his eldest son, his house and land he 

assigned, [tiful mind. 

Charging him in his will to keep the old boun- 
To love his good old servants and to his 

neighbours be kind ; 
But in the ensuing ditty you shall hear how he 

was inclin'd. Like a young Courtier, &c. 

Like a young gallant newly-come to his land, 
That keeps a brace of creatures at his com- 
mand, [land. 
And takes up a thousand pound upon his own 
And lies drunk in a new tavern, 'till he can 
neither go nor stand. Like a young, &c. 

With a new honour bought with the old gold, 
That many of his father's old manors had sold. 
And this is the occasion that most men do hold. 
That good house-keeping is now grown so cold. 



With a neat lady that is brisk and fair. 
That never knew what belonged to good 

house-keeping or care, [air, 

But buys several fans to play with the wanton 
And seventeen or eighteen dressings of other 

women's hair. Like a young, &c. 

With a new hall built where the old one stood, 
Wherein is burned neither coal nor wood. 
And a shovelboard-table whereon meat never 

stood. 
Hung round with pictures that do the poor 

no good. Like a young, &c. 

With a new study stuft full of pamphlets and 
plays ; [he prays ; 

With a new chaplain that swears faster than 

With a new buttery hatch that opens once in 
four or five days; 

With a new French cook to make kickshaws 
and toys. Like a young, &c. 

With a new fashion when Christmas is come, 
With a new journey up to London we must 

be gone, [porter John, 

And leave nobody at home but our new 
Who relieves the poor with a thump on the 

back with a stone. Like a young, &c. 

With a gentleman usher whose carriage is 
complete ; [meat ; 

With a footman, coachman, and page to carry 

With a waiting-gentlewoman whose dressing 
is very neat ; 

Who, when the master has dined, lets the 
servants not eat. Like a young, &c. 



Like a young, &c. 



JOAN, TO THE MAYPOLE. 

This ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 354, and Douce Collection, 
p. 152. It is entitled " May-day Country Miuth ; or The young Lads' and 
Lasses' innocent Recreation, which is to be prized before courtly pomp and pas- 
time : to an excellent new tune." Dr. Rimbault, in his " Little Book of Songs and 
Ballads, gathered from Ancient Music-books," prints a version " from a MS. 
volume of old songs and music, formerly in the possession of the Rev. H. J. 
Todd, dated 1630." The same is in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 245 (1810). Another 
version will be found with the tune in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 145 (1707), 
or iv. 145 (1719), with many more stanzas. 



302 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



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Lass-es a-way to the Green, Where their beau-ties may be seen. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



303 



Joan, shall we have a Hay or a Round, 
Or some dance that is new-found ? 
Lately I was at a Masque in the Court, 
Where I saw of every sort, 
Many a dance made in France, 

Many a Braule, and many a Measure ; 
Gay coats, sweet notes, 

Brave wenches — O 'twas a treasure. 

In Pills to purge Melancholy, the above 
by others, such as the following: — 
Did you not see the Lord of the May 
Walk along in his rich array ? 
There goes the lass that is only his ; 
See how they meet, and how they kiss ! 

Come Will, run Gill, 
Or dost thou list to lose thy labour ; 

Kit, Crowd, scrape aloud, 
Tickle up Tom with a pipe and tabor. 

Lately I went to a Masque at the Court, 
Where I saw dances of every sort ; 
There they did dance with time and measure, 
But none like a country-dance for pleasure ; 

They did dance as in France, 
Not like the English lofty manner ; 

And every she must furnished be 
With a feathered knack, when she's hot for 

to fan her. 

[sweat, 
But we, when we dance, and do happen to 
Have a napkin in hand for to wipe off the wet; 
And we with our lasses do jig it about, 
Not like at Court, where they often are out ; 

If the tabor play, we jump away, 
And turn, and meet our lasses to kiss 'em ; 

Nay, they will be as ready as we, 
That hardly at any time can we miss 'em. 



But now, methinks, these courtly toys 

Us deprive of better joys : 

Gown made of gray, and skin soft as silk. 

Breath sweet as morning milk ; 

O, these more please ; 

[All] these hath my Joan to delight me : 

False wiles, court smiles, 
None of these hath my Joan to despite me. 

second and third stanzas are replaced 

Come, sweet Joan, let us call a new dance, 
That we before 'em may advance ; 
Let it be what you desire and crave. 
And sure the same sweet Joan shall have. 

She cried, and replied. 
If to please me thou wilt endeavour, 

Sweet Pig, the Wedding Jig, 
Then, my dear, I'll love thee for ever. 

There is not any that shall outvie 
My litttle pretty Joan and I ; 
For I am sure I can dance as well 
As Robin, Jenny, Tom, and Nell : 

Last year we were here, 
When rough Ralph he played us a Boree, 

And we merrily 
Thump'd it about, and gain'd the glory. 

And if we hold on as we begin, 
Joan, thou and I the garland shall win ; 
Nay, if thou live till another day, 
I'll make thee Lady of the May. 

Dance about, in and out. 
Turn and kiss, and then for greeting ; 

Now, Joan, we have done, 
Fare thee well till next merry meeting. 



LOVE WILL FIND OUT I'HE WAY. 

This tune is contained in Playford's MusicMs Recreation on tjie Lyra Viol, 
1652 ; in MusicJc's Delight on the Cithren, 1666 ; in the Skene and several other 
MSS. ; also in Pills to purge Melancholy, vi. 86 (1719). 

The words are in Percy's Beliques ; Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 282 (1810) ; and 
Rimbault's Little Booh of Songs and Ballads, p. 187. All these versions differ. 

Evans prints from a black-letter copy by F. Coules (whose ballads occasionally 
bear dates which vary from 1620 to 1628) ; Rimbault from Forbes' Oantus, 1662, 
with the second part from Coules' copy ; and Percy from a comparatively modern 
edition. 

The ballad is quoted in Brome's Sparagus Crarden, acted in 1635, and its 
popularity was so great, that "Love will find out the way" was taken as the 
title to a play printed in 1661. Although stated on the title-page to be a 
comedy by T. B., it was only Shirley's Consicmf Maid, under a new name. 



304 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The air is still current, for in the summer of 1855, Mr. Jennings, Organist of 
All Saints' Church, Maidstone, noted it down from the wandering hop-pickers 
singing a song to it, on their entrance into that town. 

The title of the ballad, as printed by Coules, is " Truth's Integrity ; or 
A curious Northern ditty, called Love will find out the way : to a pleasant new 
tune." A later copy in the Douce Collection, p. 232, is entitled " A curious 
Northern ditty, called Love will find out the ivay." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 436, is a black-letter ballad of " Stephen and 
Cloris ; or The coy Shepherd and the kind Shepherdess : to a new play-house 
tune, or Love luillfind out the way." 

I suppose ballads which are said to be "to the tune of Over hills and high 
mountains" are also intended for this air ; because the words of that ballad are 
almost a paraphrase of this, and in the same measure. See the following stanza 
from a copy in the Pepys Collection, iii. 165 : — 

" Over hills and high mountains Through bushes and briers, 

Long time have I gone ; Being void of all care ; 

Ah I and down by the fountains, Through perils and dangers 

By myself all alone ; For the loss of my dear." 

There is, however, an air, entitled On yonder high mountains, which may be in- 
tended, and which will be found in this collection, under a later date. 

Another black-letter ballad to the tune of Love ivillfind out the way, is entitled 
" The Countryman's new Care away ; " commencing — 

" If there were employments And every worthy soldier 

For men, as have been ; Had truly his pay ; 

And drums, pikes, and muskets, Then might they be bolder 

I' the field to be seen ; To sing Care away." 

As the version of Love will find out the way printed by Percy is the shortest, 

consisting in all of but five stanzas, it is here coupled with the tune. 
Smoothly and not too fast. 






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O - ver the moun-tains, And o - ver the waves ; 



Un - der the 



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fountains. And un-der the graves; Under floods that are deepest. Which Neptune o 

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- bey : 0-ver rocks that are steep-est Love will find out the way. 



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REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



305 



Where there is no place 

For the glow-worm to lie ; 
Where there is no space 

For receipt of a fly ; 
Where the midge dares not venture, 

Lest herself fast she la}' ; 
If Love come, he will enter, 

And soon find out his way. 
You may esteem him 

A child for his might; 
Or you may deem him 

A coward from his flight. 
But if she, whom Love doth honour, 

Be conceal'd from the day. 

Set a thousand guards upon her, 

Love will find out the way. 



Some think to lose him, 

By having him confin'd; 
And some do suppose him, 

Poor thing, to be blind ; 
But if ne'er so close ye wall him, 

Uo the best that you may. 
Blind Love, if so ye call him. 

Soon will find out his way. 
You may train the eagle 

To stoop to your fist ; 
Or you may inveigle 

The phoenix of the east ; 
The lioness, ye may move her 

To give o'er her prey ; 
But you'll ne'er stop a lover : 

He will find out his way. 



STINGO, on OIL OF BARLEY. 

This tune is contained in every edition of Tlie Dancing Master, and in many 
other publications. It is often quoted under three, if not more, names. 

In The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690, it appears as Stingo, or The Ogle 
of Barley. 

The song, "A cup of old stingo" (i.e., old strong beer), is contained in Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670, and, if it be the original song, must be of a 
date from thirty to forty (and perhaps more) years earlier than the book. 

Traces of that doughty hero, Sir John Barleycorn, so famous in the days of 
ballad-singing, are to be found as far back as the time of the Anglo-Saxons. In 
the Exeter MS. (fol. 107) is an enigma in Anglo-Saxon verse, of Avhich the 
following is a literal translation ; — 

"A part of the earth is prepared beautifully with the hardest, and with the sharpest, 
and with the grimest of the productions of men, cut and .... (sworfen), turned and 
dried, bound and twisted, bleached and awakened, ornamented and poured out, carried 
afar to the doors of people ; it is joy in the inside of living creatures, it knocks and 
slights those, of whom before, while alive, a long while it obeys the will, and expos- 
tulateth not ; and then after death it takes upon it to judge, to talk variously. It is 
greatly to seek by the wisest man, what this creature is."- — Essay on the State of 
Literature and Learning under the Anglo-Saxons, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., 
F.S.A., p. 79, 8vo., 1839. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 214, there is a black-letter ballad " to the tune 
of Stingo," which was evidently -written in the reign of Charles I., by its 
allusions to " the King's great porter," " Eankes' Horse," &c. It is entitled, 
"The Little Barley-Corn: 

Whose properties and vertues here 

Shall plainly to the world appeare ; 

To make you merry all the yeere." 
As it has been reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 156 (1810), the first stanza 
only is subjoined : — 

" Come, and do not musing stand, Not of the earth, nor of the air, 

If thou the truth discern ; At evening or at morn. 

But take a full cup in thy hand. But, jovial boys, your Christmas keep 

And thus begin to learn : With the little barley-corn." 

The ballad is divided into two parts, each consisting of eight stanzas. 

X 



306 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

A second name for the tune is The Country Lass, which it derived from a 
ballad by Martin Parker. Copies of that ballad are in the Pepys Collection 
(i. 268), and in the Roxburghe (i. 52). The former bears Martin Parker's 
initials, but no printer's name ; the latter was printed for the assigns of Thomas 
Symcocke. 

The copy in the Pepys Collection is entitled " The Countrey Lasse: 
To a dainty new note : which if you cannot hit, 
There's another tune which doth as well fit — 
That's TJie 31other hegidTd the Daugliter." 
"Although I am a countrey lasse, As those that with the choicest wines 

A loftie minde I beare-a ; Do bathe their bodies oft-a. 

I thinke myselfe as good as those ' Downe, downe derry, derry downe, 

That gay apparrell weare-a. Heigh downe, a downe, a downe-a, 

My coat is made of comely gray,. A derry, derry, derry downe. 

Yet is my skin as soft-a. Heigh downe, a downe, a derry." 

This is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 41, and an altered copy will be found, 
with the music, in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 165 (1707), or iv. 152 (1719). 
The tune is referred to, under the above name, in a ballad by Laurence Price, 
entitled " Good Ale for my money : 

The good fellowes resolution of strong ale, 
That cures his nose from looking pale. 
To the tune of The Countrey Lasse. 

Be merry, my friends, and list awhile This song in'e head he always carried. 

Unto a merry jest, When drink liad made him mellow : 

It may from you produce a smile, I cannot go home, nor will I go home, 

"VSTien you hear it exprest; It's long of the oyle of barley ; 

Of a young man lately married, I'll tarry all night for my delight, 

\Miich was a boone good fellow, And go home in the morning early T 

A copy will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 138. 

Hilton wrought this tune into a catch for three voices, and published it in his 
Catch that catch can, in 1652 ; and it was afterwards reprinted in that form by 
Playford in his Musical Companion, 1667, 1673, &c. 

The first line of the catch is " I'se goe with thee, my sweet Peggy, my honey." 
The third part is to the tune of Stingo, with the following words : — 
" Thou and I will foot it, Joe, 
And what we doe neene shall know; 

But taste iX\6 juice of barley. 
We'll sport all night for our delight. 
And home in the morning early." 
The air is somewhat altered to harmonize with the other parts. - 

In the editions of The Dancing Master which were printed after 1690, the 
name is changed from Stingo, or The Ogle of Barley, to Cold and raw. This new 
title was derived from a (so called) " New Scotch Song," written by Tom 
D'Urfey, which first appeared in the second book of Comes Amoris, or Tlxe 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CUARLES I. SOT' 

Companion of Love, printed by John Carr in 1688 ;" and, as frequently the case, 
the air was a little altered for the words. 

Of this song Sir John Hawkins relates the following anecdofe in his History of 
Music (8vo., ii. 564) :— 

" This tune was greatly admired by Queen Mary, the consort of King William ; 
and she once affronted Purcell by requesting to have it sung to her, he being present. 
The story is as follows : The Queen having a mind one afternoon to be entertained 
with music, sent to Mr. Gosling, '|.hen one of her Chapel, and afterwards Sub-Dean of 
St. Paul's, )to Henry Purcell, and to Mrs. Arabella Hunt, who had a very fine voice, 
and an admirable hand on the lute, with a request to attend her ; they obeyed her 
commands; Mr. Gosling and Mrs. Hunt sung several compositions of Purcell, who 

accompanied them upon the harpsichord; at length, the Queen beginning to grow ■•^iiA -/fi^f 

tired, asked Mrs. Hunt if she could not sing tlieVhallad of ' Cold and raw;'" Mrs. 
Hunt answered, Yes, and sung it to her lute. Purcell was all the while sitting at the 
harpsichord unemployed, and not a little nettled at the Queen's preference of a vulgar 
ballad to his music ; but seeing Her Majesty delighted with this tune, he determined 
that she should hear it upon another occasion; and, accordingly, in the next birth- 
day song, viz., that for the year 1692, he composed an air to the words, ' May her 
bright example chaoe vice in troops out of the land,' the bass whereof is the tune to 
' Cold and raw.' " 

In Anthony a Wood's collection of broadsides (Ashmolean Library, vol. 417) 
there are two ballads with music, bearing the date of December, 1688, and 
printed to this tune. The first is " The Irish Lasses Letter ; or her earnest 
request to Teague, her dear joy : to an excellent new tune." The second is the 
famous song of Lilliburlero. 

In the Douce Collection is a ballad called " The lusty Friar of Flanders : to 
the tune of Cold and raw." 

Horace Walpole mentions it under the same name in a letter to Richard West, 
Esq., dated from Florence (Feb. 27, 1740), where, in speaking of the Carnival, 
he says, " The Italians are fond to a degree of our Country Dances." Gold and 
raw they only know by the tune; Blowzijbella is almost Italian, and Butter'' d 
Peas is Pizelli al luro." {Letters of Walpole, in vi. vols, 1840 ; vol. i. p. 32.) 

The following is the song of " A cup of old stingo," from Merry Drollery 
Complete, with the tune from The Lancing Master of 1650. 

• A few pages further in the same book there is another ^' O^cr the hills andfar away; By moontiyht on ihc green; 

"new Scotch song," «ci by Mr. Akeroyd. What's thai to you? and several others, whicli he has 

Ritson, in his Historical Essay on Scotish Song, 1794, been probably used to consider as genuine specimens of 

says, "An Inuniiation of Scotch sonys, so called, appears Scotish song; as, indeed, most of them are regarded 

to have been poured upon the town by Tom D'Urfey and even in Scotland." Ritson's list might be very greatly 

his Grub-street brethren, toward the end of the seven- extended. 

teenth and in the beginning of the eighteenth century ; of '■ Sir Jolm Hawkins, who relates the anecdote tradition- 
which it is hard to say whether wretchedness of poetry, ally, and who had evidently seen no older copy of the tune 
ignorance of the Scotish dialect, or nastiness of ideas, is than that contained in the Catch (as he elsewhere men- 
most evident, or most despicable. In the number of tions Hilton's Ca/c/ie5 as Playford's./7rs/ publication) calls 
these miserable caricatures, the reader may be a little sur- it " the old Scot's ballad," but from the allusion to '* the 
prised to find the favorite songs of De'ill take the Wars next birth-day song," it must have happened witliin four 
that hurry'd Willy fromme; Jenny, Jenny, where hast thou years of the first publication. The term "old," could 
been? Young Philander wooed me long; Farewell, my therefore only be applied, with propriety, to the music. 
bonny, witty, pretty Moggy; In January last; She rose and " This agrees with what I have been told aboutthe book 
let me in ; Pretty Kate of Edinburgh ; As J sat at my spin- entitled The Dancing Master (the early editions of which 
ning wheel ; Fife, and a' the lands about it; Bonny lad, are extremely scarce in England), viz., that it is very well 
prithee lay iby pipe down; The bonyty grey-ey'd morn; known to the dealers in Italy, and that it may be procured 
'Twas within a furlongof Edinburgh town ; Bonny Dundee; there with comparatively little trouble. 



308 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 






Jovialli). 



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There's a lus - ty li-quor which Good fel - lows use to take - a, It 

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is distill'd with Nard most rich, And wa - ter of the lake -a; 



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quan - ti - ty, And Barm to it they hring too ; Being bar - rell'd 



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call't a cup Of dain - ty good Old 

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'Twill make a man indentures make, 

'Twill make a fool seem wise, 
'Twill make a Puritan sociate. 

And leave to he precise : 
'Twill make him dance about a cross. 

And eke to rvm the ring too. 
Or anything he once thought gross, 

Such virtue hath old stingo. 

'Twill make a constable oversee 

Sometimes to serve a warrant, 
'Twill make a bailiff lose his fee. 

Though he be a knave-aiTant; 
'Twill make a lawyer, though that he 

To ruin oft men brings, too. 
Sometimes forget to take his fee. 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

'Twill make a parson not to flinch, 

Though he seem wondrous holy. 
And for to kiss a pretty wench. 

And think it is no folly ; 
'Twill make him learn for to decline 

The verb that's called Mingo, 
'Twill make his nose like copper shine, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 



'Twill make a weaver break his yarn. 

That works with right and left foot, 
But he hath a trick to save himself. 

He'll say there wanteth woof to't ; 
'Twill make a tailor break his thread. 

And eke his thimble ring too, 
'Twill make him not to care for bread. 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

'Twill make a baker quite forget 

That ever corn was cheap, 
'Twill make a butcher have a fit 

Sometimes to dance and leap ; 
'Twill make a miller keep his room, 

A health for to begin, too, 
'Twill make him shew his golden thumb. 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

'Twill make an hostess free of heart. 

And leave her measures pinching, 
'Twill make an host with liquor pai-t 

And bid him hang all flinching ; 
It's so belov'd, I dare protest, 

Men cannot live without it, 
And where they find there is the best. 

The most will flock about it. 



BEIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



309 



Now to conclude, here is a liealth 

Unto the lad that spendeth, 
Let every man drink off his can, 

And so my ditty endeth ; 
I willing am my friend to pledge, 

For he will meet me one day ; 
Let's drink the barrel to the dregs, 

For the malt-man comes a Monday. 



And, finally, the beggar poor. 

That walks till he be weary, 
Craving along from door to door. 

With pre-commiserere ; 
If he do chance to catch a touch. 

Although his clothes be thin, too. 
Though he be lame, he'll prove his crutch, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

The last line has furnished the subject for a Scotch song. 

The following is a later version of the tune. The copies in The Beggars' 
Opera, Pills to purge Melancholy, The Dancing Master, and Midas (1764), have 
all slight differences, such as would occur from writing down a familiar tune from 
memory. The words are Tom D'Urfey's " last new Scotch song." (See 
Comes Amoris, or The Companion of Love, ii. 16, fol. 1688.) 

Gracefully. ^ , ,-^ -^ 







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Cold and raw the north did blow Bleak in the morn-ing ear - ly 

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All the trees were hid with snow ; Dag-gled in win - ter's year - ly : As 



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I came ri - ding on the slough, I met a far - mer's daughter, With 



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ro - sy cheeks and bon - ny brow. Good faith, made my mouth wa - ter. 



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Down I veil'd my bonnet low. 
Thinking to show my breeding ; 

She returned a graceful bow — 
A village far exceeding. 

" However unobjectionable this song may have been in 
Queen Mary's time, the three remaining' stanzas would 



I ask'd her where she went so soon, 

I long'd to begin a parley, 
She told me to the next market town 

On purpose to sell her barley.'' 

not be very courteously received in Queen Victoria's 
Tempora mutantur. 



310 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

WHAT IF A DAY, OR A MONTH, OR A TEAR? 

Copies of thia song are in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 116 and ii. 182, and 
in The Golden Garland of Princely Delights, third edition, 1620. In the 
Roxburghe Ballads it is entitled " A Friend's Advice, in an excellent ditty, 
concerning the variable changes in this world" (printed by the assigns of Thomas 
Symcocke) ; in Tlie Golden Garland, " The inconstancy of the world." 

The music is in a volume of transcripts of virginal music, by Sir John Hawkins ; 
in Logonomia Anglica, by Alexander Gil, 1619 ; in Friesche lAist-Hof, 1634 ; in 
D. R. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Rymen, 4to., Amsterdam, 1647 ; in the Skene 
MS. ; in Forbes' Oantus ; &c. The same words are differently set by Richard 
Allison, in his Howre's Recreatimi in Musicke, 1608. 

Gil (or Gill) , who was Master of St. Paul's School, refers to the song twice in his 
Logonomia. Firstly, " Hemistichium est, duobus constans dactylis, et choriambo ;" 
and secondly, " Ut in illo perbello cantico Tho. Campaiani, cujus mensuram, ut 
rectius agnoscas, exhibeo cum notis." 

Thomas Campian, or Campion, to whom the poetry, and perhaps also the 
music, is here ascribed, was by pi'ofession a physician ; but he was also an emi- 
nent poet and admirable musician. He flourished during the latter part of the 
reign of Elizabeth and the greater portion of that of James I. Neither the words 
nor music are, however, to be found in his printed collections. 

According to the registers of St. Dunstan's in the West, " Thomas Campion, 
Doctor of Physicke," was buried there on the 1st of March, 1619." 

In Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Rymen the song is entitled " Ussex^s Lamentation, 
or What if a day" 

Ritson, in a note to his Sistorical Essay on Scotish Song, p. 57, says, " In a 
curious dramatic piece, entitled Philotus, printed at Edinburgh in 1603, by way 
of finale, is Ane sang of the foure lifearis (lovers) , though little deserving that 
title. It is followed by the old English song, beginning, ' What if a day, or 
a month, or a year?' alluded to in Hudihras, which appears to have been sung at 
the end of the play, and was probably, at that time, new and fashionable." 

Mr. Halliwell, in a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries in Dec, 1840, 
says, " It is a curious fact that one of the songs in Ryman's well-known collection 
of the fifteenth century, in the Cambridge Public Library, commences — 
' What yf a daye, or nyghte, or howre, 
Crowne my desyres wythe every delyglite ; ' 
and that in Sanderson's Diary in the British Museum, MSS. Lansdowne 241, 
fol. 49, temp. Elizabeth, are the two first stanzas of the song, more like the copy 
in Ryman, and differing in its minor arrangements from the later version. 
Moreover, that the time in Dowland's Musical Collection, in the Public Library, 
Cambridge, is entitled ' What if a day, or a night, or an hour f agreeing with 
Sanderson's copy." Mr. HalliweU has reverted to the subject in Reliquce Antiqtme, 
i. 323, and ii. 123. 

» Haslewood supposed him to have died in 1621, It does not notice his four books of "Ayres," printed in 

is strange that the name of so eminent a man should 1610 and 1612, -which, with some others, are described in 

have been omitted in the usual Biographical Dictionaries Rimbault's Bibliothica Madrigaliana. He composed the 

and Universal Biographies. A short account of him is Psalm tune, called *' Babylon's streams," which is still 

given, with the reprint of his " Observations in the art in use. His Art of Descant is contained in Playford's 

of English Poetry," in Haslewood's "Ancient Critical Introduction. 
Essays upon English Poets and Poesy." Haslewood 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



311 



"What if a day, or a montli, or a year? " is mentioned as one of the tunes for 
Psalms and Songs of Sion, by W[illiam] SQatyer], 1642. See p. 319. 
Rather slow. ^^^^ 

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What if a day, or a month, or a year, Crown thy de-lights with a 
May not the change of a night or an hour. Cross thy de-lights with as 



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thousand sweet con-tentings, a thousand sweet con - ten - tings, p , 

ma - ny sad tor-mentings, as ma - ny sad tor - men - tings, ' " ' 



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Are but sha - dows fly - ing. All our joys 



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312 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Th' earth's but a point of the world, and a man What if the world, with a lure of its wealth. 
Is but a point of the earth's compared centre : Raise thy degree to great place of high ad- 
Shall then the point of a point be so vain, vancmg ; 

As to triumph in a silly point's adventure ? May not the world, by a check of that wealth. 

All is hazard that we have, Bring thee again to as low despised changing ? 

Here is nothing biding ; While the sun of wealth doth shine 

Days of pleasure are as streams Thou shalt have friends plenty ; 

Through fair meadows gliding. But, come want, they repine, 

Weal or woe, time doth go. Not one abides of twenty. 

Time hath no returning ; Wealth (and friends), holds and ends, 

Secret Fates guide our states As thy fortunes rise and fall : 

Both in mirth and mourning. Up and down, smile and frown, 

Certain is no state at all. 

What if a smile, or a beck, or a look. What if a grip, or a strain, or a fit, [sickness : 

Feed thy fond thoughts with many vain con- Pinch thee with pain of the feeling pangs of 

ceivings : May not that grip, or that strain, or that fit. 

May not that smile, or that beck, or that look. Shew thee the form of thine own true perfect 

Tell thee as well they are all but false deceivings 1 likeness ? 

Why should beauty be so proud. Health is but a glance of joy. 

In things of no surmounting? Subject to all changes; 

All her wealth is but a shroud, Mirth is but a silly toy. 

Nothing of accounting. Which mishap estranges. 

Then in this there's no bliss. Tell me, then, silly man. 

Which is vain and idle, Why art thou so weak of wit. 

Beauty's flow'rs have their houi-s. As to be in jeopardy, 

Time doth hold the bridle. When thou mayst in quiet sit ? 

THE HEMP-DEESSEK, or THE LONDON GENTLEWOMAN. 

This tune has attained a long-enduring popularity. It is to be found in every 
edition of The Dancing Master, as well as in many other publications, and is 
commonly known at the present day. 

The name of The Hemp- dresser, or Tlie London Gentlewoman, is derived from 
an old song which was translated into Latin (together with Chevy Chace and many 
others) by Henry Bold, and published, after his death, in " Latine Songs with 
their English," 1685. 

One of D'Urfey's songs, commencing^ " The sun had loos'd his weary team," 
was written to this air. It is printed, with music, in his third book of songs, 
1685 ; in Playford's third book of " Choice Ayres and Songs ; " and in vol. i. 
of all the editions of Pills to purge Melancholy. In the first, it is entitled "A new 
song set to a pretty country dance, called Tlie Hemp-dresser : " in the second, it 
has the further prefix of " The Winchester Christening ; The Sequel of the 
Winchester Wedding. A new song," &c. 

In The Beggars' Opera, 1728 ; Tlie Court Legacy, 1733 ; TJie Sturdy Beggars, 
1733 ; and The Rival Milliners, 1737, the tune is named " The sun had loos'd 
his weary team," from D'Urfey's song. In other ballad-operas, such as Penelope, 
1728 ; and Love and Revenge, or The Vintner outivitted, n.d., it takes the name 
of one beginning, " Jone stoop'd down." Burns also wrote a song to it — " The 
Deil's awa Avi' the Exciseman." 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I, 



313 



In the " Histoi-y of Robert Powel, the puppet-showman," 8vo., 1715, Tlie 
DuTte of YorlUs Beligld ; Welcome home, Old Rowley ; The Knot ; and The Hemp- 
dressers, are mentioned as favorite tunes called for by the company. 

The song of Tlie Hemp-dresser consists of four stanzas, of which the two first 
are as follows : — 



This man he was a hemp-dresser, 
And dressing was his trade-a ; 

And he did kiss the mistress, sir, 
And now and then the maid-a. 

Fa la, &c. 

The first verse of D'Urfey's song is here printed with the music. 



There was a London gentlewoman 
That lov'd a country man-a ; 

And she did desire his company 
A little now and then-a. 

Fa la, &c 



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The sun had loos'd his wea - ry team, And turn'd his steeds a graz - ing, Ten 



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stars tripp'd in the fir - ma - ment, Like milk-maids on a May - day, Or 



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coun - try lass-es a mumming sent, Or schoolboys on a play - day 



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SINCE FIRST I SAW YOUR FACE. 

The following tune is by Thomas Ford, one of the musicians in the suite of 
Prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It is a song for one voice to the lute, 
or for four without accompaniment, and contained in his Musiche of sundrie 
Kindes (fol. 1607.) The second part of a popular tune called Jamaica, or My 
father was horn before me, bears a resemblance to the second part of this. 

In the Golden Garland of Princely Delight, third edition, 1620, the song is 
entitled, " Love's Constancy." 



314 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Ford was not a great harmonist, but this song (now miscalled a madrigal) has 
survived the works of many more learned composers, and is probably as popular 
at the present day as when first written. The harmony of the modern copies is 
not by Eord. 

Slow. 

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Since first I saw your 



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I resolv'd To 



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If now I be dis - dain'd I wish My lieart had ne - ver 



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wran - gle ? No, no, no, my heart is fast. And can - not dis - en - tan - gle 



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If I admire or praise you too much, 

That fault you may forgive me ; 
Or if my hands had stray 'd to touch, 

Then justly might you leave me. 
I ask'd you leave, you bade me love, 

Is't now a time to chide me? 
No, no, no, I'll love you still, 

What fortune e'er betide me. 

The sun, whose beams most glorious are, 

Rejecteth no beholder; 
And your sweet beauty, past compare. 

Made my poor eyes the bolder. 

I have only found the last stanza 
third edition, 8vo., 1671. 



When beauty moves, and wit delights, 
And signs of kindness bind me. 

There, O there, where'er I go, 
I'll leave my heart behind me. 

[If I have wronged you, tell me wherein, 

And I will soon amend it ; 
In recompense of such a sin, 

Here is my heart, I'll send it. 
If that will not your mercy move. 

Then, for my life I care not ; 
Then, O then, torment me still. 

And take my life, and spare not.] 

in late copies, such as Wits Interpreter', 



KEIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 315 



WHAT CARE I HOW FAIR SHE BE ? 



A copy of this song is in the Pepys Collection, i. 230, entitled "A new song of 
a young man's opinion of the diiference between good and bad women. To a 
'pleasant new tune.'" (Printed at London for W. I.) It is also in the second part 
of The Grolden Garland of Princely Delights, third edition, 1620, entitled " The 
Shepherd's Resolution. To the tune of The Toung Mmi's Opinion." As the 
name of the tune is here derived from the title of the ballad, it must have been 
printed in ballad form before 1620, when it was published among TJie Workes of 
Master Greorge Wither. 

The tune is in Heber's Manuscript (described at p. 204), but, except for the 
popularity of the words, it would scarcely be worth preserving. They were after- 
wards reset by Mr. King, and are printed to his tune in Pills to purge Melancholy. 

The fii-st line of the copy in the Pepys Collection (unlike that in The Golden 
Garland) is, " Shall I wrestling in dispaire." In the same volume are the 
following : — 

Pa^e 200. — "The unfortunate Gallant guU'd at London. To the tune of 
Shall Iiorastle in despair." (Printed for T. L.) Beginning — 
" From Cornwall Mount to London fair." 

Page 316. — " This maid would give tenne shillings for a kisse. To the tune 
of Shall I tvrassle in despair." (Printed at London by I. White.) Beginning — 
" You young men all, take pity on me." 

Page 236. — " Jone is as good as my lady. To the tune of Wliat care I how 
fair she he ?" (Printed at London for A. Mplbourn].) Beginning — 
" Shall I here rehearse the story." 

The following (which has been attributed, upon insufficient evidence, to Sir 
Walter Raleigh) is in the same metre, and has the same burden as George 
Wither's song : — 

Shall I, like an hermit, dwell Were her hands as rich a prize 

On a rock or in a cell? As her hairs or precious eyes; 

Calling home the smallest part If she lay them out to take 

That is missing of my heart, Kisses, for good manners sake ; 

To bestow it where I may And let every lover skip 

Meet a rival every day ? From her hand unto her lip ; 
If she undervalues me, If she seem not chaste to me. 

What care I how fair she be. What care I how chaste she be. 

Were her tresses angel-gold ; No, she must he perfect snow, 

If a stranger may be bold, In effect as well as show, 

Unrebuked, unafraid, Warming but as snow-balls do, 

To convert them to a braid, Not, like fire, by burning too ; 

And, with little more ado. But when she by chance hath got 

Work them into bracelets too ; To her heart a second lot ; 

If the mine he grown so free, Then, if others share with me, 

What care I how rich it he. Farewell her, whate'er she be. 



316 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Moderate time. 



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Shall I, wast-ing in des - pair, Die because a woman's fair? 



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Be she fair - er than the day, Or the flow' - ry meads in May ; 



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If she be not so to me, What care I how fair she be. 



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Shall my foolish heart be pin'd, 
'Cause I see a woman kind ? 
Or a well-disposed nature. 
Joined with a lovely feature ? 
Be she kind, or meeker than 
Turtle-dove or pelican ; 
If she be not so to me, 
What care I how kind she be. 

Shall a woman's virtues move 
Me to perish for her love ? 
Or, her well-deservings known, 
Make me quite forget mine own ? 
Be she with that goodness blest, 
Which may gain her name of Best ; 
If she be not so to me, 
What care I how good she be. 



'Cause her fortune seems too high. 
Shall I play the fool, and die ? 
He that bears a noble mind 
If no outward help he find. 
Think what with them he would do, 
That without them dares to woo : 
And, unless that mind I see, 
What care I how great she be. 

Great, or good, or kind, or fair, 
I will ne'er the more despair : 
If she love me, this believe, 
I will die ere she shall grieve. 
If she slight me when I woo, 
I can slight and let her go : 
If she be not fit for me, 
What care I for whom she be. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 317 

THE NEW EOYAL EXCHANGE. 

In The Dancing Master of 1665 there are two tunes under very similar titles. 
The first is The New Hxchange ; the second, Tlie New Neiv-Exchange. The first 
is sometimes called Durham Stable ;"■ the second, which was more frequently 
used as a ballad tune, is, in other editions, named The Neiu Moyal Hxchange. 

In Wit and Drollery, 1656, p. 110, is a song to this tune — " On the Souldiers 
walking in the new Exchange to affront the Ladies." It consists of four stanzas, 
the first of which is here printed with the music. 
- In the same book, at p. 60, is another song of six stanzas beginning — 
" We'll go no more to Tunbridge Wells, And we will have them henceforth call'd 
The journey is too far ; The Kentish new-found Spa. 

Nor ride in Epsom waggon, where Then go, lords and ladies, whate'er you 

Our bodies jumbled are. Go thither all that pleases ; [ail ; 

But we will all to the westward waters go, For it will cure you, without fail. 

The best that e'er you saw. Of old and new diseases." 

In Westminster Drollery, part ii, 1671, is a third song, " to the tune of Til go 
no more to the Neio Exchange ; " beginning — 

" Never will I wed a girl that's coy. For, if too coy, then I must court 

Nor one that is too free ; For a kiss as well as any ; 

But she alone shall be my joy And if too free, I fear o' th' sport 

That keeps a mean'' to me. I then may have too many," &c. 

In Wit Restored, in severall select Poems, not formerly puhlisht, 1658, there are 
two songs, The Burse of Reformation, and Tlie Answer, The first commencing— r 
" We will go no more to the Old Exchange, And we have it henceforth call'd 
There's no good ware at all ; The Burse of Reformation. 

Their bodkins, and their thimbles, too. Come, lads and lasses, what do you lack ? 

Went long since to Guildhall. Here is ware of all prices ; ' 

But we will go to the New Exchange, Here's long and short, here's wide and 
Where all things are in fashion ; Here are things of all sizes, [straight; 

and the Answer — ■ 

" We will go no more to the New Exchange, Gold chaines and ruffes shalt beare the bell, 
Their credit's like to fall. For all your reformation. 

Their money and their loyalty Look on our walls, and pillars too. 

Is gone to Goldsmiths' Hall." You'll find us much the sounder : 

But we will keep our Old Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham stands upright, 

Where wealth is still in fashion. But Crook-back was your founder." 

These have been reprinted in " Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume," for the 
Percy Society, by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. Another equally curious song for the 

■ Strype, inhis editlonof Sto-w'sion&)K,bookvi.,p.75, tilings; where we saw some new-fashion pettycoats of 

says "In the place where certain old stables stood, belong- sarcenet, with a black broad lace printed round the bottom 

ing to this house [Durham House], is the NeW Exchange; and before; very handsome, and my wife had a mind to 

being furnished with shops on both sides the walls, both one of them." 

below and above stairs, for milliners, sempstresses, and '■ Mean, i.e., a middle course; the mean being the inter- 
other trades, and is a place of great resort and trade for mediate part, or parts, between the treble and tenor. If 
the nobility and gentry, and such as have occasion for there were two means, as in the lute, the lower was called 
such commodities." It was opened April 11th, 1609, in the greater: the upper, the lesser mean, 
the presence of James I. and his Queen, and taken down » The place appointed for the reception of fines imposed 
in 173?. Coutts' Banking House now stands upon the upon the Royalists; and for loans, etc., to the Puritanic 
site. Pepys, in his Diary, 1.5th April, 1652, says, " With party, 
my wife by coach to the New Exchange, to buy her some 



318 



ENGLISH SONG AND B^iLLAD MUSIC. 



manners and fashions of the day, is " The New Exchange," in Merry Drollery 
Complete, 1670, p. 134 ; commencing — 



" I'll go no more to the Old Exchange, 
There's no good ware at all ; 
But I will go to the New Exchange, 
Call'd Haberdashers' Hall : 



For men and maids, for girls and boys. 
And trajjs to catch the fleas. 

There you may buy a Holland smock. 



For there are choice of knacks and toys, Tliat's made without a gore," tfec. 
The fancy for to please ; 
Lively. 







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REIGNS OF JAMES 1. AND CUARLES I. 



319 



THE FAIREST NYMPH THE VALLEYS. 
This, like In sad and ashy weeds (p. 202), or like Fear no more the heat of the 
sun, in Shakespeare's Cijmbeline, is a sort of dirge, a mourning or funeral song. 
The copy in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 330, is entitled " The Obsequy of 
Faire Phillida: with the Shepherds' and Nymphs' Lamentation for her losse. 
To a neio court tune." The music is contained in a MS. volume of virginal 
music transcribed by Sir John Hawkins, and in Starter's Friesche Lust-Hof, 
1634, under its English name. In the library of the British Museum there is a 
copy of " Psalmes or Songs of Sion, turned into the language and set to the tunes 
of a Strange Land, by W[illiam] S[latyer], intended for Christmas Carols, and 
fitted to divers of the most noted and common, but solemne tunes, every where 
in this land familiarly used and knowne." 1642. Upon this copy a former 
possessor had written the names of the tunes to which they were designed to be 
sung. These are, Tlie fairest N'l/mph the valleys ; All in a garden green ; Bar a 
Faustus' Dreame; Crimson velvet; What if a day, or a njonth, or a year? Fair 
Angel of England ; Dulcina ; Walsingham ; ani Jaiie Shore.^ 
H ith expression. 



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The fair-est nymph the val-leys Or mountains e - ver bred, 
On whom they oft have tend - ed And ca - rol'd in the plains, 



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shepherd's joy, So beau-ti-ful and coy. Fair Phi- li - da is dead! 
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* AH the tunes here named will be found in this Collection. 



320 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The sheep for woe go bleating, 
That they their goddess miss, 

And sable ewes, 

By their mourning, shew 
Her absence, cause of this. 
Tl\e nymphs leave off their dancing, 
Pan's pipe of joy is cleft, 

For great his grief, 

He shunneth all relief, 
Since she from him is reft. 
Come, fatal sisters, leave your spools," 
Leave 'weaving' altogether. 
That made this flower to wither. 

Let envy, that foul vipress, 

Put on a wreath of cypress. 
Sing sad dirges altogether. 

Diana was chief mourner 
At these sad obsequies, 
Who with her train 
Went tripping o'er the plain. 
Singing doleful elegies. 
Menalchus and Amintas, 
And many shepherds moe,'' 



With mournful verse. 
Did all attend her hearse, 

And in sable saddles go. 
Flora, the goddess that us'd to beautify 

Fair Phillis' lovely bowers 

With sweet fragrant flowers. 
Now her grave adorned. 
And with flowers mourned, 

Tears thereon in vain she pours. 

Venus alone triumphed 
To see this dismal day. 

Who did despair 

That Phillida the fair 
Her laws would ne'er obey. 
The blinded boy his arrows 
And darts were vainly spent ; 

Her heart, alas, 

Lnpenetrable was. 
And to love would ne'er assent. 
At which aflront, Citharea repining, 
Caus'd Death with his dart 
To pierce her tender heart ; 

But her noble spirit 

Doth such joys inherit, 
' As' from her shall ne'er depart. 



HUNTING THE HARE. 

" Of prikyng and of hunting for the Hare 
AVas al his lust, for no cost wolde he spare." 

Chaucer's Description of a Monk. 

Hunting has always been so favorite an amusement with the English, that the 
great variety of songs upon the subject will excite no surprise. Those I have 
printed, of the reign of Henry VHI., relate either to deer or fox-hunting; but 
Henry was no less careful of the minor sport, as may be seen by an act of 
Parliament (passed anno 14-15 of his reign), entitled "An Act concerning 
the Hunting of the Hai'e." It recites that, " For as muche as cure Soveraigne 
Lorde the Kinge, and other noblemen -of this realme, before this time hath 
used and exercised the game of huntynge the hare,- for their disporte and 
pleasure, which game is now decayed and almost utterly dystroied for that 
divers parties of this realme, by reason of the trasinge in the snoiv, have killed 
and destroied, and dayly do kille and distroy the same hares, by fourteen or six- 
teen upon a daye, to the dyspleasure of our Soveraigne Lorde the Kinge and 
other noblemen," &c. ; therefore the aot fixes a penalty of six shillings and eight- 
pence (a large sum in comparison with the value of the hares in those days) for 
every one so killed. Henry seems, also, to have considered the sale of hunting- 



■ A spool to wind yarn upon. 



^ More. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 321 

horns of sufficient importance, as a soui'ce of revenue, to affix an export duty of 
four shillings per dozen upon them." 

"A Songe of the huntinge and killinge of the Hare" was entei'ed on the 
registers of the Stationers' Company, to Richard Jones, on June 1, 1577, but the 
entry contains no clue to the words, or to the air. 

The tune of the present song may be traced back to the reign of James I. ; 
but, both in his reign, and in that of his predecessor, hunting was so favorite a 
sport, and hunting songs so generally popular, that the mtroduction of either on 
the stage was thought a good means of assisting the success of a play. 

Wood tells us that in Richard Edwardes' comedy of Palcemon and Arcyie 
(which was performed before Queen Elizabeth, in Christ Church Hall, Oxford, on 
the 2nd and 3rd September, 1566) " A cry of hounds was acted in the quadrant 
upon the train of a fox, in the hunting of Theseus; with which the young 
scholars, who stood in the remoter part of the stage and windows, were so much 
taken and surprised, supposing it to be real, that they cried out, ' There, there 
— he's caught, he's caught!' All which the Queen, merrily beholding, said, 
' Oh, excellent ! These boys, in very truth, are ready to leap out of the windows 
to follow the hounds.' " 

James was passionately fond of hunting ; and Anthony Munday, in his play, 
The Downfall of Rohert, Earl of Huntington, thus deprecates his displeasure and 
that of the audience for not having introduced hunting songs, or resorted to the 
other usual expedients to ensure applause. In act iv., sc. 2, Little John says — 
" Methinks I see no jests of Robin Hood; 
No merry Morrices of Friar Tuck ; 
No pleasant skippings up and down the wood ; 
No hunting songs; no coursing of the buck. 
Pray God this play of ours may have good luck, 
And the King's Majesty mislike it not." 
I have printed one song on hare-hunting, of James' reign {Master Basse his 
Gareere, or The New Hunting of the Hare), at p. 256. Another song, entitled 
" The Hunting of the Hare, with her last will and testament. 
As it was performed on Barastead Downs, 
By coney-catchers and their hoimds," 
was printed by Coles, Vere, and Wright, and will be found in Anthony h Wood's 
Collection. It commences thus — 

" Of all delights that earth doth yield, 
Give me a pack of hounds in field, 
Whose echo shall, throughout the sk}'. 
Make Jove admire our harmony, 
And wish that he a mortal were. 
To share the pastime we have here." 
No tune is indicated in th« copy, and it could not have been sung to this air, 

» This will be found in "The Rates of the Custome " Clarycordes, the payre, 2s.; Harpe Strynges, the boxe, 

House, both inwarde and outwarde, very necessarye 10s. ; Lute Strynges, called Mynikins, the groce, 22d. ; 

for all Merchantes to knowe. Imprinted at London, by Orgons, the payre, ut sint in valore; Wyer for Clary- 

me, Rycharde Kele, dwellynge at the longe shoppe in the cordes, the pound, 4d.i Virginales, the payre, 3s. 4d. ; 

Poultrye, under Saynt Myldreds Churche." 1545. Among Whisteling Bellowes, the groc, 8s. 
the import duties relating to music, will be found — 



322 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

In Wit and Drollery, and in several other publications, is a song, entitled 
The Sunt, commencing — 

" Clear is the air, and the morning is fair, 

Fellow huntsmen, come wind me your horn ; 
Sweet is the breath, and fresh is the earth 
That melteth the rime from the thorn." 
Minting the Hare is also in the list of the songs and ballads printed by William 
Thackeray, at the Angel in Duck" Lane, in the early part of the reign of 
Charles II., and it is, in all probability, the song to this tune (commencing — 

" Songs of shepherds, and rustical roundelays"), 
because the tune was then popular, and the words are to be found near that time 
in Westminster Drollery, part ii. (1672); as well as afterwards in Wit and 
Drollery, 1682 ; in the Collection of Old Ballads, 8vo., 1727 ; in Miscellany 
Poems, edited by Dryden, iii. 309 (1716) ; in Ritson's, Dale's, and other 
Collections of English Songs. 

The first copy of the tune that I have discovered is in Playford's Musick^s 
Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 1652 ; the second is in MusicWs Recreation on the 
Viol, Lyra-way, 1661. In both publications it is entitled Room for Cuckolds, 

Pennant speaking of Rychard Middleton (father of Sir Hugh Middleton), says, 
" Thomas, the fom-th son, became Lord Mayor of London, and was the founder of 
the family of Chirk Castle. It is recorded that having married a young wife in 
his old age, the famous song of Room for Cuckolds, here comes my Lord Mayor ! 
was invented on the occasion." — Pennanfs Tours in Wales, ii. 152 (1810). 
Thomas Middleton was Lord Mayor of London in 1614. Pennant gives the 
Sebright MSS. as his authority for the anecdote. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 60, will be found, "A Scom-ge for the Pope; 
satyrically scom^ging the itching sides of this obstinate brood in England. To 
the tune of Room for Cuckolds.'''' It is one of Martin Parker's early songs: 
" Printed by John Trundle, at his shop in Smithfield," and signed, " Per me, 
Martin Parker." Another song, which bears this title of the tune, is contained 
in vol. xvi. of the King's Pamphlets Brit. Mus., and dated in MS., 1659. It is 
also quoted, by the same name, in Folly in ^wint, or A Book of Rhymes, 1667, in 
the song, " Away from Romford, away, away." 

A third, and perhaps the earliest name for the air, is Room for Com'pany ; 
apparently derived from a ballad in the Pepys Collection, i. 168, entitled and 
commencing, " Room for Company, here comes good feUowes. To a pleasant new 
tu7ie." Imprinted at London for E. W. This was perhaps Edward White, a 
ballad-printer of Elizabeth's reign, and of the earliest part of that of James I. 

In Pills to purge Melancholy, vi. 136, there is a song about the twelve great 
Companies of the city of London, printed to this tune, and commencing — 
" Room for gentlemen, here comes my Lord Mayor." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 538, is, " The fetching home of May ; or — 
" A pretty new ditty, wherein is made known, 
How each lass doth strive for to have a green gown. 
To the tune of Boom for Company.'''' Printed for J. Wright, jun., dwelling 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



323 



at the upper end of the Old Bailey (about 1663). It is also contained in the 
Antidote to Melanchohj, 1661; and in Pills to ptiri/e Melancholy, ii. 26 (1707), 
or iv. 26 (1719). 

The first stanza is subjoined, with the earlier version of the tune. 
Smoothly, and in moderate time. 



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Pan, leave piping, The Gods have done feasting, There's never a Goddess a 



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Run-niiig at Barley -break, Good lack, what pains they take For a green gown. 



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In the Antidote to Melancholy, and in Pills to purye Melancholy, the above song- 
is printed luider the title of Tlie Green Grown, a name derived from the last line or 
each stanza of the song. In Musick d-la-Mode ; or Tlie youny MaicVs Beliyht : 



324 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



containing five excellent new songs simg at the Drolls in Bartholomew Fair, 1691, 
there is another song, under the name of The GfreenCrown, "to an excellent play- 
house tune." 

The tune of Sunting the Hare is now in common use for comic songs, or for 
such as require great rapidity of utterance ; but it has also been employed as a 
slow air. For instance, in Gay's ballad-opera of Achilles, 1733, it is printed 
in I time, and entitled " A Minuet." 

/ Fast. Hunting the Hare. 



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Sung to solace young nymphs up-on ho - li - days, Ai-e too un-worthy for wonderful deeds. 



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Sot-tish Si - le-nus To Phoebus the genius "Was sent by dame Ve-nus a song to prepare, 



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In phrase nicely coin'd. And in verse quite refln'd. How the states divine hunted the hare. 



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Stars quite tir'd with pastimes Olympical, 

Stars and planets which beautiful shone, 
Could no longer endure that men only shall 
Swim in pleasures, and they but look on ; 

Round about horned 

Lucina they swarmed, 
And her informed how minded they were, 

Each god and goddess. 

To take human bodies. 
As lords and ladies, to follow the hare. 



Chaste Diana applauded the motion, 

While pale Proserpina sat in her place, 
To light the welkin, and govern the ocean, 
While she conducted her nephews in chase : 

By her example. 

Their father to trample, 
The earth old and ample, they soon leave the air : 

Neptune the water. 

And wine Liber Pater, 
And Mars the slaughter, to follow the hare. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



325 



Light god Cupid was mounted on Pegasus, 

Lent by the Muses, by kisses and pray'rs; 
Strong Alcides, upon cloudy Caucasus, 

Mounts a centaur, whioh proudly him bears; 

Postilion of the sky, 

Light-heeled Mercury 
Soon made his courser fly, fleet as the air; 

Tuneful Apollo, 

The kennel did follow, 
And whoop and halloo, hoys, after the hare. 

Drown'd Narcissus from his metamorphosis, 

Rous'd by Echo, new manhood did take ; 
Snoring Somnus upstarted from Cimmei-is, 
Before, for a thousand years, he did not 

There was club-footed [wake ; 

Mulciber booted. 
And Pan promoted on Corydon's mare; 

Proud Pallas pouted, 

Loud jEolus shouted, 
And Momus flouted, yet followed the hare. 



Hymen ushers the lady Astrsea, 

The jest took hold of Latona the cold ; 
Ceres the brown, with bright Cytherea; 
Thetis the wanton, Bellona the bold; 

Shame-fac'd Aurora, 

With witty Pandora, 
And Maia with Flora did company bear ; 

But Juno was stated 

Too high to be mated, 
Although she hated not hunting the hare. 

Three brown bowls to th' Olympical rector. 
The Troy-born boy presents on his knee ; 
Jove to Phoebus carouses in nectar, 

And Phoebus to Hermes, and Hermes to 
Wherewith infused, [me ; 

I piped and I mused. 
In language unused, their sports to declare : 
Till the house of Jove 
Like the spheres did move : — 
Health to those who love hunting the hare ! 



THE CROSSED COUPLE. 
This tune is referred to under three names, viz., Tlie Crossed Couple, Hyde 
Park, and Tantara rara tantivee. 

The ballad of " The Crost Couple : to a new Northern tune much in fashion," 
is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 94. hi the same volume, at p. 379, is " News 
from Hide Park," &c., " to the tune of TJie Crost Couple." 

The burden of " News fi-om Hide Park" (as will be seen by the verse printed 
below with the music) is Tantara rara tantivee; and in the Bagford Collection 
(p. 170), the tune is quoted under that name, in "A pleasant Dialogue betwixt 
two wanton Ladies of Pleasure ; or, The Duchess of Portsmouth's woful farewell 
to her former felicity." This ballad is a supposed conversation between Nell 
Gwyn and Louise Renee de Penencourt de Querouaille (vulgarly, Madame 
Carwell) , whom Charles II. created Duchess of Portsmouth. 

Nell Gwynn was as popular with the ballad-singers, from her many redeeming 
qualities, as the Duchess of Portsmouth (being a Roman Catholic, and supposed 
to send large sums of money to her relations in France) was out of favour with 
them.^ The ballad commences thus : — 

" Brave gallants, now listen, and I will you tell. 

With a fa la la, la fa, la la. 
Of a pleasant discourse that I heard at Pell-Mell, 
With a fa la la, la fa, la la, &c. 



» On the following page, in the same collection, there 
is another Dialogue between the Duchess of Portsmouth 
and Nell Gwyn, on the supposed intention of the former 
to retire to France with the money she had acquired. It 
is entitled, "Portsmouth's Lamentation: Or a Dialogue 
between two amorous Ladies, E. G. and D. P. 
" Dame Portsmouth was design'd for France 
But therein was prevented ; 
Who mourns at this unhappy chance, 
And sadly doth lament it. 

To the tune of Tom the Taylor^ or Titus Oates." 



It commences thus: — 

" I prithee, Portsmouth, tell me plain. 
Without dissimulation. 
When dost thou home return again, 

And leave this English nation f 
Your youthful days are past and gone. 

You plainly may perceive it, 
Winter of age is coming on, 
'Tis true — you may believe it." 
Nine stanzas, " Printed for C. Dennisson, at the Stationers 
Arms, within Aldgate." 



326 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The ballad of News from Hide Park is also printed, -witli the tune, in Pills to 
purge Melancholy, ii. 138 (1700 and 1707). Cunningham, in his Hand-hook of 
London, says of Hyde Park : — " In 1550, the French Ambassador hunted there 
with the King ; in 1578, the Duke Casimer ' killed a barren doe with his piece, 
in Hyde Park, from amongst 300 other deer.' In Charles the First's reign, it 
became celebrated for its foot and horse races round the Ring ; in Cromwell's 
time, for its musters and coach races ; in Charles the Second's reign, for its drives 
and promenades — a reputation which it still retains." (Edit. 1850, p. 241.) 
This ballad was printed in the reign of Charles II. The following are the three 
first stanzas. 
Gaily. 




One ev'-ning a lit- tie be - fore it was dark, Sing tan-ta-ra, ra - ra, tan 
I call'd for ray gelding, and rode to Hyde Park, Sing tan-ta-ra, ra - ra, tan 



ff?>B 



£& 



i5 



^ms 



fe 



FE 



£ 



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f^P" 



■ ti - vee. 
• ti - vee. ^ 



'It wasin the merry month of May,Whenmeadowsandfieldsweregaudyandgay,And 



^ ^^^ijljjl ,^^ 



r 

flowers apparrell'd as bright as the day, I 



got iip-on my tan - ti - vee. 



The Park shone brighter than the skies, 

Sing tantara rara tantivee. 
With jewels, and gold, and ladies' eyes. 

That sparkled and cried, " Come see me; " 
Of all parts of England Hyde Park hath the 

[name 
For coaches, and horses, and persons of fame; 
Itlook'd, at first sight, like a field full of flame. 



There hath not been such a sight since Adam's, 

For perriwig, ribbon, and feather ; 
Hyde Park may be termed the market for 
Or lady-fair, choose you whether, [madams. 
Their gowns were a yard too long for their legs, 
They show'd like the rainbow cut into rags, 
A garden of flowers, or navy of flags, 
When they did all mingle together. 



Which made me ride up tantivee. 

Another tune called Ride Park is to be found in the earliest editions of TJie 
Dancing Master, and there are ballads in a different metre, such as "A new ditty 
of a Lover, tost hither and thither, that cannot speak his mind when they are 
together," by Peter Lowberry (Roxburghe, i. 290) ; commencing thus : — 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



327 



" Alas ! I am in love, 
And cannot speak it ; 
My mind I dare not move, 
Nor ne'er can break it. 



She doth so far excel 
All and each other, 

My mind I cannot tell, 
"When we're toarether." 



In the Pepys Collection, i. 197, is a ballad, " The Defence of Hide Parke from 
some aspersions cast upon her, tending to her great dishonour : To a curious new 
Court timer It is in ten-line stanzas, and commences, " When glistering Phoebus." 
"Printed at London for H[enry] G[osson]." Also, at i. 188, "The praise of 
London : or, A delicate new Ditty, which doth invite you to faire London City. 
To the tune of the second 'part of Hide Farke.'''' 

In Westminster Drollenj, 1671, there is another song called " Hide Park: the 
tune. Honour invites you to delights — Come to the Court, and be all made Knights; " 
commencing — " Come, all you noble, 

You that are neat ones," &c. 
A copy of the ballad, Come to the Court, and he all made Knights, will be found in 
Addit. MSS., Brit. Mus., No. 5,832, fol. 205, entitled "Verses upon the Order 
for making Knights of such persons who had 40/. per annum, in King James 
the First's time." Both James I. and Charles I. resorted to this obnoxious ex- 
pedient for raising money. According to John Philipot, Somerset Herald, in his 
Perfect Collection or Catalogue of cdl Knights Batchelours made by King James, 
since his coming to the Crown of England, 1660, James I. created 2,323 Knights, 
of whom 900 were made the first year of his reign. 

Shepherds, leave singing your pastoral sonnets, 



" Come all you farmers out of the country, 

Carters, ploughmen, hedgers, and all ; 
Tom, Dick, and Will, Ralph, Roger, and 

[Humphrey, 
Leave off your gestures rustical]. 
Bid all your home-spun russets adieu, 
And suit yourselves in fashions new; 
Honour invites you to delights — 
Come all to Court, and be made Knights. 

He that hath forty pounds per annum 
Shall be promoted from the plough ; 

His wife shall take the wall of her grannum. 
Honour is sold so dog-cheap now. [ingj 

Though thou hast neither good birth nor breed- 

If thou hast money thou'rt sure of speeding. 
Honour invites you, &c. 

Knighthood, in old time, was counted an 

[honour, 

Which the blest spirits did not disdain ; 
But now it is used in so base a manner. 

That it's no credit, but rather a stain. 
Tush, it's no matter what people do say. 
The name of a Knight a whole village will 

Honour invites you, &c. [sway. 



And to learn compliments shew your en- 

[deavours ; 
Cast off for ever your two shilling bonnets, 
Cover your coxcombs with three pound 

[beavers. 

Sell cart and tar-box, new coaches to buy. 

Then, 'Good, your worship,' the vulgar will 

Honour invites you, &e. [cry. 

And thus unto worship being advanced. 

Keep all your tenants in awe with your 

[frowns. 
And let your rents be yearly enhanced. 

To buy your new-moulded madams new 

[gowns. 
Joan, Siss, and Nell, shall all be ladyfied, 
Instead of hay-carts, in coaches shall ride. 
Honour invites you, &c. 

Whatever you do, have a care of expences ; 

In hospitality do not exceed ; 
Greatness of followers belongeth to princes, 
A coachman and footman are all that you 

[need. 
And still observe this — Let your servants meat 

[lack. 
To keep brave apparel upon your wife's back. 
Honour invites you," &c. 



328 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Another version of this ballad is printed in the Rev. Joseph Hunter's History 
of Sheffield (p. 104), from " a small volume of old poetry in the Wilson Collec- 
tions." It is there entitled, " Verses on account of King Charles the First raising 
money by Knighthood, 1630." Shepherds are said to wear ten-penny, instead of 
"' two shilling," bonnets in that version ; and it has the following concluding 
stanza : — " Now to conclude and shut up my sonnet, 

Leave off the cart, whip, hedge-bill, and flail ; 
This is my counsel, think well upon it, 

Knighthood and honour are now put to sale. 
Then make haste quickly, and let out your farms. 
And take my advice in blazing your arms. 
Honour invites you," &c. 
The above would suit the tune of Hunting the Hare. 

NEW MAD TOM OF BEDLAM, ob MAD TOM. 

The earliest printed copy hitherto discovered of the music of this celebrated 
song, which retains undiminished popularity after a lapse of more than two cen- 
turies, is to be found in the first edition of The English Dancing Master, 1650-51. 
This is one of the earliest known publications by Playford, before whose time music 
was sparingly printed, and small pieces, such as songs, ballad and dance tunes, or 
lessons for the virginals, were chiefly to be bought in manuscript, as they are in 
many parts of Italy at the present time. In the first edition of Tlie Dancing 
Master the tune is called Grray' s-Inne Maske, and in later editions (for instance, 
the foui'th, printed in 1670) G-ray'' s-Inne Maslee; or, Mad Tom. The black- 
letter copies of the ballad, in the Pepys Collection (i. 502) ; in the Bagford 
(643, m. 9, p. 52) ; and the Roxburghe (i. 299), are entitled New Mad Tom of 
Bedlam; or, — " The Man in the Moone drinks claret," 

"With powder'd beef, turnip, and carret," &c. 

" The tune is Gray's-Inn MaskeP 

It was formerly the custom of gentlemen of the Inns of Court to hold revels 
four times a year,*" and to represent masks and plays in their own Halls, or else- 

* The ballad is usually printed with another, which is also It makes an old man lusty, 

entitled "The New Mad Tom; or. The Man in the Moon The young to brawl, 

drinks Claret, as it was lately sung at the Curtain, Holy- And the drawers up call, 

well, to the same tune." The Curtain Theatre (according Before being too much musty, 

to Malone and Collier) was in disuse at the commence- Whether you drink all or little, 

ment of the reign of Charles I. (1625). This ballad has Pot it so yourselves to wittle; 

thtee long verses, in the same measure, and evidently in- Then though twelve 

tended to be sung to the same music. The first is as A clock it be, 

follows:— Yet all the way go roaring. 

" Bacchus, the father of drunken nowls. If "is *and 

Full mazers, beakers, glasses, howls. Of bills cry stand, 

Greezie flap-dragons, Flemish upsie freeze, Swear that you must a 

With health stab'd in arms upon naked knees ; Such gambols, such tricks, such fegaries, 

Of all his wines he makes you tasters, We fetch though we touch no canaries ; 

So you tipple like bumbasters ; Drink wine till the welkin roars. 

Drink till you reel, a welcome he doth give ; •*n* '^''1 out a of your scores." 

O how the boon claret makes you live ; i- Another curious custom, of obliging lawyers to dance 

Not a painter purer colours shows four times a year, is quoted from Dugdale by Sir John 

Then what's laid on by claret. Hawkins. (iJisiory 0/ Jfasic, vol. ii., p. 137.) "It is not 

Pearl and ruby doth set out the nose, many years since the judges, in compliance with ancient 

When thin small beer doth mar it ; custom, danced annually on Candlemas-day. And. that 

Rich wine is good, nothing miglit be wanting for their encouragement in this 

It heats the blood, excellent study (the law), they have very anciently had 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 329 

where. A curious letter on the subject of a mask, -which for some unexplained 
reason did not take place, may be seen in Collier's History of Early Dramatic 
Poetry and Annals of the Stage, vol. i., p. 268. It is addressed to Lord 
Burghley, by " Mr. Frauncis Bacon " (afterwards Lord Bacon), who in 1588 dis- 
charged the office of Reader of Gray's Inn. Many other curious particulars of 
their masks may be found in the same work, and some in Sir J. Hawkins' History 
of Music. For the Christmas Revels of the bar, see Mi-. Payne Collier's note to 
Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. vii., p. 311. Lawyers are now, generally speaking, a 
music-loving class. The enjoyment of sweet sounds is to many the most accept- 
able recreation after long study. They were also famous in former days for 
songs and squibs. Some, too, were tolerable composers, for every one claiming to 
be a gentleman leai'nt music. As their compositions are rather out of my present 
subject, I will refer only to their rhyming propensities ; and, although much more 
ample illustration might be given, two passages from letters of John Chamberlain 
to Sir Dudley Carleton, printed in Tlie Court of James I. (1849), will probably 
suffice. On May 20, 1615, Chamberlain says, " On Saturday last the King went 
again to Cambridge to see the play, Ignoramus, which hath so nettled the lawyers, 
that they are almost out of all patience ; and the Lord Chief Justice [Sir E. 
Coke] both openly at the King's Bench, and divers other places, hath galled and 
glanced at scholars with much bittei-ness ; and there he divers Inns at Court have 
made rhymes and ballads against them, which they have answered sharply enough." 
(i. 363.) Again in the letter of Nov. 23, 1616, "Here is a bold rhyme of 
our young gallants of Inns of Court against their old benchers, and a pretty 
epigram upon the Lord Coke, and no doubt more will follow ; for when men are 
down, the very drunkards make rhymes and songs upon them." (i. 444.) 

The authorship of the music of this song has been a subject of contention ; and 
so little have dates been regarded, that it has long passed as the composition of 
Henry Purcell, and is still published with his name. Walsh paved the way to 
this error (in which Ritson and many others followed), by including it in 
a collection of " Mr. Henry Puixell's Favourite Songs, out of his most cele- 
brated Orpheus Britannicus, and the rest of his works." It is not contained in 
the Orpheus Britannicus (which was published by Pm-cell's widow), and the music 
may still be seen as printed eight years before Purcell's birth. 

In a note upon the passage before quoted from Walton's Angler, Sir J. 
Hawkins adds, " This song, beginning, ' Forth from my dark and dismal cell,' 
with the music to it, set by Henry Laioes, is printed in a book, entitled Clioice 
Ayres, Songs, and Dialogues to sing to the Theorbo-Lute and Bass Viol, fol. 1675 • 
and in Playford's Antidote against Melancholy, 8vo., 1669." 

dancings for their recreations and delight, commonly Feb. 7 Jac, it appears that the under-bairisters were by 

called Revels, allowed at certain seasons; and that, by decimation put out of Commons for example's sake, be- 

special order of the society, as appeareth in 9 Hen. VI., cause the whole bar offended by not dancing on the 

there should be four Revels that year, and no more," &c. Candlemas-day preceding, according to the ancient order 

And again he says, " Nor were these exercises of dancing of this society, when the judges were present ; with this, 

merelypermitted, but thought very necessary, as it seems, that if the like fault were afterwards committed, they 

and much conducing to the making of gentlemen more fit should be fined or disbarred." 
for their books at other times ; for, by an order made 6th 



330 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Sir John Hawkins must have had some reason, which he does not assign, for 
attributing the composition to Henry Lawcs. It is not contained in either of the 
printed collections of Lawes' songs, nor have I been able to find any copy with his 
name attached to it. Sir John seems to bo mistaken, because Lawes did not 
enter the Chapel Royal until 1626, and the Curtain Theatre, at which one of the 
songs to the tune were simg,"- was in disuse at the commencement of the reign of 
Charles I. (1625). We must therefore look to an earlier composer. 

One of the Addit. MSS., Brit. Mus. (No. 10,444) is a collection of Mask- 
tunes, and there arc several in that collection entitled " Gray's Inn." See 
Nos. 60, 51, 91, 99, &c. If Nos. 50 and 99 are fi-om the same Mask (which is 
not improbable). Mad Tom may be the composition of Lawes' master, John 
Cooper, called " Cuperario " after his visit to Italy. No. 50, the first of the 
above tunes, is there called '■^ Cuperaree, or Gray's Inn;" No. 51, "Gray's In 
Anticke Masque ; " and No. 99 (the tune in question) , " Gray's Inne Masque." 

There is an equal uncertainty about the authorship of the words. In Walton's 
Angler, 1653, Piscator says, " I'll promise you I'll sing a song that was lately 
made at my request by Mr. William Basse, one that made the choice songs of 
Tlie Hunter in his career, and Tom of Bedlam, and many others of note." There 
are, however, so many Toms of Bedlam, that it is impossible to determine, from 
this passage, to which of them Isaak Walton refers. 

In addition to the broadsides, and a copy in Le Prince d'' Amour, 1660, there is 
in MSS. Ilarl., No. 7,332, a version in the handwriting of " Fcarcgod Barebone, of 
Davcntry, in the county of Northampton," who, "beinge at many times idle, and 
wanting imploymont, bcstocd his time with his pcnn and incke wrighting theaso 
sonnets, songes, and epigrames, thinkinge that it weare bettar so to doe for the 
mendinge of his hand in wrighting, then worse to bestow his time." Master 
Fearegod Barebone was, no doubt, a puritanical hypocrite ; and wrote this excuse 
about improving his handwriting, to be prepared in case the book should fall into 
" ungodly hands." No other inference can be drawn from his selection of some 
of the songs in the manuscript. Mad Tom-, however, is not one of those objection- 
able ditties, and, as being the oldest copy, I have here followed his manuscript. 
The tune is from The Dancing Master, and differs somewhat from later versions. 

Mad Tom was employed as a ballad tune in Penelope, 1728 ; and The Bay's 
Opera, 1730. 

MrijeslicaUy. 




^Ek 



1 



3^T^ 



Forth from my sad and daikBomc cell, 
Fear and despair pur - sue my eoul, 



From tlic deep a - 
IlarU, how the angry 



byss of hell, Mad 
fu - ricB howl, Plu- 



e^ 



P^ 



^ 



idti 



U 



lEZ 



" Mr. Payno Collier, in a note to Ilclicr'-s C;ita]ogue, 
Tart iv., p. 92, says that this Hong was sun^ at the Curtain 
Tlicatro, ahout IfilO. In C//o»>r' /(yrw, 2rifl edition, fnl,, 



Ifi7r), the cotniioscr'a name is not given, and it is printed 
wiltiout any base. 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



331 



^^p^i^^*i 



azzss: 



-d- -si- 

Toni is come to view tlio world a- gain, To sec if he can ease his dis - tcuiper'il lll■ain..^.■ 
-to doth laugli, and Proa-cr - pino is glad To see poor naked Tom of Bed-lam mad. 



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I \ma. 



'Ida. 



M 



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Throughthewoods I wander night and day, To find my straggling senses, .j^; When 

la an an-grymoodi met old Time With a whip for my of - - fences; 



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he me spies, a - way he flies, For Time will stay for no man ; With , Cold and 

hideous cries I rendtheskies.IJow pi - ty is not common.''^ Ilelp, oli 



fei=l=^ 



iE^feiiEi 



tr. :i i rT- 



\ina. Ida. 



I'rrrf •Ida. u. ^-~ 



The car-i 



comfort -less I lie, hark! I hear A - polio's team, 'I'ho car -man 'gms to 

hc.lii! or else I die. Now--^uhasto Di a - na hends her bow, The boar be - gins to 



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whistle: ■ . ,, Come, Vulcan, with fools and with tac-kles, And knock off my troublesome 
bnstle. ' -' 



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~ev- 



o ■ a — m *o^" • ^ *^ — ^T — — ' c 

shackles. Bid Charles ninke rca - dy his wain. To fetch my five scntea a 

_C3__! .—o, : 



% 



gam. 



332 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Last night I heard the dog-star hark ; 
Mars met Venus in the dark ; 
Limping Vulcan het an iron bar, 
And furiously he ran at the god of war. 
Mars with his weapons beset him about, 
But Vulcan's temples had the gout, 
And his horns did hang so in his light. 
He could not see to aim his blows aright. 
Mercury, the nimble post of heaven, 

Came to see the quarrel ; 
Gor-bellied Bacchus, giant-like, 

Bestrid a strong-beer barrel. 
To me he drank, 
I did him thank. 



But I could get no cider ; 
He drank whole huts. 
Till he brake his guts. 

But mine be never the wider. 

Poor Tom is very dry : 

A little drink for charity ! 
Now, hark ! I hear Actseon's hounds, 

The huntsman whoops and halloos ; 
Ringwood, Roister, Bowman, Jowler, 

And all the troop do follow. 
The Man in the Moon drinks claret. 
Eats powder'd beef, turnip, and caiTot, 
But a cup of old Malaga sack 
Will fire the bush at his back. 



It Tvill be observed that the second verse of the above is not now sung. 
Another Mad Tom, composed by George Hayden, and commencing, " In my 
triumphant chariot hurl'd," has been added to the first, to make a bravura. There 
are even different copies of George Hayden's song, some having a | movement at 
the close, which others have not. Hayden was the author of the still favorite 
duet, " As I saw fair Clora." He flourished in the early part of last century. 

TOM A BEDLAM. 

In Le Prince d' Amour, 1660, there are no less than three songs entitled 
To'm of Bedlam ; also Bishop Corbet's song. The distracted Puritan, which is to 
the tune of Tom of Bedlam. 

The first song (at p. 164) consists of eight stanzas, and commences thus : — 



" From the top of high Cancaeus, 
To Paul's Wharf near the Tovrer, 

In no great haste, I easily pass'd 
In less than half an hour. 

The gates of old Byzantium 
I took upon my shoulders, 



And them I bore twelve leagues and more, 

In spite of Turks and soldiers, [nierry; 

Sing, sing, and sob ; sing, sigh, and be 

Sighing, singing, and sobbing ; 
Thus naked Tom away doth run, 

And fears no cold nor robbing. 



The second is at p. 167, and consists also of eight stanzas, of which the two 
first are as follows : — 



" From the hag and hungry goblin. 

That into rags would rend you, [man 
And the spirits, that stand by the naked 

In the book of moons, defend you ; 
That of your five sound senses 

You never be forsaken. 
Nor travel from yourselves with Tom 

Abroad to beg your bacon. 
IVhile I do sing, ^ Any food, any feeding, 

Feeding, drink, or clothing ! 
Come, dame or maid, be not afraid, 

Poor Tom will injure nothing.' 



Of thirty bare years have I 

Twice twenty been enraged ; 
And, of forty, been three times fifteen 

In durance soundly caged ; 
On the lordly lofts of Bedlam, 

With stubble soft and dainty, [dong, 
Brave bracelets strong, and whij)s, ding- 

And wholesome hunger plenty. 
Yet did I sing, ' Any food, any feeding. 

Feeding, drink, or clothing ! 
Come, dame or maid, he not afraid, 

Poor Tom mill injure nothing.' " 



Ritson, who has reprinted the above two songs, supposes them " to have been 
written by way of burlesque on such sort of things." {Ancient Songs, p. 261, 1790.) 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 333 

The tliird song (p. 169) is now commonly known as Mad Tom. It is in 
another metre, and has a separate tune. (Ante p. 330.) 

The fourth, commencing, "Am I mad, noble Festus," (p. 171), is here 
printed to this tune. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 42, there is a song on the tricks and disguises 
of beggars, entitled " The cmming Northerne Begger : 

\^'Tio all the bystanders doth earnestly pray, 
To bestow a penny upon him to-day: 
to the tune of Tom of Bedlam." The first stanza is as follows : — 
" I am a lusty begger, Yet, though I'm bare, 

And live by others giving ; I'm free from care, 

I scorne to worke, A fig for high preferments, [good sir. 

But by the highway lurke, But still will I cry, ' Good, your worship, 

And beg to get my living. Bestow one poor denier, sir ; 

I'll i' th' wind and weather, 'Which, when, Tve got, 

And weare all ragged garments ! At the pipe and the pot, 

I soon will it cashier, sir.' " 
This copy of the ballad was priated "at London" for F. Coules, and may be 
dated as of the reign of Charles, or James I. 

In Wit and Drollery, 1656 (p. 126), there is yet another Tom of Bedlam, 
beginning — " Forth from the Elysian fields, a place of restless souls. 
Mad Maudlin is come to seek her naked Tom, 
Hell's fury she controls," &c. 
This is printed in an altered form, and with an imperfect copy of the tune, in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 192 (1700 and 1707), under the title of "Mad 
Maudlin to find out Tom of Bedlam : " 

" To find my Tom of Bedlam, ten thousand years I'll travel; 
Mad Maudlin goes, with dirty toes, to save her shoes from gravel. 
. Yet will I sing, Bonny boys, bonny mad boys, Bedlam boys are bonny ; 
They still go bare, and live by the air, and want no drink nor money." 
The tune is again printed in Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 18 (1707), to a song 
"On Dr. G[ill?], formerly master of St. Paul's School," commencing — 
" In Paul's Churchyard in London, 
There dwells a noble firker, 
Take heed, you that pass, 
Lest you taste of bis lash, 
For I have found him a jerker : 

Still doth he cry, talie him up, tahe him up, sir, 

Untruss with expedition ; 
the birchen tool 
Which he winds in the school 

Frights worse than the Inquisition." 
In Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament, 1731, ii. 272, we have 
" The cock-crowing at the approach of a Free Parliament ; or— 

Good news in a ballat A country wit made it, 

More sweet to your pallat Who ne'er got the trade yet, 

Than fig, raisin, or stewed prune is : And Mad Tom of Bedlam the tune is." 



334 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

Among the King's Pamphlets in the British Museum there are two songs to 
this tune. The first (by a loyal Cavalier) is " Mad Tom a Bedlam's desires of 
Peace: Or his Benedicities for distracted England's Restauration to her wits 
again. By a constant though unjust sufi"erer (now in prison) for His Majesties 
just Regality and his Country's Liberty. S.F.W.B." (Sir Francis Wortley, 
Bart.) This is in the sixth vol. of folio broadsides, and dated June 27, 1648. 
" Poor Tom hath been imprison'd, Yet still he cries for the King, for the good 

With strange oppressions vexed ; Tom loves brave confessors ; [King ; 

He dares boldly say, they try'd each way But he curses those that dare their King de- 
Wherewith Job was perplexed. Committees and oppressors." &c. [pose. 

This has been reprinted in Wright's Political Ballads, for the Percy Society, 
p. 102 ; and in the same volume, p. 183, is another, taken from the fifteenth vol. 
of broadsides, entitled "A new Ballade, to an old tune, — Tom of Bedlam" dated 
January 17, 1659, and commencing, " Make room for an honest red-coat." 

Besides these, we have, in Wit and Drollery, 1682, p. 184, Loving Mad Tom, 
commencing, " Pll bark against the dog-star ; " and many other mad-songs in the 
Roxburghe Collection, such as " The Mad Man! s Morrice;" " Lovers Lunacie, or 
Mad Besse's Vagarij ;" &c., &c. 

Bishop Percy has remarked that " the English have more songs on the subject 
of madness, than any of their neighbours." For this the following reason has 
been assigned by Mr. Payne Collier, in a note to Dodsley's Collection of Old 
Plays, ii. 4 : — 

" After tlie dissolution of the religious houses, where the poor of every denomination 
were provided for, there was for many years no settled or fixed provision made to 
supply the want of that care which those bodies appear always to have taken of their 
distressed brethren. In consequence of this neglect, the idle and dissolute were 
suffered to wander about the country, assuming such characters as they imagined were 
most likely to insure success to their frauds, and security from detection. Among 
other disguises, many affected madness, and were distinguished by the name of 
Bedlam Beggars. These are mentioned by Edgar, in King Lear : 
" The country gives me proof and precedent. 
Of Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices. 
Stick in their numb'd and mortify'd bare arms 
Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary ; 
And, with this horrible object, from low farms. 
Poor pelting villages, sheep-cotes, and mills. 
Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayer, 
Inforce their charity." 
In Dekker's Bellmayi of London, 1616, all the different species of beggars are 
enumerated. Amongst the rest are mentioned Tom of Bedla7n's band of mad caps, 
otherwise called Poor Tom's flock of wild geese (whom here thou seest by his black 
and blue naked arms to be a man beaten to the world), and those wild geese, or hair 
brains, are called Abraham men. An Abraham man is afterwards described in this 
manner : ' Of all the mad rascals (that are of this wing) the Abraham man is the 
most fantastick. The fellow (quoth this old Lady of the Lake unto me) that sate 
half naked (at table to-day) from the girdle upward, is the best Abraham man that 
ever came to my house, and the notablest villain : he swears he hath been in Bedlam, 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



335 



and will talk frantickly of purpose : you see pins stuck in sundry places of hia naked 
flesh, especially in his arms, which pain he gladly puts himself to (being, indeed, no 
torment at all, his skin is either so dead with some foul disease, or so hardened with 
weather, only to make you believe he is out of his wits) : he calls himself by the name 
of Poor Tom, and coming near any body, cries out. Poor Tom is a cold. Of these 
Abraham men, some be exceeding merry, and do nothing but sing songs, fashioned 
out of their own brains, some will dance ; others will do nothing but either laugh or 
weep ; others are dogged, and are sullen both in look and speech, that, spying but a 
small company in a house, they boldly and blimtly enter, compelling the servants 
through fear to give them what they demand, which is commonly Bacon, or some- 
thing that will yield ready money.' " 

The song of Tom of Bedlam is alluded to in Ben Jonson's The Devil is an Ass, 
1616, act v., sc. 2. When Pug wishes to be thought mad, he says, " Your best 
song's Thom o'Bet'lem." 

The following copy of the tune is from a manuscript volume of vii-ginal music, 
formerly in the possession of Mr. Windsor, of Bath, and now in that of 
Dr. Rimbault. It is entitled Tom a Bedlam. The words are from Bishop 
Corbet's song, The distracted Puritan, which is printed entire in Percy's Reliqices 
of Ancient Poetry. 
Pompously. 



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Am I mad, O no-ble Festus, When zeal and god-ly knowledge Have 



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put me in hope To deal with the Pope As well as the best m Col - lege : 



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Bold-ly I preach, hate a cross, hate a sur-plice, Mi - tres, copes and roch-ets. 




Come, hear me pray nine times a day. And fill your heads with crotchets. 



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336 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



In the house of pure Emanuel* 
I had my education, 

Where my friends surmise 

I dazzled my eyes 
With the sight of revelation. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

They bound me like a bedlam, 
They lash'd my four poor quarters ; 

Whilst this I endure, 

Faith makes me sure 
To be one of Fox's martyrs. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

These injuries I suffer 
Through antichrist's persuasion : 

Take off this chain, 

Neither Rome nor Spain 
Can resist my strong invasion. 
Boldly I preach, &c. 

Of the beast's ten horns (God bless us!) 
I have knock'd off three already ; 

If they let me alone 

I'll leave him none : 
But they say I am too heady. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 



When I sack'd the seven hill'd city, 
I met the great red dragon ; 

I kept him aloof 

With the armour of proof. 
Though here I have never a rag on. 
Boldly I preach, &c. 

With a fiery sword and target. 
There fought I with this monster : 

But the sons of pride 

My zeal deride. 
And all my deeds misconster. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

I un-hors'd the Whore of Babel, 
With the lance of Inspiration ; 

I made her stink, 

And spill the drink 
In her cup of abomination. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

I appear'd before the archbishop, 
And all the high commission ; 
I gave him no grace, 
But told him to his face. 
That he favour'd superstition. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 



THOMAS, YOU CANNOT. 
This tune is contained in Sir John Hawkins' Transcripts of Virginal Music ; in 
the fourth and later editions of The Dancing Master; in The Beggars' Opera; 
The Mock Doctor ; An Old Man taught Wisdom ; The Oxford Act ; and other 
ballad-operas. 

In some of the earlier editions of Tlie Dancing Master, it is entitled Thomas, 
you cannot ; in others, Tumas, I cannot, or Tom Trusty ; in some of the ballad- 
operas (for instance, The Generous Freemason, and The Lover his own Rival), 
Sir Tlwmas, I cannot. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 62, is a black-letter ballad (one of the many written 
against the Roman Catholics after the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, in 1605), 
entitled " A New-yeeres-Gift for the Pope ; come see the difference plainly 
decided between Truth and Falsehood ; 

Not all the Pope's trinkets, which here are brought forth, 
Can balance the bible, for weight, or for worth," &c. 
" To the tune of Thomas you cannot^ It commences thus : — 
" All you that desirous are to behold 
The difference 'twixt falsehood and faith," &c. 
In G-rammatical Drollery, by W. H. (Captain Hicks), 1682, p. 75, is a song 
commencing, " Come, my Molly, let us be jolly : " to the tune of Thomas, 
I cannot ; and in Chetwood's History of the Stage, 8vo., 1749, a song on a 
theatrical anecdote, by Mr. John Leigh (an actor, who died in 1726), of which 
the following is the first stanza : — 

=* Emanuel College, Cambridge, was originally a seminary of Puritans. 



«£■ 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



337 



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My scandalous neighbours of Poi-tu - gal Street, Come list- en a-while to my 
I'll sing you a song though my voice be not sweet, And that you will say is a 



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I have not been successful in finding the song of Tliomas, you cannot, from 
which the tune derives its name. In some copies (when there are no words), the 
second part of the tune consists only of eight bars, instead of ten. See the 
following from Sir J. Hawkins' Transcripts of Virginal Music. 

Gaily. 



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338 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



WHEN DAPHNE DID FROM PHCEBUS FLY. 

This tune is to be found in Nederlandtsche Gredenclc-Olanck, 1626 ; in Friesche 
Lust-Hof, 1634; and in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. 

In the first named it is entitled Prins Daphne ; in the second, Wllen Daphne 
did from Phoebus fly ; and in the last, Daphne, or TJie Shepherdess. 

A copy of the words will be found in the Koxburghe Collection, i. 388, entitled 
" A pleasant new Ballad of Daphne : To a new tune." Printed by the assignees 
of Thomas Symcocke. It ia on the old mythological story of Daphne turned into 
a laurel. 

Gracefully, and not too slotc. 



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When Daph - ne from fair Phoebus did fly, The west wind most 
Her silk - en scarf scarce shadow'd her eyes. The God cried, O 



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sweet -ly did blow in her face, 
pi - ty ! and held her in chace. 



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Stay, Nymph, stay, Nymph, cries A ■ 
Lion nor ti - ger doth thee 



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■ pol - lo, Tar - ry, and turn thee, Sweet Nymph, stay, 
fol - low, Turn thy fair eyes, and look this way. O turn, O pretty 

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REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



339 



She gave no ear unto his cry, [moan ; 

But still did neglect him the more he did 
Though he did entreat, she still did deny, 

And earnestly pray him to leave her alone. 
Never, never, cries Apollo, 

Unless to love thou wilt consent, 
But still, with my voice so hollow, 
I'll cry to thee, while life be spent. 
But if thou turn to me, 
'Twill prove thy felicity. 

Pity, O Daphne, pity me, &c. 

Away, like Venus's dove she flies. 

The red blood her buskins did run all adown, 

His plaintive love she still denies, [renown. 
Crying, Help, help, Diana, and save my 

Wanton, wanton lust is near me. 
Cold and chaste Diana, aid ! 



Let the earth a virgin bear me, 
Or devour me quick a maid. 
Diana heard her pray, 
And turn'd her to a Bay. 

Pity, Daphne, pity me, &c. 

Amazed stood Apollo then, [desir'd. 

While he beheld Daphne turn'd as she 
Accurs'd am I, above gods and men. 

With griefs and laments my senses are tir'd. 
Farewell ! false Daphne, most unkind, 

My love lies buried in thy grave, 
Long sought I love, yet love could not find, 

Therefore is this thy epitaph : 
" This tree doth Daphne cover, 
That never pitied Lover." [™6i 

Farewell, false Daphne, that would not pity 
Although not my love, yet art thou my Tree. 



COME YOU NOT FEOM NEWCASTLE? 
This beautiful and very expressive melody is to be found in Tlie Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1690, under tbe title of Newcastle. In Tlie Gruh Street 
Opera, 1731, it is named Why sliould I not love my love ? from the burden of the 
song. The following fragment of the first stanza is contained in the folio manu- 
script formerly in the possession of Bishop Percy, p. 95. See Dr. Dibdin's 
Decameron, vol. 3. 

" Come you not from Newcastle ? Why should I not love my love ? 

Come you not there away ? Why should not my love love me ? 

O met you not my true love, »**»»» 

Ryding on a bonny bay ? 

It is quoted in a little black-letter volume, called " The famous Historic of 
Fryer Bacon : containing the wonderfull things that he did in his life ; also the 
manner of his death ; with the lives and deaths of the two Conjurers, Bungye 
and Vandermast. Very pleasant and delightfull to be read." 4ito.,n.d. "Printed 
at London by A. E., for Francis Grove, and are to be sold at his shop at the 
upper-end of Snow Hill, against the Sarazen's Head : " — 

" The second time, Fryer Bungy and he went to sleepe, and Miles alone to watch 
the brazen head; Miles, to keepe him from sleeping, got a tabor and pipe, and being 
merry disposed, sung this song to a Northern tune of Cam'st thou not from New- 
castle — 



' To couple is a custome. 

All things thereto agree ; 

Why should not I then love ? 

Since love to all is free. 

But He have one that's pretty, 
Her cheekes of scarlet dye, 

For to breed my delight, 
Whea that I ligge her by. 

Though vertue be a dowry. 
Yet He chuse money store : 



If my love prove untrue. 
With that I can get more. 

The faire is oft unconstant. 
The blacke is often proud ; 

He chuse a lovely browne ; 

Come, fidler, scrape thy crowd. 

Come, fidler, scrape thy crowd. 
For Peggie the browne is she 

Must be my bride ; God guide 
That Peggie and I agree." 



340 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I have been favored by Mr. Barrett with a song, " come ye from Newcastle? " 
as still current in the North of England ; but, doubting its antiquity, I have not 
thought it desu'able to print it in this collection. 
Rather slow, and with expression. 



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CUCKOLDS ALL A ROW. 

This tune is to be found in every edition of The Dancing Master. Pepys 
mentions it in the following account of a court ball, in the reign of Charles II. : — 

" 31 Dec, 1662. By and bye comes the King and Queene, the Duke and 
Duchess, and all the great ones; and after seating themselves, the King takes out the 
Duchesse of York ; and the Duke, the Duohesse of Buckingham ; the Duke of 
Monmouth, my Lady Castlemaine ; and so on, other lords other ladies ; and they 
danced the Bransle. After that, the King led a lady a single Coranto : and then the 
rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies : very noble it was, and great pleasure 
to see. Then to Country-dances ; the King leading the first, which he called for, 
which was Cxtckolds all a row, the old dance of England." 

It became a party tune of the Cavaliers, who sang the songs of Sey, hoys, up 



■ The two last lines are supplied from a song written to complete the fragment, by the late Mr. George Macfarren, 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



341 



go we, and London^ s true character, to it. The latter, abusing the Londoners for 
taking part against the King, and commencing, " You coward-hearted citizens," 
is contained in Rats rhimed to death, or The Rump Parliament hanged in the 
Shambles, 1660 ; and in both editions of Loyal Songs luritten against the Rump 
Parliament. 

The tune is mentioned in the old song, London is a fine town ; and one with 
the burden is contained iii Wit and Drollery, 1661. The latter is reprinted (to 
the tune of London is a fine town) in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 77, 1700, and 
iv. 77, 1719. 

The following, on the miseries of married life, is from a black-letter ballad, 
" printed by M.P. for Henry Gosson, on London Bridge, neere the gate," and 
signed Arthur Halliarg. A copy is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 28 ; and 
it is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads,!. 170 (1810). I have omitted four stanzas, 
the remainder being sufficient to tell the story. " The cruel Shrew ; or The 
Patient Man's Woe : Declaring the misery and great pain, 

By his unquiet vcife, he doth daily sustain." 
To the tune of Cuckolds all a row. 
Moderate time. 






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which does put me to great pain, By my un - qui - et 



wife. 



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342 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



She never lins her bawling, 

Her tongue it is so loud, 
But always she'll be railing. 

And will not be controll'd : 
For she the breeches still will wear. 

Although it breeds ray strife ; 
If I were now a bachelor, 

I'd never have a wife. 

Sometimes I go in the morning 

About my daily work. 
My wife she will be snorting, 

And in her bed she'll lurk, 
Until the chimes do go at eight, 

Then she'll begin to wake. 
Her morning's draught well spiced straight 

To clear her eyes she'll take. 

As soon as she is out of bed, 

Her looking-glass she takes, 
(So vainly is she daily led). 

Her morning's work she makes 
In putting on her brave attire, 

That fine and costly be ; 
While I work hard in dirt and mire : 

Alack what remedy ? 

Then she goes forth a gossiping 

Amongst her own comrades ; 
And then she falls a boosing 

With all her merry blades ; 
When I come from my labour hard, 

Then she'll begin to scold, 
And call me rogue without regard ; 

Which makes my heart full cold. 

When I, for quiet's sake, desire 

My wife for to be still, 
She will not grant what I require. 

But swears she'll have her will ; 
Then if I chance to heave my hand. 

Straightway she'll murder cry ; 
Then judge all men that here do stand, 

In what a case am I. 



And if a friend by chance me call 

To drink a pot of beer. 
Then she'll begin to curse and brawl, 

And fight, and scratch, and tear ; 
And swears unto my work she'll send 

Me straight without delay ; 
Or else with the same cudgel's end, 

She will me soundly pay. 

Then is not this a piteous cause, 

Let all men now it try. 
And give their verdicts, by the laws, 

Between my wife and I ; 
And judge the cause, who is to blame, 

I'll to their judgment stand. 
And be contented with the same, 

And put thereto my hand. 

If I abroad go anywhere, 

My business for to do, 
Then will my wife anon be there 

For to increase my woe ; 
Straightway she such a noise will make 

With her most wicked tongue, 
That all her mates, her part to take. 

About me soon will throng. 

Thus am I now tormented still 

With my most wretched wife ; 
All through her wicked tongue so ill, 

I am weary of my life : 
I know not truly what to do. 

Nor how myself to mend, 
This lingering life doth, breed my woe, 

I would 'twere at an end. 

O that some harmless honest man, 

Whom death did so befriend. 
To take his wife from off his hand, 

His sorrows for to end. 
Would change with me to rid my care, 

And take my wife alive. 
For his dead wife, unto his share ! 

Then I would hope to thrive. 



THE BUFF COAT HAS NO FELLOW. 

In Fletcher's play, Tlie Kniglit of Malta, act iii., sc. 1, there is a " Song by 
the Watchj" commencing thus : — 

" Sit, soldiers, sit and sing, the round is clear, 
And cock-a-loodle-loo tells us the day is near ; 
Each toss his can until his throat be mellow, 
Drink, laugh, and sing The soldier has no fellow." 
The last line is repeated in three out of the four verses or parts, and I suppose 
The soldier has no fellow to have been then a ■well-known song. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 343 

Various ballads were written to a tune called The buff coat has no fellow (see, 
for instance, Pepys Coll., iii. 150; Roxburghe, i. 636; &c.), and as the buff 
coat was a distinguishing mark of the soldier of the seventeenth century, if the 
words could be recovered, it might prove to be the song in question. 

" In the reign of King James I.," says Grose, " no great alterations were made 
in the article of defensive armour except that the huff coat, or jerkin, which was 
originally worn under the cuirass, now became frequently a substitute for it, it 
having been found that a good buff leather would of itself resist the stroke of a 
sword ; this, however, only occasionally took place among the light-armed cavalry 
and infantry, complete suits of armour being still used among the heavy horse." — 
Military Antiquities, 1801, 4to., ii., 323. I have been favored with the follow- 
ing note on the same subject by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. : — " The buff coat was 
peculiarly indicative of the soldier. It first came into use in the early part of 
the seventeenth' century, when the heavier defensive armour of plate was dis- 
carded by all but cavalry regiments. The infantry, during the great civil wars 
of England, were all arrayed in buff coats ; and in Rochester Cathedral are 
still preserved some of these defensive coverings, as worn by Oliver's soldiers 
in their unwelcome visits there ; as well as the bandoleers worn over them, to hold 
the charges for muskets. The officers and cavalry at this time only added the 
cuirass ; the leather coat was frequently very thick and tough, and a defence 
against a sword cut. The foreign, as well as the English ai-mies, about this time, 
discarded heavier armour ; and the prints by Gheyn, of Low-Country troopers, as 
well as those by Ciartes, of the soldiers of the French King, are all habited in 
the buff coat, which displays, in the rigidity of its form, its innate strength." 
Grose gives an engraving of those that were worn over corslets, from one that 
belonged to Sir Francis Rhodes, Bart., of Balbrough Hall, Derbyshire, in the 
time of Charles I. ^ 

The tune, The biff coat has no fellow, is to be found in the fourth and every 
subsequent edition of The Dancing Master f in the earlier editions as Biiff coat, 
and afterwards as B-uff coat, or Excuse me. The following list of ballad-operas, in 
all of which songs may be found that were written to the tune, sufficiently proves 
its former popularity : — Pollij ; The Lottery ; An Old Man taught Wisdom ; Tlie 
Intriguing Chambermaid ; The Lovers' Opera ; The BaiJ s Opera ; The Lover his 
own Rival; The Grub Street Opera ; The Devil of a Duhe, or Trapolin^s Vagaries; 
The Fashionable Lady, or Harlequin^ s Opera; The Gfenerous Freemason; and 
Tlie Footman. 

This popularity extended to Ireland and Scotland ; and although, in its old 
form, purely English in character, the air has been claimed both as Irish and as 
Scotch. T. Moore appropriated it, under the name of My husband's a journey to 
Portugal gone, although in the opinion of Dr. Crotch, Mr. Wade, and others, " it is 

» Mr. Stenhouse, in his notes to Johnson's Scot's Musical is to be found in it. Mr. Stenhouse had hefore him one 

Museum, asserts that this air is to he found in Playford's of the last editions of vol. i. of The Dancing Master, 

Dancing Master of 1667, a book wliich he quotes con- printed by Pearson and Young, between 1713 and 1725, 

stantly, and which, I am convinced, he never saw. Having and consisting of 358 pages, to which only can all of his 

tested all his references to that work, I have no hesi- quotations be referred, 
tation in saying that not even one of the airs he mentions 



344 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC, 



not at all like an Irish tune." In Scotland it has been claimed as The Deuks 
dang o'er my Daddie, and again disclaimed by Mr. George Farquhar Graham, 
editor of Wood's Songs of Scotland, who " freely confesses his belief that the air 
is not of Scottish origin." iii. 165. 

All the oldest copies of Buff coat begin with three long notes, which seem to 
require corresponding monosyllables for the commencement of the words. The 
line I have quoted from The Knight of Malta suggests a commencement some- 
what in the following manner : — 
Boldly. 



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I should add, that in some copies of The Dancing Master the tune is in common 
time. 

In later versions, where the long notes at the commencement are split into 
quavers (as in many of the ballad-operas) , the bold character of the tune is lost, 
and it becomes rather a pretty than a spirited air. This change seems to be 
owing to the monosyllabic commencement having been discarded in the ballads 
which were written to it : as, for instance, in the following, from the Roxbui'ghe 
Collection, i. 536 : — " The merry Hostess ; or — 

A pretty new ditty, compos'd on an hostess that lives in the city. 

To wrong such an hostess it were a great pity, 

By reason she caused this pretty new ditty. 

To the tune of Buff coat has no fellow." 



" Come all that love good company, 
And hearken to my ditty ; ■ 
'Tis of a lovely hostess fine. 
That lives in London city; 



Who sells good ale, nappy and stale, 
And always thus sings she : 

My ale was tunn'd when I was young, 
And but little above my knee," &c. 



The above is printed in Evans' Collection, i. 150 (1810). 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



345 



In several of the ballad-operas, the tune, whether under the name of Buff 
coat, or Excuse me, commences thus (see, for instance, TJie Generous Dree- 
mason, 1731) : — 



:& 



ipS 



^ 



* * 



^Sfl 



iSi 



PN3 



And in some more modern versions, thus :- 



^LiLmrJ-j-^^^ 



^^m 



m 



When the key-note is heard three times in equal succession at the end of a tune, 
it is considered to be characteristic of L'ish music ; but that peculiarity often arises, 
as in the last example, from too many syllables in the words adapted to the au*. 

A BEGGING WE WILL GO. 

In the Bagford Collection, a copy of this song, in black-letter, is entitled " The 
Beggars' Chorus in The Jovial Crew, to an excellent new tune." Brome's comedy,' 
The Jovial Oreiv, or TJie Merry Beggars, was acted at the Cockpit in Drury 
Lane, in 1641, and I suppose the song to have been introduced, as it is 
not contained in the printed copy of the play. One of the Cavaliers' ditties, 
" Col. John Okie's Lamentation, or a Rumper cashiered," is to the tune of 
A begging we ivill go. This was published on the 28th March, 1660, and a copy 
may be seen among the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus. 

A begging we ivill go is printed, with the music, in book v. of Ctioice Ayres 

and Songs to sing to the Theorbo or Bass Viol, fol. 1684 ; in 180 Loyal Songs, 

3rd edit., 1685; in Pills to purge Melancholy; &c. It is sometimes entitled 

The Jovial Beggars. 

, "There was a jovial beggar, 

He had a wooden leg, 

Lame from his cradle, 

And forced for to beg. 

And a begging we will go, we'll go, we'll go, 

And a begging we will go ! , 



I begg'd for my master, 
And got him store of pelf; 

But now, Jove be praised, 
I'm begging for myself, &c. 



A bag for his oatmeal, 

Another for his salt ; 
And a pair of crutches 

To show that he can halt ; 

And a begging, &c. 

A bag for his wheat, 

Another for his rj'e ; 
A little bottle by his side 

To drink when he's a dry, &c. 

Seven years I begg'd 

For my old master Wild, 

He taught me to beg 

When I was but a child, &c. 



In a hollow tree 

I live, and pay no rent ; 
Providence provides for me, 

And I am well content, &c. 

Of all the occupations, 
A beggar's life's the best ; 

For whene'er he's weary, 

He'll lay him down and rest, &c. 

I fear no plots against me, 

I live in open cell ; 
Then who would be a king 
When beggars live so well. 
And a begging we will go, we'll go, we'll go, 
And a begging we will go ! " 



346 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



The tune was introduced into the ballad-operas of Polhj, Tlie Lovers, Tlie 
Quakers^ Opera, Bon Quixote in England, The Court Legacy, The Rape of Helen, 
The Sumours of the Court, Tlie Oxford Act, Tlie Sturdy Beggars, &c. ; and the 
song is the prototype of many others, such as, " A bowling we will go," "A fish- 
ing we will go," "A hawking we will go," and "A hunting we will go." The 
last-named is printed in the sixth vol. of The Musical Miscellany, 8vo., 1731. 
It is still popular with those who take delight in hunting ; and as the air is now 
scarcely known by any other title, I have printed the words to the tune. In 
Tlie Musical Miscellany it is entitled The Stag Chace, and there are twenty-nine 
verses; twelve are here omitted, being principally a description of the dogs, 
and a catalogue of their names ; indeed, it is presum'd that seventeen stanzas 
will suffice. 

Gaily. 



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I am a jol - ly hunts-man, My voice is shrill and clear, Well 



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\ Chorus. 



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known to drive the stag. And the drooping dogs to cheer. And a hunt-ing we will 



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go, will go, will go. And a 



hunt 



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will 



go- 




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I leave my bed betimes, 

Before the morning's grey ; 
Let loose my dogs, and mount my horse. 

And halloo " come away ! " &c. 

The game's no sooner rous'd, 

But in rush the cheerful cry, 
Thro' hush and brake, o'er hedge and stake, 

The noble beast does fly, &c. 

In vain he flies to covert, 

A num'rous pack pursue. 
That never cease to trace his steps. 

Even tho' they've lost the view, &c. 



^n 



Now sweetly in full cry 

Their various notes they join ; 

Gods ! what a concert's here, my lads ! 
'Tis more than half divine, &c. 

The woods, the rocks, and mountains, 

Delighted with the sound, 
To neighb'ring dales and fountains 

Repeating, deal it round, &c. 

A glorious chace it is. 

We drive him many a mile, 
O'er hedge and ditch, we go thro' stitch. 

And hit off many a foil, &c. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 347 

And yet he runs it stoutly, He scarce has touch'd the bank, 

How wide, how swift he strains! The cry bounce finely in. 

With what a skip he took that leap. And swiftly swim across the stream, 

And scours o'er the plains ! &c. And raise a glorious din, &c. 

See how our horses foam ! His legs begin to fail. 

The dogs begin to droop ; His wind and speed are gone. 

With winding horn, on shoulder borne. He stands at bay, and gives 'em play, 

'Tis time to cheer them up, &c. He can no longer run, &c. 

Hark ! Leader, Countess, Bouncer ! But vain are heels and antlers. 

Cheer up my good dogs all ; With such a pack set round, 

To Tatler, hark ! he holds it smart, Spite of his heart, they seize each part, 

And answers ev'ry call, &c. And pull him fearless down, &c. 

Up yonder steep I'll follow, Ha ! dead, 'ware dead ! whip off. 

Beset with craggy stones ; And take a special care ; 

My lord cries, " Jack, you dog, come back. Dismount with speed, and pray take heed. 

Or else you'll break your bones ! " &c. Lest they his haunches tear! &c. 

See, now he takes the moors, The sport is ended now, 
And strains to reach the stream ! We're laden with the spoil ; 

He leaps the flood, to cool his blood. As home we pass, we talk o' th' chace, 
And quench his thirsty flame, &c. O'erpaid for all our toil, &c. 

Many songs to the tune will be found in the publications enumerated above. 
Others in the Songs sung at the Mug-houses in London and Westminster, 1716 ; in 
120 Loyal Songs, 1684 ; and in the various collections of ballads. " The Church 
Scuffle, or News from St. Andrew's " is one of these ; and contained in the collec- 
tion given to the Cheetham Library by Mr. Halliwell (No. 366). 

THE NOBLE SHIRVE. 

This tune is taken from a manuscript volume of virginal music, formerly in 
the possession of Mr. Windsor, of Bath, and now in that of Dr. Rimbault. 

Although the transcript is of the seventeenth, the tunes are generally traceable 
to the sixteenth century, and perhaps the latest are of the reign of James I. 

I regi'et very much not having been able to find the ballad from which it 
derives its name, for I imagine it would prove an interesting, and, probably, a 
very early one. 

" Shirve " is a very old form of " Shire-reeve," or Sheriff; and I have not 
been able to trace any other instance of its use so late as the seventeenth century. 
It was then, almost universally, written " Shrieve." The tune is one that — 
like Tlie TJiree Havens (ante p. 59), and The Friar in the Well (p. 274) — 
requires a burden at the end of the first and second lines of words, as well as at 
the end. The third and fourth bars of music seem almost to speak the words 
" down-a-down," and " hey down-a-down " (or some similar burden) ; and the 
seventh and eighth, " down, a-down, a-down-a." 

These repeated burdens were more common in the sixteenth than in the 
seventeenth century. 

As every ballad-tune sounds the better for having words to it, I have taken one 
of the snatches of old songs sung by Moros, the fool, or jester, in Wager's 



348 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



interlude, The longer thou lived the more fool thou art, 1568. It is not in the 
precise measure — there should be two long syllables, instead of " out of Kent," 
in the second bar, &c. — but I cannot find any old ballad, with similar burdens, 
that corresponds exactly. 

^Moderate time, and smoothly. Down a-down,Hey down a-down. 






irt^ 



There was a maid came out of Kent, Dain-ty love, Dain-ty love, There 



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Down a - down, a - down - a, 



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— * * 

was a maid came out of Kent, 



Dan 



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be. 



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There was a maid came out of Kent, Fair, pro-per, small and gent 



As 



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Down a-down a - down - a. 



e - ver on the ground went For so should it 



be. 



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DEKRT DOWN. 
This tune is referred to as Tlie Abbot of Canterbury; as Derry doivn; as 
A Cobbler there ivas ; and as Death and the Oebbler. 

Hem-y Carey, in his Musical Century, 1740, i. 53, gives a song commencing — 
" King George he was born in the month of October^ 
'Tis a sin for a subject tliat month to be sober ; " 
■which is to this tune ; and he says, " The melody stolen from an old ballad, 
called Death and the Cobbler.^' 

In Watts' Musical Miscellany, 1729, i. 94, is " A ballad to the old tune. The 

Abbot of Canterbury ;^^ and, in the second volume of the same collection, 

"A Cobbler there was, set by Mr. Leveridge," who was then living. The tunes 

are essentially the same, but Leveridge altered a few notes in the second part. 

Dr. Percy remarks that " the common popular ballad of King John and the 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 349 

Ahloi of Oanferhury seems to have been abridged and modernized about the time 
of King James I., from one mucb older, entitled JSjing John and the Bishop of 
Qanterhury.'''' He adds that " the archness of the questions and answers hath 
been much admired by our old ballad-makers ; for, besides the two copies above 
mentioned, there is extant another ballad on the same subject, entitled King 
Olfrey and the Abbot." " Lastly, about the time of the civil wars, when the cry 
ran against the bishops, some Pui-itan worked up the same story into a very 
doleful ditty to a solemn tune, concerning King Henry and a Bishop, with this 
stinging moral " — 

" Unlearned men hard matters out can find, 
When learned bishops princes' eyes do blind." 

A copy of the last is in the Douce Collection, fol. 110, entitled The King and 

the Bishop ; another in the Pepys, i. 472 ; and a third in the Roxburghe, iii. 170. 

It commences thus : — " In Popish times, when bishops proud 

In England did bear sway, 
Their lordships did like princes live, 
And kept all at obey." 

The ballad of Tlie old Abbot and King Olfrey is in the Douce Collection, fol. 169. 
Olfrey is supposed to be a corruption of Alfred. 

Mr. Payne Collier, in his Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers'' 
Company, i. 90, prints a ballad entitled TJie praise of Milkemaydes, from 
a manuscript of the time of James I., now in his possession. It is evidently the 
same as A defence for Mylkemaydes against the terme of Maiohen, which was 
entered on the Registers in 1563-4. Unfortunately neither the entry, nor Mr. 
Collier's manuscript, gives the name of the tune to which that ballad was sung. 
I have a strong persuasion that it was to this air, for it has all the character of 
antiquity, and I can find no other that would suit the words. The ballad 
commences thus : — 

" Passe not for rybaldes which mylkemaydes defame. 

And call them but Malkins, poore Malkins by name ; 

Their trade is as good as anie we knowe, 

And that it is so I will presently showe. 

Downe, a-downe, &c." 
If, instead of "downe, a-downe, ^c," we had the burden complete, "downe, 
a-downe, downe, hey derry down," I should feel no doubt of its being the air ; 
but the burden is not given at length in the manuscript. The second and sixth 
stanzas allude to the singing of milkmaids — 

" They rise in the morning to heare the larke sing, 

And welcome with hallettes the summer's comming ; 

They goe to their kine, and their milking is done 

Before that some slnggardes have lookt at the sunne. 

Downe, a-downe, &c. 

In going to milking, or comming awaie, 

They sing mery ballettes, or storyes they saye ; 

Their mirth is as pure and as white as their milke ; 

You cannot say that of your velvett and silke. 

Downe, a-downe," &c. 



850 



ENaLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



There are numberlesa songs and ballads to the tune, under one or other of its 
names. Political songs will be found in the collections written against the Rump 
Parliament ; in those of the time of James 11. ; and again in " A Collection of 
State Songs, &c., that have been published since the Rebellion, and sung in the 
several mug-houses in the cities of London and Westminster" (1716). One of 
Shenstone's ballads, TJie Gossiping, is to the tune of King John and the Ahhot of 
Oanterlury, and is printed in his works, Oxford, 1737. Again, in The Asylum 
for Fugitive Pieces, 1789, there are several; and the tune is in common use at 
the present day. 

Dr. Rimbault, in his Musical Illustrations to Percifs Reliques of Ancient 
Poetry, prints from a MS. of the latter part of the seventeenth century, which 
agrees with the copy in Watts' Musical Miscellany. Other copies will be found 
in Tlie Beggars' Opera, third edit., 1729; Tlie Village Opera, 1729; Penelope, 
1728; TJie Fashionable Lady, 1730; Tlie Lover his own Rival, 1736; The 
Boarding-School, or The Sham Captain, 1733 ; The JDevil to pay, 1731 ; Tlie 
Oxford Act; The Sturdy Beggars ; Love and Revenge ; The Jew decof d ; &c. 

I have printed two copies of the tune ; the first being the commonly received 
version, and the second taken from Watts' Musical Miscellany. These differ 
materially, but intermediate versions will be found in Tlie Beggars^ Opera, and 
some other of the above-mentioned works. 

Both Tlie King and the Ahhot, and Tlie King and the Bishop, are in the 
catalogue of ballads, printed by Thackeray, in the reign of Charles II. The 
copy of the former in the Bagford Collection is entitled " King John and the 
Abbot of Canterbury, to the tune of The King and Lord Ahhot." The story, 
upon which these ballads are founded, can be traced back to the fifteenth 
century. 

Moderate time. 




An 



?m=w- 



an-cient sto-ry I'll tell you a-non, Of a no - ta - ble prince that was 



^ 



3» 




^^m 



:* 



Efea^ 



call- ed King John ; And he rul'd o - ver Eng-land with main and with might, For 



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T 



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p 



4 • 



he did great wrong, And maintain'd lit - tie right, Derry down, down, hey, der-ry down. 



m 



^ 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



351 



And I'll tell you a story, a story so merry, 
Concerning the Abbot of Canterbury ; 
How for his housekeeping, and high renown. 
The king he sent for him to fair London town. 

An hundred men, the king did hear say. 
The abbot did keep in his house every day ; 
And fifty gold chains, without any doubt. 
In velvet coats waited the lord abbot about. 

How now, father abbot, I hear it of thee. 
Thou keepest a far better house than me ; 
And from thy housekeeping and high renown, 
I fear thou work'st treason against my crown. 

My liege, quo' the abbot, I would it were known, 
I never spend nothing but what is my own ; 
And I trust that your grace will do me no dere, 
For spending of my own true-gotten gear. 

Yes, yes, father abbot, thy fault it is high. 
And now for the same thou needest must die ; 
For, except thou canst answer me questions 

three, 
Thy head shall be smitten from off thy hoA^. 

And first, quo' the king, when I'm in this stead, 
With my crown of gold so fair on my head, 
Among all my liegemen so noble of birth. 
Thou must tell me to one penny what I am worth. 

And, secondly, tell me, without any doubt, 
How soon I may ride the whole world about. 
And at the third question thou must not shrink. 
But tell me here truly what I do think. 

O, these are hard questions for my shallow wit, 
And I cannot answer your grace as yet : 
But if you will give me but three weeks space, 
I'll do my endeavour to answer your grace. 

Now three weeks' space to thee will I give. 
And that is the longest time thou hast to live ; 
For if thou dost not answer my questions three. 
Thy lands and thy livings are forfeit to me. 

Away rode the abbot all sad at that word. 
And he rode to Cambridge and Oxenford ; 
But never a doctor there was so wise,' 
That could with his learning an answer devise. 

Then home rode the abbot of comfort so cold, 
And he met his shepherd a going to fold : 
" How now, my lord abbot, you are welcome 
home, [John?" 

What news do you bring us from good King 

" Sad news, sad news, shepherd, I must give ; 
That I have but three days longer to live ; 
For if I do not answer him questions three, 
My head will be smitten from oiF my hoAj: 



The first is to tell him there in that stead, 
With his crown of gold so fair on his head, 
Among all his liegemen so noble of birth. 
To within one penny of what he is worth. 

The second, to tell him, without any doubt, 
How soon he may ride this whole world about : 
And at the third question I must not shrink, 
But tell him there truly what he does think." 

" Now cheer up, sire abbot, did you never hear 

yet. 
That a fool he may learn a wise man wit ? 
Lend me horse, and serving men, and your 

apparel. 
And I'll ride to London to answer your quaiTel. 

Nay frown not, if it hath been told unto me 
I am like your lordship, as ever may be ; 
And if you will only hut lend me your gown. 
There's none that shall know us at fair London 
town." 

" Now horses and serving-men thou shalt have. 
With sumptuous array most gallant and brave ; 
With crozier, and mitre, and rochet, and cope, 
Fit to appear 'fore our father the pope." 

"Now welcome, sire abbot, the king he did say, 
'Tis well thou'rt come back to keep to thy day ; 
For and if thou canst answer my questions 

three. 
Thy life and thy living both saved shall be. 

And first, when thou seest me here in this stead. 
With my crown of gold so fair on my head. 
Among all my liegemen so noble of birth. 
Tell me to one penny what I am worth." 

"For thirty pence our Saviour was sold 
Among the false Jews, as I have been told ; 
And twenty-nine is the worth of thee. 
For I think thou art one penny worser than he. " 

The king he laughed, and swore by St. Bittel, 
" I did not think I had been worth so little ! 
— Now, secondly tell me, without any doubt, 
How soon I may ride this whole world about." 

" You must rise with the sun, and ride with 

the same. 
Until the next morning he riseth again ; 
And then your grace need not make any doubt, 
But in twenty-four hours you'll ride it about." 

The king he laughed, and swore by St. Jone, 
" I did not think it could be gone so soon ! 
— Now from the third question thou must not 

shrink, 
But tell me here truly what I do think." 



352 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



" Yea, that shall I do, and make your grace " Now nay, my liege, be not in such speed, 

merry. For, alack, I can neither write ne read." 
You think I'm the Abbot of Canterbury ; [see, 

But I'm his poor shepherd, as plain you may "Fo"-^ "O^es a week, then, I will give thee, 

That am come to beg pardon for him and for Fo'' ^^'^ "^''"y J''^' *°" ^"^^ ^1^°^" ""'« ™« ' 
jjjg > ) And tell the old abbot, when thou comest home, 

Thou hast brought him a pardon from good 
The king he laughed, and swore by the mass, ^. t T " 

" I'll make thee lord abbot this day in his place." 

The following is a very different version of tte tune, as printed in Watts' 

Musical Miscellany. 

Moderate time. 



rsJ ri^ -^^a^^N^^ ^^^^B 



w 



r 

An an - cient sto-ry I'll tell you a - non, Of a no -ta-ble prince that was 



^ 



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cal - ledKingJohn. He rul'd o - ver England with main and with might. For 



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he did great wrong, and maintain'dlit-tle right, Derry down, down, hey derry down 




The following punning prototype of the late T. Hood's comic songs, should not 
be omitted. It is entitled The Cobbler's Mid ; — 

A cobbler there was, and he liv'd in a stall, gyj love the disturber of high and of low. 
Which serv'd him for parlour, for kitchen, and -pi^^j ^y^^^^^ ^j jj^g peasant as well as the beau, 

^" > He shot the poor cobbler quite thorough the 
No coin in his pocket, nor care in his pate, heart : 

No ambition had he, nor duns at his gate. j ^^i^^^ jjg had hit some more ignoble part- 

Derry down, down, down, derry down. j)gj.,.y jg,,,,,^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

Contented he work'd, and he thought himself 

jjg_p„ fnappv • ^^ ^^^ from a cellar this archer did play. 

If at night he could purchase a jug of brown Where a buxom young damsel continually lay ; 
How he'd laugh then, and whistle, and sing, Her eyes shone so bright when she rose ev'ry 

too, most sweet, ^''y' C^^^X' 

Saying just to a hair I have made both ends That she shot the poor cobbler quite over the 

meet. Derry down, down, &c. ^^''J <J«wn, down, &c. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



353 



He sang her love songs as he sat at his work : 
But she was as hard as a Jew or a Turk ; 
Whenever he spake, she would flounce and 

would fleer, 
Which put the poor cobbler quite into despair. 
Derry down, down, &c. 

He took up his awl that he had in the world. 
And to make away with himself was resolv'd ; 



He pierc'd through his body instead of his sole, 
So the cobbler he died, and the bell it did toll. 
Derry down, down, &c. 

And now in good-will I advise as a friend, 
All cobblers take warning by this cobbler's 
end ; [what's past. 

Keep your hearts out of love, for we find by 
That love brings us all to an end at the last. 
Derry down, down, &c. 



TOM TINKER'S MY TRUE-LOVE. 

The tune of Tom Tinker's my true love is mentioned in a black-letter tract, 
called The World's Folly, which was reprinted in Tlie British Bibliographer, 
edited by Sir Egerton Brydges : — " A pot of strong ale, which was often at his nose, 
kept his face in so good a coulour, and his braine in so kinde a heate, as, forgetting 
part of his forepassed pride, (in the good humour of grieving patience,) made him, 
with a hemming sigh, ilfavourdly singe the ballad of Wliilom I was, to the tune of 
Tom Tinker." (ii. 559). The tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 
1698. About the latter period it seems to have been rejected for another air 
(under the same name), which is printed with the words in Pills to furge 
Melancholy, vi. 265 ; and was introduced in The Beggars' Opera for the song 
Which way shall I turn me ? 

The following tune is from The Dancing Master : — 

Moderate time. , , 






ft: 



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Tom Tin-ker's my true love. And I am his dear, And I will go 
For of all the young men he has the best way ; All the day he will 



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ivith him, his bud 



with him, his bud - get to bear, 
fid -die, at night he will play. 



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This way, that way, which - e - ver you 



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ike ill. 



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will, I'm sure I say no - thing that you can take 



854 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAB MUSIC, 



The Tom Tinker of The Beggars' Opera, and to -which D'Urfey prints the 
above words, is subjoined. 

Moderate time, and Smoothly. 




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NOETHEBN NANCY. 

This tune is contained in every edition of TJie Dancing Master, after 1665. 
It is evidently only another version of With my flock as ivalked I (ante p. 157).* 
" Then plump Bohbing Joan straight call'd for her own, 
And thought she frisk'd hatter than any, 
Till Sisly, with pride, took the fiddler aside. 
And bade him strike up Northern Nanny." 

Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 232, 1719. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 252, is a black-letter ballad, entitled " The 
Map of Mock-Begger Hall, with his scituation in the spacious countrey called 
Anywhere. To the tune of It is not your Northern Nanny ; or Sweet is the 
lass that loves me." It commences thus : 

" I read in ancient times of yore And few men seek them to repair. 

That men of worthy calling Nor is there one among twenty 

Built alms-houses and spittles store, That for good deeds will take any care, 
"Which now are all down falling ; While Moch-BeggarlTall stands empty." 

It consists of twelve stanzas, and " Printed at London for Richard Harper, neere 
to the Hospitall Gate in Smithfield." 

In the same Collection, iii. 218, is another version of the same ballad, issued 
by the same printer, but with variations in the imprint, in the number of stanzas, 
and in the woodcut. 

The first has a woodcut of a country mansion ; the second of a castle. The 
second has three additional stanzas, and variations in the remaining twelve. 
The title commences, " Mock-Begger's-Hall," instead of " The Map of; " and 



■ T had not observed the identity of these tunes when 
the former sheet went to press ; otherwise I should have 
compressed the account of them under one head. The 



difference is chiefly in the two first bars, but even that 
variation is diminislied in the copy called The faithful 
Brothers, to which I have referred at the former page. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



355 



at the end, " London : Printed for Richard Harper, at the Bible and Harp in 
Smithfield." 

Mr. Payne Collier, who has reprinted the latter in his Roxburghe Ballads, is of 
opinion that, although Richard Harper printed during the Commonwealth, the 
ballad itself is of the early part of the seventeenth century. (It contains the 
same complaints of the decay of hospitality that are to be found in Tlie Queen's 
Old Courtier.) The first stanza of the second ballad is here printed to the tune. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 390, is another ballad, called The ruined 
Lover, &c., "to the tune of Mock-Begger' s Hall stands empty ^^ beginning — 
" Mars shall to Cupid now submit, For it is new, 'tia strange and true, 

For he hath gain'd the glory ; As ever age afforded ; 

You that in love were never yet, A tale more sad you never had 

Attend unto my story ; In any books recorded." 

This was printed by W. Thackeray, temp. Charles II. 

Northern Nancy is one of the tunes called for by " the hob-nailed fellows " in 
The Second Tale of a Tub, 8vo., 1715. 
/ Rather slowly. . 
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356 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I HAVE BUT A MARK A YEAR. 



This tune is to be found in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 116, 1700 and 1707 ; 
or iv. 116, 1719. The ballad is by Martin Parker, and a copy is contained in 
the Roxburghe Collection, i. 122. In the preface to the Pills, Playford tells us 
that the words of the songs " which are old have their rust generally filed from 
them, which cannot but make them very agreeable." This is one that has 
undergone the process of " filing ; " it is abbreviated, but certainly not improved, 
by the operation. The copy in the Roxburghe Collection is entitled " A fair 
portion for a fair Maid ; or — 

The thrifty maid of Worcestershire, This mark was her old mother's gift, 

Who lives at London for a mark a year; She teaches all maids how to thrift. 
To the tune of Grrammercy, Penny.^' (The first stanza is here printed with the 
music.) Grrammercy (or Grod-a-mercy) , Penny, derives its name from the burden 
of another ballad, also in the Roxburghe Collection (i. 400), entitled " There's 
nothing to be had without money ; or — 

He that brings money in his hand, His fortune is a great deal worse ; 

Is sure to speed by sea and land ; Then happy are they that always have 

But he that hath no coin in's purse, A penny in purse, their credit to save. 

To a neiv Northern tune, or Tlie mother heguiVd the daughter." It commences thus : 
" You gallants and you swagg'ring blades, I always lov'd to wear good clothes, 
Give ear unto my dittj' ; And ever scorned to take blows ; 

I am a boon-companion known I am belov'd of all me knows, 

In country, town, and city; But God-a-mercy penny." 

This was " printed at London for H[enry] G[osson]." Six stanzas in the 
first, and eight in the second part. 

Another ballad, from the same press, is " The Praise of Nothing : to the tune 
of Tliough I have hut a marke a yeare, &c." A copy in the Roxburghe Collection, 
i. 328, and reprinted in Payne Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 147. The 
following lines are added to the title of the ballad : — 

" Though some do wonder why I write the praise 
Of Nothing in these lamentable days, 
When they have read, and will my counsel take, 
I hope of Nothing they will Something make !" 
The above contains much excellent advice. 

Having traced the tune from / have hut a mark a year to Crod-a-mercy, Penny, 
and from the latter to " a neiv Northern tune, or The mother heguiVd the daughter" 
the following ballads may also be referred to it : — 

Roxburghe, i. 238 — " The meri-y careless lover : Or a pleasant new ditty, called 
I love a lass since yesterday, and yet I cannot get her. To the tune of The 
mother heguilde the daughter." 

" Oft have I heard of many men I have lov'd a lass since yesterday, 

W^hom love hath sore tormented, And yet I cannot get her. 

With grief of heart, and bitter smart. But let her choose — if she refuse, 

And minds much discontented ; And go to take another. 

Such, love to me shall never be, I will not grieve, but still will be 

Distasteful, grievous, bitter I The merry careless lover" &c. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



357 



Signed Robert Guy. Twelve stanzas. Printed at London for F. Coules, and 
reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 176, 1810. 

Roxburghe, i. 314, " A Peerless Paragon ; or — 

Few 80 chaste, so beauteous, or so fair ; 
For with my love I think none can compare. 
To the tune of T}ie mother legidld the daughter," 

" In times of yore sure men did doat, For, read of all the faces then 

And beauty never knew. That did most brightly shine, 

Else women were not of that note, Be judg'd by all true-judging men, 

As daily come to view : They were not like to mine." 

This has no burden. It consists of thirteen stanzas. "Printed at London for 
Thomas Lambert." 

Martin Parker's ballad, " The Countrey Lasse," to the tune of T/ie mother 
heguild the daughter, has been quoted at p. 306, but it appears also to have had a 
separate tune, which will be given hereafter. 

_y Ckeerfully 

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Yet still I'll be of merry cheer. And have kind welcome ev'-ry - where. Though 

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I have but a mark a year. And that my mo-ther gave me. 



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358 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC, 



I TELL THEE, DICK, WHERE I HAVE BEEN. 

This celebrated ballad, by Sir John Suckling, was occasioned by the marriage 
of Roger Boyle, the first Earl of Orrery (then Lord Broghill), with Lady 
Margaret Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk. The words are in the first 
edition of Sir John Suckling's works, 1646 ; in Wifs Recreation, 1654 ; in 
Merry Drollery Complete, 1661 ; Antidote to MelancJioly, 1661 ; in The Convivial 
Songster, 1782 ; in Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 223 ; and Ellis' Specimens of Early 
English Poets, iii. 248. 

The tune is in A Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, third edit., 1685 ; in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. i., 1699 and 1707 ; in The Convivial Songster, 
1782, &c. 

The following were written to the tune : — 

1. The Cavalier^s Complaint. A copy in the Bagford Collection (643, m. 11, 
p. 23) dated 1660 ; and one in the King's Pamphlets, No. 19, fol., 1661 ; others 
ha. Antidote to Melancholy; Merry Drollery,\Q10; TJie New Academy of Com- 
pliments, 1694 and 1713 ; and Dryden's Miscellany Poems, vi. 352 ; &c. 

And I suppose the place can shew 
As few of those whom thou didst know 
At York, or Marston-Moor. 

But, truly, there are swarms of those 
Whose chins are beardless, yet their hose 

And buttocks still wear muffs ; 
Whilst the old rusty Cavalier 
Retires, or dares not once appear, 

For want of coin and cuffs. 



" Come, Jack, let's drink a pot of ale, 
And I will tell thee such a tale, 

Shall make thine ears to ring ; 
My coin is spent, my time is lost, 
And I this only fruit can boast — 

That once I saw my King. 

But this doth most afflict my mind — 
I went to court in hope to iind 

Some of my friends in place ; 
And, walking there, I had a sight 
Of all the crew — but, by this light, 

I hardly knew one face ! 

S'life, of so many noble sparks, 
Who on their bodies bear the marks 

Of their integrity. 
And suffer'd ruin of estate. 
It was my damn'd unhappy fate 

That I not one could see. 

Not one, upon my life, among 
My old acquaintance, all along 
At Truro, and before ; 



When none of these I could descry, 
(Who better far deserv'd than I,) 

Calmly did I reflect ; 
Old services, by rule of state, 
Like almanacks, grow out of date ; 

What then can I expect ? 

Troth, in contempt of fortune's frown, 
I'll get me fairly out of town. 

And in a cloister pray 
That since the stars are yet unkind 
To Royalists, the King may find 

More faithful friends than they." 

2. An Echo to the Cavalier's Complaint. Copies in TJie Antidote to Melanclwly, 
1661; Merry Drollery Complete, IQIO; New Academy of Compliments ; &c. 



" I marvel, Dick, that having been 
So long abroad, and having seen 

The world, as thou hast done, 
Thou shouldst acquaint me with a tale 
As old as Nestor, and as stale 

As that of priest and nun. 



Are we to learn what is a court ? 
A pageant made for Fortune's sport, 

MTiere merits scarce appear ; 
For bashful merit only dwells 
In camps, in villages, and cells ; 

Alas ! it dwells not there. 



EEIGNS OF JAMBS I. AND CHARLES I. 359 

Desert is nice in its address, And courtiers find't their interest 

And merit oft-times dotli oppress, In time to feather well their nest, 

Beyond what guilt would do ; Providing for their fall. 

But they are sure of their demands Our comfort doth on time depend ; 

That come to court with golden hands, Things, when they are at worst, will 
And brazen faces too. _^ii^ let us but reflect [mend : 

The King, they say, doth still profess On our condition th'other day. 

To give his party some redress. When none but tyrants bore the sway. 

And cherish honesty ; What, then, did we expect ? 

But his good wishes prove in vain. Meanwhile, a calm retreat is best ; 

Whose service with his servant's gain ^^t discontent, if not supprest. 

Not always doth agree. -yV^ill breed disloyalty. 

All princes, be they ne'er so wise. This is the constant note I sing, — 

Are fain to see with others' eyes, I have been faithful to my Mng, 

But seldom hear at all ; And so shall ever be. 

3. Upon Sir John Suckling's 100 Horse. Contained in Le Prince d? Amour, or 
Tlie Prince of Love, 1660, p. 148. Sir John raised a magnificent regiment of 
cavalry at his own expense (12,000/.), in the beginning of our civil wars, which 
became equally conspicuous for cowardice and finery. They rendered him the 
subject of much ridicule ; and although he had previously served in a campaign 
under Gustavus Adolphus — during which he was present at three battles, five 
sieges, and as many skirmishes — his military reputation did not escape. 
" I tell thee, Jack, thou gav'st the King For ev'ry horse shall have on's back 
So rare a present, that nothing A man as valiant as Sir Jack, 

Could welcomer have been ; Although not half so witty : 

A hundred horse ! beshrew my heart. Yet I did hear the other day 

It was a brave heroic part. Two tailors made seven run away. 

The like will scarce be seen. Good faith, the more's the pity." &c. 

There are seven stanzas, and then " An Answer " to it."' 

4 and 5. A ballad on a Friend's Wedding, and Three Merry Boys of Kent, 
in Folly in Print, or a Booh of Rhymes, 1667. 

6. A new ballad, called The Chequers Inn, in Poems on State Affairs, iii. 57, 
1704, It begins : — " I tell thee, Dick, where I have been, 

\^1iere I the Parliament have seen," &c. 

7. A Christmas Song, when the Rump Parliament was first dissolved, Loyal 
Songs, ii. 99, 1731. 

Besides these, there is one in Carey's Trivial Poems, 1651 ; three in 180 Loyal 
Songs, 1685 ; &c. 

" The grace and elegance of Sir John Suckling's songs and ballads are in- 
imitable." " They have a touch," says Phillips, " of a gentle spirit, and seem 

• These were not the only satires Sir John Suckling With a hundred horse, without remorse, 

liad to bear. There were, at least, two others. One, to To keep ye from the foe ; 

the tune of John Dory, begins— No carpet knight ever went to flght 

"Sir John got on a bonny brown beast, With half so much bravado ; [the book. 

To Scotland for to ride-a; Had you seen but his look, you would sweare by 

A brave buff coat upon his back, He'd ha' conquer'd the whole Armado." 

And a short sword by his side-a." There are also two other versions of the latter ; the one 

The other — beginning, "Then as it fell out on a holiday," (see " Cen- 

" Sir John got him an ambling nag, sura Literaria," vol. vi., p. 269) and the other in Percy's 

To Scotland for to go, Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. ii., p. 326. 



860 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



to savour more of the grape than the lamp." The author of the song above 
quoted from Folly in Print, says — 

" I do not write to get a name, And Suckling hath shut up that door, 

At beat this is but ballad-fame ; To all hereafter, as before." 

Sir John died in 1641, at the early age of twenty -eight. The ballad is a 
countryman's description of a -wedding. 
Smoothly. 



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place on En-glish ground, Be it at Wake or Fair. 



"At Charing Cross, hard by the way And there did I see, coming down. 

Where we, thou know'st, do sell our hay. Such folk as are not in our town. 

There is a house with stairs; Forty, at least, in pairs." 

There are twenty-two stanzas, but some lines of the ballad might now be 
considered objectionable. I have, therefore, extracted the following — a part of 
the description of the bride :- 



The maid — and thereby hangs a tale — 
For such a maid no Whitsun-ale 

Could ever yet produce : 
No grape that's kindly ripe could be 
So round, so plump, so soft as she. 

Nor half so full of juice. 

Her finger was so small, the ring 
Would not stay on which they did bring. 

It was too wide a peck : 
And, to say truth, (for out it must,) 
It lookt like the great collar (just) 

About our young colt's neck. 

Her feet beneath her petticoat. 

Like little mice stole in and out. 

As if they fear'd the light ; 



But, oh ! she dances such a way. 
No sun upon an Easter-day 

Is half so fine a sight. 
• »«»*« 
Her cheeks so rare a white was on. 
No daisy makes comparison ; 

(Who sees them is undone;) 
For streaks of red were mingled there. 
Such as are on a Kath'rine pear. 

The side that's next the sun. 

Her lips were red, and one was thin, 
Compar'd to that was next her chin ; 

Some bee had stung it newly : 
But, Dick, her eyes so guard her face, 
I durst no more upon them gaze. 

Than on the sun in July. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



361 



THE COURT LADY. 

The first ballad in the Collection of Old Ballads, 8vo., 1727, vol. i., is "The 
unfortunate Concubine, or Rosamond's Overthrow ; occasioned by her brother's 
praising her beauty to two young knights of Salisbury, as they rid on the road. 
To the tune of The Court Lady^ I have not found the ballad of Tlie Court Lady, 
but the tune is contained in Tlie Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1698, under the 
name of Confess, or The Court Lady. 

This ballad of Fair Eosamond is so exceedingly long (twenty-six stanzas of 
eight lines, and occupying ten pages in vol. ii. of Evans' Old Ballads, where it is 
reprinted), that the first, third, and fourth stanzas only, are here subjoined. 
Moderate time. 



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As three young knights of Salisbury 

Were riding on the way. 
One boasted of a fair lady. 

Within her bower so gay : 
I have a sister, Clifford swears. 

But few men do her know ; 
Upon her face the skin appears 

Like drops of blood on snow. 



My sister's locks of curled hair 

Outshine the golden ore; 
Her skin for whiteness may compare 

With the fine lily flow'r; 
Her breasts are lovely to behold, 

Like to the driven snow ; 
I would not, for her weight in gold, 

King Henry should her know, &c. 



362 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



GATHER YOUR ROSEBUDS WHILE YOU MAY. 

This song is in Playford's Ayres and Dialogues, 1659, p. 101 ; in Playford's 
Introduction to Music, third edit., 1660 ; in Musick's Delight on the Cithren, 1666 ; 
and in The Musical Companion, 1667. The music is the composition of William 
Lawes ; the poetry by Herrick. It became popular in ballad-form, and is in the 
list of those printed by W. Thackeray, at the Angel in Duck Lane, as well as 
in Merry Drollery Complete, 1670. It has been reprinted (from a defective 
copy) in Evans' Old Ballads, iii, 287, 1810. Herrick addresses it " To the 
Virgins, to make much of time." Sesperides, i. 110, 1846. 






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Gather ye rose-buds while ye may, Old Time is still a fly - ing ; 



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The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, 

The higher he is getting, 
The sooner will his race be run, 

And nearer he's to setting. 

That age is best which is the first, 
When youth and blood are warmer ; 



But being spent, the worse and worst 
Times still succeed the former. 

Then be not coy, hut use your time. 
And, while ye may, go marry ; 

For having once but lost your prime, 
You may for ever tarry. 



THREE MERRY BOYS ARE WE. 

This is properly a round, and composed by William Lawes, who was appointed 
Gentleman of the Chapel Eoyal in 1602. He became afterwards one of Charles 
the First's Chamber Musicians, and was killed fighting for his cause in 1645. 

It is to be found in Hilton's Catch that catch can, 1652 ; in Playford's Musical 
Companion; in MusicMs Delight on the Cithren; &c. The words have been 
adduced by Sir John Hawkins to illustrate the Tliree merry men are tve quoted 
by Shakespeare. See note to Twelfth Night, act ii., sc. 3. 

In Merry Drollery Complete, 1670, is a parody on this, entitled " The Cam- 
bridge Droll"— 

" The 'proctors are two and no more, I wish they were more for me : 

Then hang them, that makes them three ; For three merry boys, and three merry boys, 

The taverns are but four, And three merry boys are we." 



BEIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



363 



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The ^vise men were but seven, Nor more shall be for me ; The 



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The virtues they were seven, 
And three the greater be ; 
The Csesars they were twelve, 



And the fatal sisters three. 
And three merry girls, and three merry girls, 
And three merry girls are we. 



Another Three merry hoys are we has been akeady quoted (ante p. 216). 



CUPID'S COURTESY. 

Copies of this ballad are in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 58 ; and in the Douce 
Collection, p. 27. It is also printed entu-e, with the tune, in Pills to purge 
Melancholy, vi. 43. 

The copy in the Roxburghe Collection may be dated as of the reign of 
Charles II., being " printed by and for W. 0[nley], for A[lexander] JVI[ilbourne], 
and sold by the booksellers ; " but Mr. Payne CoUier, who reprints it in his Booh 
of Roxhurghe Ballads, p. 80, mentions "a manuscript copy, dated 1595," as still 
extant. The words are in the same metre as Phillida flouts me, and Lady lie near 
me (ante pages 183 and 185), but the stanzas are shorter, being of eight instead 
of twelve lines. The ballad is entitled " Cupid's Courtesie ; or The young Gallant 
foil'd at his own weapon. To a most pleasant Northern tune.'" 

In another volume of the Douce Collection (p. 264) is " The Young Man's 
Vindication against The Virgin's Complaint. Tune of The Virgin's Qomplai7it, 
or Qiqnd's Courtesie ; " commencing — 

" Sweet virgin, hath disdain Ne'er to love man again, 

Mov'd you to passion, — But for the fashion ? " &c. 



364 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



This is also in eight-line stanzas (black-letter) ; and a former possessor has 
pencill'd against the name of the tune, " I am so deep in love." I have referred 
to I am so deep in love (ante p. 183) as probably another name for Phillida flouts 
me, but on this authority it should rather be to Cupid's Courtesy. 

Smoothly, 



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There runs a ri - ver ; A lit - tie boy I spied With bow and qui - ver. 



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" Little boy, tell me why thou art here diving ; 
Art thou some runaway, and hast no biding? " 
" I am no runaway ; Venus, my mother, 
She gave me leave to play, when I camebither." 

" Little boy, go with me, and be my servant ; 
I will take care to see for thy preferment." [me, 
"If I with thee should go, Venus would chide 
And talce away my bow, and never abide me." 

" Little boy, let me know what's thy name 

termed. 
That thou dost wear a bow, and go'st so 

armed?" [changing, 

"You may perceive tbe same with often 
Cupid it is my name ; I live by ranging." 

" If Cupid be thy name, that shoots at rovers, 
I have heard of thy fame, by wounded lovers : 
Should any languish that are set on fire 
By such a naked brat, I much admire." 



" If thou dost but the least at my laws grumble, 
I'll pierce thy stubborn breast, and make thee 

humble : 
If I with golden dart wound thee but surely, 
There's no physician's art that e'er can cure 
thee." 

" Little boy, with thy bow why dost thou 

threaten ? 
It is not long ago since thou wast beaten. 
Thy wanton mother, fair Venus, will chide 

thee: 
When all thy arrows are gone, thou may'st go 
hide thee." 

" Of powerful shafts, you see, I am well stored. 
Which makes my deity so much adored : 
With one poor arrow now I'll make thee shiver, 
And bend unto my bow, and fear my quiver." 



REIGNS OF JAMBS I. AND CHARLES I, 365 

" Dear little Cupid, be courteous and kindly : For Cupid with his craft quickly had chosen, 

I know thou canst not hit, but shootest And with a leaden shaft her heart had frozen ; 

blindly." [thee. Which caus'd this lover more sadly to 

"Although thou eall'st me blind, surely I'll hit languish. 

That thou shalt quickly find ; I'll not forget And Cupid's aid implore to heal hia anguish. 

thee." 

„, ,. , ^ . , , , . , . , , He humbly pardon crav'd for his oifence past. 

Then little Cupid caught his bow so nimble, , , , 3 , ■ ij. , i , , 

',., And vow d himseli a slave, and to love sted- 



And shot a fatal shaft which made me tremble 
" Go, tell thy mistress dear thou canst discover 
What all the passions are of a dying lover." 



fast. 
His pray'rs so ardent were, whilst his heart 
panted. 

And now his gallant heart sorely was bleeding, That Cupid lent an ear, and his suit granted. 
And felt the greatest smart from love proceed- 
ing : For by his present plaint he was regarded. 
He did her help implore whom he affected. And his adored saint his love rewarded. 
But found that more and more him she re- And now they live in joy, sweetly embracing, 
jected. And left the little boy in the woods chasing. 

HAVE AT THY COAT, OLD WOMAN. 

This tune is contained in every edition of The Dancing Master^ and in MusicFs 
Delight on the Cithren, 1666. 

A copy of the ballad from which it derives the above name is in the Pepys 
Collection, i. 284. It is— 

" A merry new song of a rich widovy's wooing. 
Who married a young man to her own undoing. 
To the tune of Stand thy ground, old Harry?'' It is a long ballad, in black- 
letter, " printed at London for T. Langley," and commences thus :• — 
" I am so sick for love. Have at thy coat, old woman, 

As like was never no man, [sigh, Have at thy coat, old woman, 
Which makes me cry, with a love-sick Here and there, and everywhere, 
Have at thy coat, old woman. Have at thy coat, old woman." 

I have not found the ballad, Stand thy ground, old Marry ; but there is another 
to the tune, under that name, in the same volume, i. 282 — " A very pleasant 
new ditty, to the tune of Stand thy ground, old Harry ; commencing, " Come, 
hostess, fill the pot." Printed at London for H. Gosson. 

A song, commencing, " My name is honest Harry," to the tune of Robin 
Rowser, which is in the same metre, is contained in Westminster Drollery, 1671 
and 1674 ; and in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv. 119. I imagine that Stand 
thy ground, old Harry, and My name is honest Harry, are to the same tune, 
although I cannot prove it. The words of the latter suit the air so exactly, that 
I have here printed them with the music. 

Whitlock, in his Zootomia ; or Observations on the Present Manners of the 
English, 12mo., 1654, p. 45, commences his character of a female quack, with 
the line, "And have at thy coat, old woman." In Vox Borealis, 4to., 1641, we 
find, " But all this sport was little to the court-ladies, who began to be very 
melancholy for lack of company, till at last some young gentlemen revived an old 
game, called Have at thy coat, old woman.'''' 



366 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Merrily. 



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My name is ho - nest Har - ry, 



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I love lit - tie 



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My love is blithe and buxom, 
And sweet and fine as can be, 

Fresh and gay as the flowers in May, 
And looks like Jack-a-dandy. 

And if she will not have me, • 

That am so true a lover, 
I'll drink my wine, and ne'er repine, 

And down the stairs I'll shove her. 

But if that she will love me, 
I'll be as kind as may be ; 

I'll give her rings and pretty things. 
And deck her like a lady. 

Her petticoat of satin. 

Her gown of crimson tabby, 

Lac'd up before, and spangled o'er, 
Just like a Bart'lemew baby. 

Her waistcoat shall be scarlet. 
With ribbons tied together ; 



Her stockings of a Bow-dyed hue, 
And her shoes of Spanish leather. 

Her smock o' th' finest holland. 

And lac'd in every quarter; 
Side and wide, and long enough, 

To hang below her garter. 

Then to the church I'll have her, 
Where we will wed together ; 

And so come home when we have done. 
In spite of wind and weather. 

The fiddlers shall attend us. 

And first play John come kiss me ; 

And when that we have danc'd a round. 
They shall play Hit or miss me. 

Then hey for little Mary, 

Tis she I love alone, sir ; 
Let any man do what he can, 

I will have her or none, sir. 



A HEALTH TO BETTY. 
This tune is contained in every edition of Tlie Dancing Master, and in MusicFs 
Delight on the Cithren. 

D'Urfey prints "The Female Quarrel: Or a Lampoon upon Phillida and 
Chloris, to the tune of a country dance, call'd A health to Betty," Pills 
ii. 110, 1719. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 274, is a ballad—" Four-pence-half-penny-farthing ; 
or A woman will have the oddes;" signed M[artin] P[arker]. "Printed at 
London for C. W. To the tune of Bessy Bell [she doth excel!], or A health to 
Betty." The first verse is here printed to the tune. 

Li the same Collection, ii. 372, is " The Northern Turtle : 
Wayling his unhappy fate, 
In being deprived of his sweet mate. 



REIGNS OP JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



367 



To a new Northern tune, or A health to Betty.'''' Printed at London for J. H., 
and beginning — " As I was walking all alone." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 318, " The 'pair of Northern Turtles — 
"VSTiose love was firm, till cruel death 
Deprived them both of life and breath." 
This is also " to a new Northern tune, or A health to Betty" and commences — 
" Farewell, farewell, my dearest dear. 
All happiness wait on thee." 
Gracefully. i ^ -I 



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SHACKLEY-HAY. 
The only copy I have found of this tune is in the Skene Manuscript, temp. 
Charles I. 

It seems to derive its name from " A most excellent song of the love of young 
Palmus and faire Sheldra, with their unfortunate love." Copies of this, " to the 
tune of Shackley-kay" are in the Pepys Collection, i. 350 ; in the Roxburghe, 
i. 436 and 472; the Bagford, fol. 75; and it is reprinted in Evans' Old 
Ballads, i. 50. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 344, is a ballad of " Leander's love to Hero. To 
the tune of ShacUey-hay" beginning — 

" Two famous lovers once there was." 
In Westminster Drollery, 1671 and 1674, " A Song of the Declensions. The 
tune is Shackle de hay," and the same, with two others, in Grammatical Brollery, 
by W. H. (Captain Hicks), 1682. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 244, and the Douce Collection, p. 109, is 
" The Knitter's Job : Or the earnest suitor of Walton town to a fair maid, with 
her modest answers, and conclusion of their intents. To the tune of Shackley- 
hey." It commences thus : — 
" Within the town of Walton fair. This maid she many suitors had, 

A lovely lass did dwell ; And some were good, and some were bad. 

Both carding, spinning, knitting yarn. Fa, la la la la, &c. 

She could do all full well. 



368 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Tlie Canaries (a dance " with sprightly fire and motion," alluded to by 
Shakespeare, and which, under that name, seems always to have had the same 
tune) is called " The Canaries, or The Hay,'" in MusicKs Handmaid, 1678. 
The figure of The Hay was also frequently danced in country-dances ; but 
Shachley-hay is the name of a place in the ballad. It is very long — twenty-four 
stanzas of eight lines — I have, therefore, selected nine from the first part. The 
second recounts young Palmus's going to sea in an open boat, through fair 
Sheldra's disdain ; his being wrecked and drowned, and the sea-nymphs falling in 
love with him. 

Smoothly. 



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Young Pal-mus was a Fer- ry - man, Whom Shel-dra fair did love, At 



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Shackley, where her sheep did graze, She there his thoughts did prove : But 



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lie un - kind - ly stole a - way, And left his love at Shackley - hay, So 



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loud at Shack-ley did she cry, The words resound at Shackley-hay. 



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But all in vain she did complain. 

For nothing could him move, 
Till wind did turn him back again, 

And brought him to his love. 
When she saw him thus turn'd by fate, 
She turn'd her love to mortal hate ; 
Then weeping, to her he did say, 
I'll live with thee at Shackley-hay. 



No, no, quoth she, I thee deny, 
My love thou once did scorn, 
And my prayers wouldst not hear, 

But left me here forlorn. 
And now, being turn'd by fate of wind. 
Thou thinkst to win me to thy mind ; 
Go, go, farewell ! I thee deny. 
Thou shalt not live at Shackley-hay. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLKS I. 



369 



If that thou dost my love disdain, 

Because I live on seas ; 
Or that I am a ferry-man 

My Sheldra doth displease, 
I will no more in that estate 
Be servile unto wind and fate, 
But quite forsake boats, oars, and sea. 

And live with thee at Shackley-hay. 

* • • • • 

To strew my hoat, for thy avail, 

I'll rob the flowery shores; 
And whilst thou guid'st the silken sail, 

I'll row with silv'ry oars; 
And as upon the streams we float, 
A thousand swans shall guide our boat; 
And to the shore still will I cry, 
My Sheldra comes to Shackley-hay. 

* • • • • 
And, walking lazily to the strand, 

We'll angle in the brook, 
And fish with thy white lily hand. 

Thou need'st no other hook ; 
To which the fish shall soon be brought, 
And strive which shall the first be caught ; 
A thousand pleasures will we try. 
As we do row to Shackley-hay. 



And if we be opprest with heat. 

In mid-time of the day. 
Under the willows tall and great 

Shall be our quiet bay ; 
Where I will make thee fans of boughs. 
From Phoebus' beams to shade thy brows ; 
And cause them at the feiTy cry, 
A boat, a boat, to Shackley-hay ! 

A troop of dainty neighbouring girls 

Shall dance along the strand. 
Upon the gravel all of pearls, 

To wait when thou shalt land ; 
And cast themselves about thee round, 
Whilst thou with garlands shalt be crown 'd; 
And all the shepherds with joy shall cry, 
O Sheldra, come to Shackley-hay ! 

Although I did myself absent, 

'Twas but to try thy mind ; 
And now thou may'st thyself repent, 

For being so unkind. — 
No ! now thou art turn'd by wind and fate, 
Instead of love thou hast purchas'd hate, 
Therefore return thee to the sea. 
And bid farewell to Shackley-hay. 



FEANKLIN IS FLED AWAY. 

Copies of this ballad are in the Pepys Collection, ii. 76 ; the Roxburghe, 
ii. 348 ; the Bagford, 643, m. 10, p. 69 ; and the Douce, fol. 222. 

In the same volume of the Bagford Collection, p. 139, is "The two faithful 
Lovers. To the tune of Franldin is fled aivay ;'''' commencing — 

" Farewell, my heart's delight, I must now take my flight. 

Ladies, adieu ! Whate'er ensue." 

The tune is contained in Apollo's Banquet for the Treble Violin, 1669 ; in 
180 Loyal Songs, 1685 and 1694 ; and in Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 208, 1707 ; 
sometimes under the name of i'raji/c/m is fled aivay, and at others as hone, 
hone, the burden of the ballad. This burden is derived from the Ii-ish lamen- 
tation, to which there were many allusions in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, as in Marston's Uasiivard Hoe, act v., sc. 1 ; or in Gayton's Festivous 
Notes upon Bon Quixote, 1654, p. 57,- — " Who this night is to be rail'd upon by 
the black-skins, in as lamentable noyse as the wild Irish make their honest 
A different version of the tune will be found in the ballad opera of The Jovial 
Crew, 1731, under the name of You gallant ladies all. 

A variety of songs and ballads, which were sung to it, will be found in the 
above-named collections of ballads; in the 180 Loyal Songs ; in Patrick Carey's 
Trivial Poems, 1651 ; and in Pills to purge Melancholy. 

The tune is one of the many from which Qod save the King has been said to be 

derived. 

2b 



370 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAB MUSIC. 



The title of the oi-iginal ballad is "A mournful Caral : Or an Elegy lamenting 
the tragical ends of two unfortunate faithful Lovers, Franklin and Cordeli?«s ; he 
being slain, she slew herself with her dagger. To a new tune called Franklin is 
fled atvay.^' 



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Franklin, my loy - al friend, O hone, O hone ! 

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Franklin is fled and gone, O hone, O hone ! 
And left me here alone, O hone, O hone ! 

Franklin is fled away, 

The glory of the May ; 
Who can but mourn and say, O hone, O hone ! 

There are six stanzas in the first, and eight in the second part. Black-letter. 
Printed for M. Coles, W. Thackeray, &c. 



QUEEN DIDO, OR TROY TOWN. 

"Aballett intituled TJie Wanderijnge Prince" was entered on the Registers 
of the Stationers' Company in 1564-5. This was, no doubt, the "Proper new 
ballad, intituled The Wandering Prince of Troy : to the tune of Queen Dido" of 
which there are two copies in the Pepys Collection (i. 84 and 548). Of these 
copies, the first, bemg printed by John Wright, is probably not of earlier date 
than 1620 ; and the second, by Clarke, Thackeray, and Passinger, after 1660. 

The ballad has been reprinted in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, iii. 192, 
1765 ; and in Ritson's Ancient Songs, ii. 141, 1829. Its extensive popularity 
will be best shown by the following quotations : — " You ale-knights, you that 
devour the marrow of the malt, and drink whole ale-tubs into consumptions ; that 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 371 

sing Queen Dido over a cup, and tell strange news over an ale-pot . . . you shall be 
awarded with this punishment, that the rot shall infect your purses, and eat out 
the bottom before you are aware." — The Penniless Parliament of threadbare 
Poets, 1608. (Percy Soc. reprint, p. 44.) 
Prank. — " These are your eyes ! 

Where were they, Clora, when you fell in love 
With the old footman for singing Queen Dido ? " 

Fletcher's TJie Captain, act iii., sc. 3. 
Fletcher again mentions it in act i., sc. 2, of Bonduca, where Petillius says of 
Junius that he is " in love, indeed in love, most lamentably loving, — to the tune 
of Queen Dido." At a later date. Sir Robert Howard (speaking of himself) 
^ says, " In my younger time I have been delighted with a ballad for its sake ; 
and 'twas ten to one but my muse and I had so set up first : nay, I had almost 
thought that Queen Dido, sung that way, was some ornament to the pen of Virgil. 
I was then a trifler with the lute and fiddle, and perhaps, being musical, might 
have been willing that words should have their tones, unisons, concords, and 
diapasons, in order to a poetical gamuth." — Poems and Essays, 8vo., 1673. 

A great number of ballads were sung to the tune, either under the name of 
Queen Dido or of Trotj Toivn. Of these I will only cite the following : — 

" The most excellent History of the Duchess of Sufiblk's Calamity. To the 
tune of Queen Dido ; " commencing — 

" WTien God had taken for our sin 

That prudent prince, King Edward, away." 
Contained in Strange Histories, or Songes and Sonets, &c., 1607 ; in the Crown 
Garland of Grolden Roses, 1659 ; in the Pepys Collection, i. 544 ; and reprinted 
in Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 135. 

"Of the Inconveniences by Marriage. To the tune of Wlien Troy towne;" 
beginning — " Fond, wanton youth makes love a god." 

Contained in The Golden Garland of Princely Delights, third edit., 1620 ; also 
set to music by Robert Jones, and printed in his First Booheof Ayres, fol., 1601. 
" The lamentable song of the Lord Wigmore, Governor of Warwick Castle, 
and the fayre Maid of Dunsmoore," &c. ; beginning — 

" In Warwicksliire there stands a downs, 
And Dunsmoore-heath it hath to name; " 
which, in the Crown Garland of Golden Roses, 1612, is to the tune of Diana \and 
her darlings dear'] ; but in the copy in the Bagford Collection is to the tune of 
Troy Toiun. (Reprinted by Evans, iii. 226.) 

"The Spanish Tragedy: containing the lamentable murder of Horatio and 
Belimperia; with the pitiful death of old Hieronimo. To the tune of Queen 
Dido ; beginning — " You that have lost your former joys." 
Printed at the end of the play of The Spanish Tragedy, in Dodsley'S' Old Plays, 
iii. 203, 1825 ; and by Evans, iii. 288. 

" A Looking-glass for Ladies ; or a Mirror for Married Women. Tune, Queen 
Dido, or Troy Town ; " commencing — 

" WTien Greeks and Trojans fell at strife." 



372 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



Reprinted by Percy, under the name of Constant Penelope, from a copy in the 
Pepys Collection, 

" The Pattern of True Love ; or Bowes' Tragedy," written in 1717, and printed 
in Ritson's Yorkshire Garland. 

The last shows its popularity at a late period. 

The only tune I can find for the ballad, TJie Wandering Prince of Troy, is the 
composition of Dr. Wilson. It is adopted in Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 15, 
1707, and iv. 266, 1719 ; and is the Troy Town of the ballad-operas, such as 
Polly, 1729, &c. The ballad was entered at Stationers' Hall before Dr. Wilson 
was born ; therefore this cannot be the original tune, — unless he merely arranged 
it for three voices, which we have no reason for supposing. It is printed in his 
" Cheerful Ayres or Ballads, first composed for one single voice, and since set 
for three voices," Oxford, 1660. Dr. Rimbault has recently identified Dr. 
Wilson with the " Jack Wilson " who was a singer on the stage in Shakespeare's 
time. It is possible, therefore, that he may have sung the ballad on the stage, 
according to the custom of those days. Wilson was created Doctor, at Oxford, 
in 1644, and died in his seventy-ninth year, a.d. 1673. 

There is also a song of Queen Dido, but, being in a difierent metre, it could 
not be sung to the same air. (See Index.) In the following, I have adopted 
Dr. Percy's copy of the ballad, after the first stanza, which is printed with the 
tune. It consists of twenty-three verses, of which eleven are subjoined ; enduig 
with the first climax — Dido's death. 



Moderate time. 



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When Troy town for ten years' wars Withstood the Greeks in manful wise; 



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Waste lie those walls that were so good, And corn now grows whereTroy town stood. 



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REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



373 



tineas, wandering prince of Troy, 

When he for land long time had sought, 

At length arriving with great joy, 

To mighty Carthage walls was brought; 

Where Dido queen, with sumptuous feast, 

Did entertain that wandering guest. 

And, as in hall at meat they sate, 
The queen, desirous news to hear. 

Says, ' Of thy Troy's unhappy fate 
Declare to me, thou Trojan dear ; 

The heavy hap and chance so bad. 

That thou, poor wandering prince, hast had.' 

And then anon this comely knight, 
With words demure, as he could well. 

Of his unhappy ten years' fight. 
So true a tale began to tell. 

With words so sweet, and sighs so deep, 

That oft he made them all to weep. 

And then a thousand sighs he fet. 
And every sigh brought tears amain ; 

That where he sate the place was wet. 
As though he had seen those wars again : 

So that the queen, with ruth therefore. 

Said, worthy prince, enough, no more. 

And then the darksome night drew on. 
And twinkling stars the sky bespread ; 

When he his doleful tale had done, 
And every one was laid in bed : 

Where they full sweetly took their rest, 

Save only Dido's boiling breast. 



This silly woman never slept, 

B\it in her chamber, all alone, 
As one unhajjpy, always wept. 

And to the walls she made her moan ; 
That she should still desire in vain 
The thing she never must obtain. 

And thus in grief she spent the night. 
Till twinkling stars the sky were fled. 

And Phosbus, with his glistering light, 
Through misty clouds appeared red ; 

Then tidings came to her anon. 

That all the Trojan ships were gone. 

And then the queen, with bloody knife. 
Did arm her heart as hard as stone, 

Yet, something loth to loose her life, 
In woful wise she made her moan ; 

And, rolling on her careful bed, 

With sighs and sobs these words she said : 

O wretched Dido, queen ! quoth she, 
I see thy end approachetb near ; 

For he is fled away from thee. 

Whom thou didst love and hold so dear : 

What ! is he gone, and passed by '.' 

O heart, prepare thyself to die. 

Though reason says, thou shouldst forbear. 
And stay thy hand from bloody stroke. 

Yet fancy bids thee not to fear. 

Which fetter'd thee in Cupid's yoke. 

Come death, quoth she, resolve thy smart! 

And with those words she pierced her heart. 



REMEMBER, THOU MAN. 

This Christmas Carol is the last of the "Country Pastimes" in "Melismata: 
Musicall Phansies fitting the Court, Citie, and Countrey Humours," edited by 
Ravenscroft, 4to., 1611. It is paraphrased in " Ane compendious booke of 
Godly and SpLrituall Songs . . with sundi-ie . . ballates changed out of prophaine 
Sanges," &c., printed by Andro Hart, in Ediubm-gh, in 1621. 

" Remember, man, remember, man. And hes done for thee what I can, 

That I thy sauU from Sathan wan, Thow art full deir to me," &c. 

Scottish Poems of tlie Sixteentli Century, ii. 188, 1801. 

From Melismata the carol was copied into Forbes' Cantus, and taught in the 
Music School at Aberdeen. Some years ago, the latter work was sold for a 
comparatively high price at public auctions in London (about 10/.), and chiefly 
on the reputation of containing, in this carol, the original of God save the King. 
The report originated with Mr. Pinkerton, who asserted in his Recollections of 
Paris, ii. 4, that " the supposed national air is a mere transcript of a Scottish 
Anthem " contained in a collection printed in 1682. Forbes' Cantus is compara- 
tively useless to a musician, since it contains only the "cantus," or treble voice 



374 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



part of English compositions, -which were written, and should be, in three, four, 
or five parts. There are, also, a few ballad tunes, such as " Satan, my foe," to 
Fortune, tmj foe ; " Shepherd, saw thou not," to Grimson Velvet, &c. ; and, in the 
last edition, 1682, some Italian songs, and " new English Ayres," in three parts 
complete. The two former editions were printed at Aberdeen, in 1662 and 1666. 

Moderate time. 



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To Bethlem they did go, O thou man, &c.. 

To Bethlem they did go, the shepherds 

three ; [so or no, 

To Bethlem they did go, to see wh'er it were 

Whether Christ were born or no, to set man 

free. 

As the angels before did say, O thou man, &c., 

As the angels before did say, so it came 

to pass ; [babe where it lay, 

As the angels before did say, they found a 
In a manger, wrapt in hay, so poor he was. 

In Bethlem he was born, O thou man, &c., 
In Bethlem he was born for mankind's sake; 

In Bethlem he was bom, for us that were 

forlorn, [take. 

And thei-efore took no scorn our flesh to 

Give thanks to God always, O thou man, &c., 

Give thanks to God always with heart most 

joyfully; [day — 

Give thanks to God alway, for this our happy 
Let all men sing and say, Holy, holy. 



Remember Adam's fall, O thou man, &c., 
Remember Adam's fall, from heaven to hell; 

Remember Adam's fall, how we were con- 
demned all 
In hell perpetual there for to dwell. 

Remember God's goodness, O thou man, &c.. 

Remember God's goodness and his promise 

made ; [Son, doubtless, 

Remember God's goodness, how he sent his 
Our sins for to redress ; — Be not afraid. 

The angels all did sing, O thou man, &c., 
The angels all did sing upon the shepherd's 
hill ; [King, 

The angels all did sing praises to our heavenly 
And peace to man living, with a good will. 

The shepherds amazed were, O thou man, &c., 

The shepherds amazed were, to hear the 

angels sing ; [come to pass 

Tile shepherds amazed were, liow it should 

Tliat Christ, our Messias, should be our 

King. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 375 

THE COUNTRY LASS. 
This is the tune to -n'hich, with slight alteration, Salli/ in our Alky is now sung. 
Henry Carey, the author of that song, composed other music for it, which is 
introduced four times in his Musical Century. Carey's tune is the Sally in our 
Alley of the ballad-operas that were printed from 1728 to 1760 ; but from the 
latter period its popularity seems to have waned, and, at length, his music was 
entirely superseded by this older ballad-tune. 

The Qountrey Lasse, from which it derives its name, was to be sung to " a dainty 
new note ; " but, if unacquainted with that, the singer had the option of another 
tune — The mother beyuiPd the daughter. In Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 165, 
1700 and 1707, it is printed (in an abbreviated form) to the one; and in Tlic 
Merry Musician, or a Cure for the Spleen,^ iii. 9, to the other. 

In Tlie Devil to pay, 8vo., 1731, where Carey's tune is printed at p. 35, as 
Charming Sally, this will be found, as What tho' I am a Country Lass, at p. 50. 
Being unfit for dancing, the air is not contained in Tlie Dancing Master. 

I have quoted the full title of the ballad of The Country Lass at p. 306. The 
copy in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 52, being printed by the assigns of Thomas 
Symcocke, would date in or after 1620, the year of that assignment. The copy in 
the Pepys Collection, i. 268, is, perhaps, an original copy. It bears the initials 
of Martin Parker, the famous ballad-writer, and is evidently more correctly 
printed. 

The versions in Pills to purge Melancholy, and in The Merry Musician, have each 
had " the rust of antiquity filed from them," and, as usual, without any improve- 
ment. The two first stanzas are nearly the same as in the old ballad ; but the 
three remaining have been re-written. The older ballad is reprinted by Evans, 
i. 41, from the Roxburghe copy. 

The "a" at the end of each alternate line is a very old expedient of the 
ballad-maker for fitting his words to music, when an extra syllable was requu-ed. 
The reader may have observed it already in John Dory, Jog on the footpath way. 
Good fellows must go learn to dance, and others. The custom is thus reproved in 
"A Discourse of Miglish Poetrie, by Wilham Webbe, graduate," 1586 : — " If 
I let passe the un-countahle rabble of ryming ballet-makers, and compylers of 
sencelesse sonets (who be most busy to stuife every stall full of grosse devises 
and unlearned pamphlets), I trust I shall, with the best sort, be held excused. 
For though many such can frame an alehouse song of five or six score verses, 
hobbling uppon some tune of a Northern Jygge, or Robyn Soode, or La 
Lubber, &c. : and perhappes observe just number of sillables, eight in one 
line, sixe in an other, and therewithal! an ' « ' to make a jercJee in the ende : yet 
if these might be accounted poets (as it is sayde some of them make meanes to 
be promoted to the Lawrell), surely we shall shortly have whole swarmes of 
poets ; and every one that can frame a booke in ryme, though, for want of 
matter, it be but in commendations of copper noses or bottle ale, wyll catch at 
the garlande due to poets — whose potticall (poeticall, I should say) heades, 

* The first volume of The Merry Musician is dated not set up in type like the first, bear no dates. 
1716 ; but the second, third, and fourtli, being engraved, 



376 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



I ■would wyslie, at their worshipfull commencements, might, in steede of lawi'ell, 
be gorgiously garnished with fayi-e gi-eene barley, in token of their good affection 
to our Englishe malt." 

The following verses are selected from the older copy of the ballad. In the 
Pills, and Merry Musician, the burden, which requkes the repetition of the first 
part of the tune, is omitted : — 

Gracefully. 



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Although, I am a country lass, A lof-tymind I bear- a, 
Down, down, derry, der-ry down, Hey down a down, a down-a. 



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think my • 
der - ry, 



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self as good as those That gay ap - pa • 
der - ry derry, derrydown. Hey down- a, down • 



rel 



wear - a ; 
der - ry. 



My 



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is made of 



come-ly gray. 



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coat 



Yet is my skin as . soft - a, As 



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Da Capo. 



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those that.with the choicest wines Do bathe their bo - ' dies oft - a. 



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What, though I keep my father's sheep, 

A thing that must be done-a, 
A garland of the fairest flow'rs 

Shall shroud me from the sun-a ; 
And when I see them feeding by, 

Where grass and flowers spring-a. 
Close by a crystal fountain side, 

I sit me down and sing-a. 

Dame Kature crowns us with delight 

Surpassing court or city, 
We pleasures take, from morn to night. 

In sports and pastimes pretty : 
Your city dames in coaches ride 

Abroad for recreation, 
We eounti-y lasses hate their pride, 

And keep the country fashion. 



1 care not for the fan or mask. 

When Titan's heat refleeteth, 
A homely hat is all I ask. 

Which well my face protecteth ; 
Yet am I, in my country guise, 

Esteem'd a lass as pretty. 
As those that every day devise 

New shapes in court or city. 

Then do not scorn the country lass. 

Though she go plain and meanly ; 
Who takes a country wench to wife 

(That goeth neat and cleanly). 
Is better sped, than if he wed 

A fine one from the city, 
For there they are so nicely bred. 

They must not work for pity. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



377 



MAYING-TIME. 

In Tlie Golden Grcirland of Princely Delights, 3rd edit., 1620, this is entitled 
" The Shepherd's Dialogue of Love between Willy and Cuddy : To the tune of 
Maying-time.'''' It is also in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, vi. 337, and in Percy's 
JReliques of Ancient Poetry. Percy entitles it " The WiUow Tree : a Pastoral 
Dialogue." 

The tune is in a manuscript dated 1639, in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; 
in the Skene MS. ; and in all the editions of Forbes' Canfiis. 



Willy. 



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How now, Shepherd, what means that? Why that wil-low in thy hat? 

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Why thy scarfs of red and yel- low Turn'd to branches of green wil - low ? 



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Cuddy. 



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They are chang'd, and so am I ; 



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Sor - rows live, hut plea - sures die : 



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Phil - lis hath for - sa - ken me, Which makes me wear the wil - low tree. 



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WILLY. 

Phillis ! she that lov'd thee long? 
Is she the lass hath done thee wrong ? 
She that lov'd thee long and best. 
Is her love turned to a jest? 

CUDDY. 

She that long true love profest, 
She hath robb'd my heart of rest : 
For she a new love loves, not me ; 
Which makes we wear the willow-tree. 

WILLY. 

Come then, shepherd, let us join. 
Since thy hap is like to mine : 
For the maid I thought most true 
Me hath also hid adieu. 



CUDDY. 

Thy hard hap doth mine appease, 
Company doth sorrow ease : 
Yet, Phillis, still I pine for thee. 
And still must wear the willow-tree. 

WILLY. 

Shepherd, be advis'd by me, 
Cast off grief and willow-tree : 
For thy grief brings her content, 
She is pleas'd if thou lament. 

CUDDY. 

Herdsman, I'll be rul'd by thee, 
There lies grief and willow-tree : 
Henceforth I will do as they. 
And love a new love every day. 



378 ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 

NEVER LOVE THEE MORE. 

This song, commencing, " My dear and only love, take heed," is contained in a 
manuscript volume of songs and ballads, with music, dated 1659, in the hand- 
writing of John Gamble, the composer. The MS. is now in the possession of 
Dr. Rimbault. 

Gamble published some of his own works in 1657 and 1659, but this seems to 
have been his common-place book. It contains the songs Dr. Wilson composed 
for Brome's play, Tlie Northern Lass, and many compositions of H. and W. 
Lawes, as well as common songs and ballads. The last are usually noted down 
without bases ; but, in some instances, the space intended for the tune is unfilled. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 256, is " The FaythfuU Lover's Resolution ; being 
forsaken of a coy and faythless dame. To the tune of My dear and only love, take 
heed;" commencing, "Though booteles I must needs complaui. " "Printed 
at London for P. Birch." 

In the same volume, i. 280 — " Good sir, you wi'ong your Britches ; — pleasantly 
discoursed by a witty youth and a wily wench. To the tune of no, no, no, not 
yet, or lie never love thee more ; " commencing, " A young man and a lasse of 
late." " Printed at London for J[ohn] T[rundle]." 

At p. 378 — " Anything for a quiet life ; or The Married Man's Bondage," &c. 
" To the tune of no, no, no, not yet, or lie never love thee moreP Printed at 
London by G. P. 

And at p. 394 — " 'Tis not otherwise : Or The Praise of a Married Life. To 
the tune of lie never love thee more;'''' commencing, "A young man lately did 
complaine." Printed at London by G. B. 

The above quotations tend to prove the tune to be of the time of James I. 
Philip Bu-ch, the publisher of the first ballad, had a " shop at the Guyldhall " 
in 1618, when he published " Sir Walter Rauleigh his Lamentation," to which 
I have referred at p. 175. John Trundle, the publisher of the second, was dead 
in 1628; the ballads were then printed by "M. T., widdow." Trundle is 
mentioned as a ballad-printer in Ben Jonson's Every man in his humour, 1598. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 574, is " A proper new ballad, being the 

regrate [regret] of a true Lover for his Mistris unkindness. To a new tune, lie 

ever love thee more." The rude orthography of this seems to mark it as an early 

ballad ; but, unfortunately, the printer's name is cut away. It commences thus : 

" I wish I were those gloves, dear heart, Then should no sorrow, grief, or smart, 

Which could thy hands inshrine ; Molest this heart of mine," &c. ; 

and consists of twenty-one stanzas of eight lines ; thirteen in the first part, and 
eight in the second. 

In the same collection, and in Mr. Payne Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 227, is 
" The Tragedy of Hero and Leander. To a pleasant netv tune, or I will never love 
thee more." The last was " printed for R. Burton, at the Horse-shoe in West- 
Smithfield, neer the Hospital-gate ; " and the copy would, therefore, date in the 
reign of Charles I., or during the Commonwealth. 



REIGNS OF JAMES I, AND CHARLES I. 379 

James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, also wrote "Lines" to this tune, 
retaining a part of the first line, and the burden of each verse, " Til never love 
thee more.'''' It is " An Address to his Mistress," and commences — 
" My dear and only love, 1 pray 
This noble v^forld of thee, &c. 
Like " My dear and only love, take heed" it consists of five stanzas ; and must 
have been written after the establishment of the Committees and the Synod of 
Divines at Westminster (1643) , because he refers to both in the song. 

Watson in his Collection of Scotch Poems, part iii., 1711, printed one of the 
extended versions of " My dear and only love, take heed," as a " second part " to 
the Marquis of Montrose's song ; but it cannot have been written by him, as he 
was only born in 1612. Neither Ritson, Robert Chambers, nor Peter Cimningham, 
have followed this error ; but it has been reproduced in Memoirs of Montrose, 
Edinburgh, 1819. 

It was, no doubt, the Marquis of Montrose's song that made the tune popular 
in Scotland. It is found, under the name of Montrose Lijns, in a manuscript of 
lyra-viol music, dated 1695, recently in the possession of Mr. A. Blaikie. The 
tune has, therefore, been included in collections of Scottish music ; but " My dear 
and only love, take heed " continued to be the popular song in England, and from 
that it derives its name. In English ballads it is called "A rare Northern 
tune,"" and I have never yet found that term applied to a Scotch air. Besides 
Gamble's manuscript, which contains both the words and air, the words will be 
found in the first and second editions of Wit and Drollery, 1656 and 1661, 
(there entitled "A Song") ; in Pills to purge Melancholy, 1700, 1707, and 1719. 
The tune was first added to Tlie Dancing Master in 1686, and is contained in 
every subsequent edition, in a form more appropriate to dancing than the 
earlier copy. 

Some of the ballads are of a later date than the Marquis of Montrose's 
song, such as " Teach me, Belissa, what to do:" to the tune of "ilfy dear and 
only love, take heed," in Folly in print, 1667 ; " A Dialogue between Tom and 
Dick," in Bats rhimed to death, 1660 ; " The Swimming Lady," in the Bagford, 
others in Roxburghe and Pepys Collections ; but I have already cited enough to 
prove that it was a vei-y popular air, and popular before the Marquis of Montrose's 
song can have been written. 

A copy of the ballad, consisting of four verses in the first, and five in the 

■^ In ballad-phrase, the terms " Northern " and " North- men, or of their best clarkes, all is a matter), nor in effect 

country" were often applied to places within a hundred any speach used beyond the river of Trent: though no man 

miles of London. Percy describes the old ballad of Chevy can deny but theirs is the purer English Saxon at this day, 

Chace as written in " the coarsest and broadest Northern yet it is not so courtly nor so current as our Southerne 

dialect," although Richard Sheale, the author of that ver- English is, no more is the far Western man's speach : 

sion, was a minstrel residing in Tamworth, and in the ye shall therefore take the usuall speach of the Court, 

service of the Earl of Derby. Puttenham thus notices and that of London and the shires lying about London, 

the diiference of speech prevailing in his time beyond the witliin sixty miles, and not much above." (Arte of 

Trent: — " Our [writer] therefore at these days shall not English Poesie.J Many of the characters in plays of the 

follow Piers Plowman, nor Gower, nor Lydgate, nor yet seventeenth century, such as Brome's Northern Lass, 

Chaucer, for their language is now out of use with us : speak in a dialect which might often pass for Scotch with 

neither shall he take the terms of North-men, such as they those who are unacquainted with the language of the 

use in dayly talke (whether they be noble men or gentle- time. 



380 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC. 



second part, is contained in the Douce Collection, p. 102, entitled " Be never love 
thee more : Being the Forsaken Lover's Farewell to his fickle Mistress. To a rare 
Northern tune, or lie never love thee more." It commences, " My dear and only 
joij, take heed ; " and the second part, " lie lock myself within a cell." Having 
been " Printed for W. Whitwood, at the Golden Lyon in Duck Lane," this copy 
may be dated about 1670. It is also in the list of those printed by W. 
Thackeray at the same period. The copies in Wit and Drollery, and in Gamble's 
MS., consist only of five stanzas. 

The following copy of the tune is taken from Gamble's MS. ; the words are the 
first, second, and fourth stanzas, in the order in which they stand in Wit and 
Drollery ; or first, third, and fourth, in the MS. All the old copies above cited 
have verbal difiierences, as well as differences of arrangement. 



Rather slowly and smoothly 




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My dear and on - ly love, take heed How thou thyself ex 



pose, 



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By 



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let - ting long - ing lev - ers feed Up - on such looks as those. 



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I'll 



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mar - ble - wall thee round a - bout, And build with-out a 



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door; ~ But 



35 



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if thy heart do 



once break out, I'll ne-ver love thee more. 



EEISNS OV JAMES I. AND CHAELES I. 381 

Let not their oaths, by volleys shot, Then if by fraud or by consent, 

Make any breach at all, To ruin thou shouldst come, 

Nor smoothness of their language plot I'll sound no trumpet as of wont, 

A way to scale the wall ; Nor march by beat of drum ; 

No balls of wild-fire-love consume But fold my arms, like ensigns, up. 

The shrine which I adore ; Thy falsehood to deplore. 

For, if such smoke about it fume. And, after such a bitter cup, 

I'll never love thee more. I'll never love thee more. 

THE MERCHANTMAN. 

The ballad of tte Merchantman and the Fiddler's Wife is in the list of those 
printed by Thackeray, in the reign of Charles 11. It is also printed in Pills to 
pitrffe Melancholy, iii. 153, 1707, to the following " pleasant Northern tune." 

It commences with the line, " It was a rich Merchantman," and the ballad of 
" George Barnwell " was to be sung to the tune of The rich Merchantman. (See 
Roxburghe Collection, iii. 26.) Percy prints it from another copy in the Ash- 
mole Collection, where the tune is entitled " T/ie Merchant." 

There must either be another tune called A rich Merchantman, or else only 
half the air is printed in Pills to purge Melancholy ; for, although eight bars of 
music suffice for the above-named, which are in short stanzas of four lines, 
sixteen, at least, are requu-ed for other ballads, which are in stanzas of eight, 
and have occasionally a burden of four more. It is not unusual to find only 
the half of a tune printed in the Pills (see, for instance, Tom of Bedlam, Green 
Sleeves, &c.) , but I know of no other version of this tune, and therefore have not 
the means of testing it. 

" A song of the strange Lives of two young Princes of England, who became 
shepherds on Salisbury Plain, and were afterwards restored to their former 
estates : To the tune of The Merchant Man" — is contained in Tlie Golden G-arland 
of Princely Delights, 3rd edit., 1620, as well as in Old Ballads, 2nd edit., 
iii. 5, 1738. It is in stanzas of eight lines (commencing, " In kingly Stephen's 
reign"), and reprinted, omitting the name of the tune, in Evans' Old Ballads, 
ii. 53, 1810. 

" A most sweet song of an English Merchant, born at Chichester : To an 
excellent new tune " — has the additional burden of four lines, and is probably 
the earliest. It commences thus : — 

" A rich merchant man there vfus.. And for this fact the merchant man 

That was botli grave and wise, Was judg'd to lose his head. 

Did kill a man at Embden towne A srueet thing is love, 

Through quarrels that did rise. It rules both heart and mind, 

Through quarrels that did rise, TJiere is no comfort in this world 

The German he was dead, 'Like' women that are kind." 

Of this various copies are extant, and all apparently very corrupt. One in the 
Roxburghe Collection, i. 104, is " Printed at London for Francis Coules ; " 
a second, in the Bagford Collection, printed for A. P. ; a third, in the Pepys 
Collection, by Clarke, Thackeray, and Passinger. Evans reprints from the last. 



382 



ENGLISH SONG AND BALLAD MUSIC, 



(See Old Ballads, i. 28, 1810.) It is parodied in act iii. of Kcwley's comedy, 
A new Wonder, a Woman never vext, 1632 ; and quoted in 27*6 Trmmphant 
Widow, 1677 :— 
" There was a rich merchant man, He kill'd a man in Athens town, 

That was both great and wise, Great quarrels there did arise," &c. 

A rich Merchantman is one of the tunes to a song in Tlie Famous Historic of 
Fryer Bacon, b.l., 4to, n.d. ; and There was a rich Merchantman to a ballad in 
the Pepys Collection, ii. 190. Others (under the one name or the other) -will 
be found in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 286 and 444, ii. 242, &c. 









M 



There was a rich merchant - man, That was both grave and wise, He 



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kill'd a man in Athens town, Great quarrels there did a 



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FAIR MARGARET AND SWEET "WILLIAM. 

Copies of this ballad are in the Douce Collection, fol. 72, and in the Col- 
lection of Mr. George Daniel ; also in Percy's Beliques of Ancient Poetry. 

Percy says, " This seems to be the old song quoted in Fletcher's Knight of the 
Burning Pestle, acts ii. and iii. ; although the six lines there preserved are some- 
what different from those in the ballad as it stands at present. The lines preserved 
in the play are this distich : — 

" You are no love for me, Margaret, 
I am no love for you ; " 
and the following stanza : — 
" When all was grown to dark midnight. In came Margaret's grimly ghost. 

And all were fast asleep. And stood at William's feet." 

Percy adds that " these lines have acquired an importance by giving birth to one 
of the most beautiful ballads in our own or any other language" — "Margaret's 
Ghost " by Mallet. 

Mallet's ballad attained deserved popularity. It was printed in various forms 
on half-sheets with music, and in "Watts' Musical Miscellany, ii. 84, 1729. The 
air became known by its name, and is so published in The Village Opera, 1729, 
and in The Devil to pay, 1731. 

It was not, however, printed exclusively to this tune. Thomson published it 



REIGNS OF JAMES I. AND CHARLES I. 



383 



in his Orpheus Oaledonius, and described it, with, his usual inaccuracy, as " an 
old Scotch ballad, with the original Scotch tune ; " — " old," although (on the 
authority of Dr. Johnson) it was first printed in Aaron Hill's Plain Dealer, 
No. 36, July 24, 1724, and Thomson's Orpheus was published within six months 
of that time — viz., on January 5, 1725. The "original Scotch tune" of Thomson 
is a version of " Montrose's lines," or Never love thee more. 

Another point deserving notice in the old ballad, is that one part of it has 
furnished the principal subject of the modern burlesque ballad, " Lord Lovel,"an d 
another that of T. Hood's song, " Mary's Ghost." 

The copy in the Douce Collection is entitled " Fair Margaret's Misfortune ; or 
Sweet William's frightful di'eams on his wedding night : With the sudden death 
and burial of those noble lovers. To an excellent new tune." 

The following version of the words is from Percy's Jteliques of Ancient 
Poetry : — 

With expresiion. 



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:ziz 



fell 



out 



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long sum - mer's day, Two 

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lo - vers they sat ou a 



hill; They sat 



to - ge - ther that 



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long sum-mer s 



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day, 



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And 



could 



not talk 



their fill. 



I see no harm by you, Margaret, 

And you see none by me ; 
Before to-morr